Техника. Opportunity. [Редактировать]

Оппортьюнити — второй марсоход космического агентства НАСА из двух запущенных США в рамках проекта Mars Exploration Rover. На поверхность Марса опустился 25 января 2004 года тремя неделями позже первого марсохода Спирит, успешно доставленного в другой район Марса, смещенный по долготе примерно на 180 градусов. Оппортьюнити совершил посадку в кратере Игл, на плато Меридиана. Название марсоходу, в рамках традиционного конкурса НАСА, было дано 9-летней девочкой российского происхождения Софи Коллиз, родившейся в Сибири и удочерённой американской семьёй из Аризоны. На сегодняшний день Оппортьюнити продолжает эффективно функционировать, уже более чем в 40 раз превысив запланированный срок в 90 сол, всё это время питаясь только от солнечных батарей. Очистка солнечных панелей от пыли происходит за счёт естественного ветра Марса, что позволяет марсоходу производить геологические исследования планеты. В конце апреля 2010 года продолжительность миссии достигла 2246 сол, что сделало её самой длительной среди аппаратов, работавших на поверхности «красной планеты». Предыдущий рекорд принадлежал спускаемому аппарату Викинг-1, проработавшему с 1976 по 1982.

Основной задачей миссии было изучение осадочных пород, которые, как предполагалось, должны были образоваться в кратерах (Гусева, Эребус), где когда-то могло находиться озеро, море или целый океан. Для миссии Mars Exploration Rovers были поставлены следующие научные задачи:

  • Поиск и описание разных горных пород и почв, которые свидетельствовали бы о прошлой водной активности планеты. В частности, поиск образцов с содержанием минералов, которые отлагались под воздействием осадков, испарения, осаждения или гидротермальной активности;
  • Определение распространения и состава минералов, горных пород и почв, которые окружают место приземления;
  • Определить какие геологические процессы сформировали рельеф местности, определить химический состав почвы. Эти процессы могут включать в себя водную или ветровую эрозию, отложение осадков, гидротермальные механизмы, вулканизм и образование кратеров;
  • Проверка наблюдений за поверхностью, сделанных при помощи инструментов Марсианского разведывательного спутника. Это поможет определить точность и эффективность различных инструментов, которые используются для изучения марсианской геологии с орбиты;
  • Поиск железосодержащих минералов, их обнаружение, а также оценка количественных относительных величин по определённым типам минералов, которые содержат воду или были сформированы в воде, таких как железосодержащие карбонаты;
  • Классификация минералов и геологического ландшафта, а также определение процессов, сформировавших их;
  • Поиск геологических причин, сформировавших те условия окружающей среды, которые существовавали на планете вместе с присутствием жидкой воды. Оценка условий, которые могли бы быть благотворны для зарождения жизни на Марсе.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-12-24. Марсоход Opportunity, продолжает движение южнее западного края кратера Индевор. Вместе с тем, в последнее время на аппарате начала выходить из строя флэш-память(1 модуль из 7 установленных).Проблемы привели к тому, что операторы переключили робота в режим работы, который использует исключительно энергозависимую память. В этом режиме марсоход может продолжать нормально передвигаться и выполнять научные наблюдения, но не может хранить данные в выключенном состоянии. Данные, собранные в течение каждого марсианского дня, хранятся в энергонезависимой памяти, которая в марсоходе является памятью прямого доступа (RAM). Информация из RAM передается на Землю перед отключением. На данный момент НАСА разрабатывает новое программное обеспечение для перевода аппарата в режим работы только с работоспособными модулями памяти.Тэги: Opportunity
22015-01-02. Специалисты НАСА сумели передать на марсоход Opportunity новый программный код не использующий 7 банк памяти. Таким образом, удалось устранить основную техническую проблему связанную с невозможностью хранения данных в энергонезависимой памяти.Тэги: Opportunity
32015-03-25. Память марсохода была успешно переформатирована.
Инженеры Лаборатории реактивного движения НАСА (JPL) успешно завершили операцию по переформатированию бортовой памяти марсохода Opportunity, которой ровер не пользовался на протяжении последних трех месяцев.
В принципе, марсоход может работать и без флеш-памяти, что было продемонстрировано в последние три месяца, однако постоянная память дает нам больше гибкости в проведении операций на поверхности Марса и исследований. Ровер может теперь собирать больше данных, которые можно будет отправить на Землю не сразу, а в любой день. Кроме того, теперь у него есть возможность собирать данные во время интенсивных многодневных научных исследований.Тэги: Opportunity

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-032A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость программы (начальная), млн. долл.657
2Стоимость программы (запрошенная), млн. долл.820
3Стоимость програмы (утвержденная), млн. долл.767
4Стоимость работы с аппаратами (месяц), млн. долл.2.8

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2003-07-08 at 03:18:15 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xOpportunity
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7925

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... for the country is an opportunity to step back, take stock... the phenomenon of equality of opportunity which needs special attention. Any... which provides greater equality of opportunity. As a society, we therefore need... every child in India a fair opportunity in life, which means assuring... manufacturing sector provides the best opportunity for creating quality jobs, which... are nurtured and have an opportunity to grow effectively, along with... represents the extension of economic opportunity to the world as a whole... to make the best of opportunity. It is vitally important that... resolve not to miss the opportunity by taking the outcome for... as a whole: • First, a window of opportunity exists and domestic conditions have... economic hierarchy. Thereafter, flexibility and opportunity may become diminished. We need... is unfortunate and jeopardises an opportunity to strengthen multilateral trade rules... should be viewed as an opportunity to evolve innovative ways to... Tariff Policy) and by providing opportunity for additional revenue streams through... generation sources, solar presents a unique opportunity for inclusive growth by providing... Emitting Diode (LED), presents an opportunity for another quantum jump in..., state and local levels. India’s opportunity has come in 2012, as... markets, regulatory systems, alternative uses, opportunity cost of groundwater extraction, energy.... 5.101. Indian cities have the opportunity to leapfrog into new ways... as practicable, convert adversity into opportunity. Part of the waterlogged area...-pickers have been given the opportunity of starting a new life. Some... research agenda and provides an opportunity to work on similar model.... The IIT system offers a unique opportunity over a substantially large interconnected and..., our existence, and provide an opportunity towards development of cutting-edge... Mars (during November 2013 launch opportunity): Mars with its many similarities... Mars would also provide an opportunity to the scientific community, to... during the November 2013 launch opportunity. Mars-orbiter will be placed... pressing challenges and for creating opportunity structures for sharing the benefits... system and give them the opportunity to easily avail various other...



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... Growth and Jobs 1.9 The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth 101 Mikael... what sectors furnish the best opportunity for that absolute advantage Adam... extending network capacity. The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth The social... indirect jobs result per employment opportunity focused on @ 2013 World Economic... of broadband for US economic opportunity, job creation, innovation, and national... of developments, a narrow window of opportunity currently exists for countries to... Economic Forum CHAPTER 1.9 The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth MIKAEL HAGSTR... assets.”3 This problem presents a huge opportunity: Gartner estimates that, by 2015... Report 2013 | 101 1.9: The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth Table 1: UK... things. To tap into this opportunity, business, government, and society as... World Economic Forum 1.9: The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth ` Box 2: What.... U.S. Gas & Electric will have an opportunity to offer new services and.... “We think this has the opportunity to benefit both our customers... Report 2013 | 103 1.9: The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth Figure 1: Social... World Economic Forum 1.9: The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth on benefits... Report 2013 | 105 1.9: The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth Information and... analytics. Others must follow. The opportunity is very easy to grasp... World Economic Forum 1.9: The Big Opportunity for Inclusive Growth 7 McKinsey Global... simply do not have the opportunity, from an economic perspective, to... resources. This limitation presents an opportunity for Rwanda to take an... provided to fully maximize the opportunity at hand. A study has been..., and the changes provided an opportunity to review the 134 | The... Executive Secretary of the G-8 Digital Opportunity Task (DOT) Force. From 1979...



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...) predict that “Deregulation provides a unique opportunity to observe the Darwinian process... need the time and the opportunity to develop their own skills... and the general public an opportunity to acquire ownership of former... private sector, therefore limiting the opportunity for private citizens to participate..., managers and directors with the opportunity to lease state enterprises with.... The new conflict created an opportunity for two groups, former nomenclature... time it had no real opportunity of operational monitoring of the... program granted these groups the opportunity to receive a significant fraction of...: investment orientation of sales and opportunity for an investor to get... physical persons had not real opportunity to participate in the special... “window of opportunity” is open for privatization, the opportunity should be used... making it completely impossible the opportunity for foreign investment to accede... more acceptable. There is less opportunity for financial manipulation.” [Weitzman, M (1993... small business employees took the opportunity to purchase their businesses from... approach during the "window of opportunity" provided by the "fog of... program granted these groups the opportunity to receive a significant fraction of... privatization gave the MoP better opportunity to understand the enterprises, to... persons did no have real opportunity to participate in the special...



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... take this situation as an opportunity to diversify its economy. One..., and may even present an opportunity for investors to acquire the... provides for the equality of opportunity, and article 11 particularly affirms... organisations must be given an opportunity to express their opinion on... business community in general, the opportunity to participate in such research...’s oil infrastructure is secure, the opportunity for ISIS to secure funding... based on the cost of opportunity to local consumers – that is... companies are thus given an opportunity to express their view prior... a variety of situations, from a business opportunity to the ratification of a contract... holder of the licence an opportunity to put right the default... contravenes the act, the Equal Opportunity Tribunal may make such declarations.... In addition, the Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme Regulations (ESOS) 2014, which... Budget, the Chancellor took the opportunity to support the North Sea... enforced by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The remedies for a discrimination...



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... the MSU MODAWORLD initiative, every opportunity for the fashion design students... University students have this rare opportunity of get their hands on... 2006, which gave her the opportunity to pursue her PhD in... were converted in to an opportunity to go cashless. The success... Technology has had the unique opportunity of collaborating with a platform called... DFI for giving us the opportunity to collaborate with them for... Soreq. "It also offers an opportunity to reclassify ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy.... For Aylmer this was an opportunity to relook the design of... UAE Space Agency represents a significant opportunity for mutual benefit, which will... modern industrial companies, offering an opportunity for IT businesses, communication companies... grandstand simulator Qatar – With the opportunity to host the 2022 FIFA... Museum will also have the opportunity to share expertise on exhibition... studies which gives students the opportunity to spend a year living and...



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..., these missions will provide a unique opportunity to study the local electrodynamics... identifying in advance flights of opportunity for civilian spacecraft as secondary... agency could trigger a window of opportunity for a research initiative at another... program has long provided the opportunity for targeted investigations, which can... Solar Radiotelescope, an important science opportunity in its own right, greatly..., these missions will provide a unique opportunity to study the local electrodynamics.... They also offer students the opportunity to work in a team or... GEO diversity initiative presents a valuable opportunity to bring underrepresented groups into... journals. . . . Students who have the opportunity for research complete their science... identifying in advance flights of opportunity for civilian spacecraft as secondary... are collaborating in missions of opportunity to provide data that would... agency could trigger a window of opportunity for a research initiative in another...



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... legal instruments) 34. An important opportunity that enables further utilization of.... Under Status Quo scenario another opportunity for new railway corridor providing... Armenia. The later routes provide opportunity to avoid problems related to... cooperation and integration is the opportunity for operating direct railway connection... Status Quo scenario a window of opportunity for introducing a new practice of... politically, we consider that such opportunity should be used by creating... goods through Georgia incurs additional opportunity costs to transport companies in... an implicit illustration of such opportunity. Thus, the South Caucasus Railways..., since 2011 Armenia gained the opportunity to provide a transit service via... up the borders. 107. Another opportunity in case borders between the... ventures can be considered an opportunity to facilitate the existing practice...



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.... 11. Justices welcomed the sentencing opportunity that CROs provided. Experience of... taking place, are offered an opportunity to say what that impact... been. Victims also have the opportunity to be informed of the...”. Offenders would be given “the opportunity to make reparation to that... community while giving them an opportunity to enhance their life skills... court “…there has been no opportunity [made available] to do this... disposals, as it provided an opportunity to use unpaid work or... 59 5.6 The interviews provided the opportunity to gather additional information. It... site had been offered a similar opportunity but had declined. Given the.... One would have welcomed the opportunity to do an indoor activity... case that providing offenders the opportunity to meet with, or receive...



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... courses at DTU, provide an opportunity for the graduate student to... from other higher institutions. (The opportunity of choosing basic courses will... that students has had the opportunity to register for three exams... is to give students the opportunity to apply the knowledge they... and MSc students have the opportunity to obtain up to 10... the lecturer/supervisor gets the opportunity to comment on the complaint... first attempt must have the opportunity to register for the second... complete their programme have the opportunity to resit the exam in... has given the students the opportunity to fulfill the prerequisite for...