Спутник ДЗЗ. Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2. [Редактировать]

Данный аппарат является первым изделием NASA для решения задачи изучения поведения диоксида углерода в атмосфере из космоса. OCO-2 должен собирать информацию по всей Земной атмосфере с возможностью определения источников и разделению регионов. Также аппарат должен собирать информацию о круговороте оксида углерода в природе. Платформа аппарата имеет шестиугольную структуру которая зарекомендовала себя как легкая, но одновременно с этим надежная платформа. Аппарат имеет разворачиваемые солнечные панели которые позволяют поместить его под головной обтекатель. Бортовой компьютер разработан для работы в условиях жесткого воздействия со стороны космической среды и контролирует как платформу так и инструмент. Программное обеспечение аппарата позволяет работать по командам как заложенных в него программ так и по командам с Земли. Для связи с центральной наземной станцией используется антенна S диапазона. Научная информация передается по X стволу. Поскольку отслеживать диоксид углерода напрямую невозможно, то его оценка производится на основе съемки поверхности земли в определенных диапазонах длин волн. 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1OCO-2НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип орбиты - НОО
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США
4Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
5Дистанционного зондирования Земли
6Все спутники ДЗЗ

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-08-13. Аппарат достиг целевой орбитыТэги: Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Длина (волны), микрон2.06
2Длина (волны), микрон1.61
3Длина (волны), микрон0.765
4Масса (аппарат), кг447
5Масса (сухая), кг409
6Диаметр (платформы), метра1
7Диаметр (апертуры), см11
8Платформа 1xLeoStar-2
9Площадь поверхности батареи, квадратных метров3
10Высота (платформы), метра2
11Мощность, Вт521

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый ), год2

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2014-035A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Заказчик Космическое агентство США
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2010-04-01349.9
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2010-04-0160.9
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2010-04-01249.0
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2010-04-0140
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-01349.9
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-0160.9
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2011-01-01249.0
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2011-01-0140.0
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01349.9
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-0160.9
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-01249.0
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-0140.0
14Прогнозируемая стоимость (контракта с прооизводителем), млн. долл.2013-01-0153.6
15Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2013-01-01467.7
16Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2013-01-0160.9
17Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2013-01-01371.8
18Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2013-01-0135
19Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2014-04-01467.5
20Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2014-04-0160.9
21Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2014-04-01371.6
22Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2014-04-0135
23Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24427.6
24Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-2460.9
25Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2015-03-24320.3
26Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2015-03-2446.4

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром База Ванденберг
2Дата пуска2014-07-02 09:56:00 UTC
3Полезная нагрузка 1xOrbiting Carbon Observatory 2
4Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7320

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... launched into outer space. The Observatory at Parkes, NSW, played an... of planets have been proposed orbiting a wide variety of stars. Depending... of all proposed multipleplanet systems orbiting PCEBs. In the next section... dynamical investigation. The candidate planets orbiting UZ For move on orbits... that the planetary systems proposed orbiting NN Ser and UZ For...-companion systems have been proposed orbiting highly evolved binary star systems... by which the candidate planets orbiting NN Ser could have been..., “Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799”, Science..., “A Long-Period Jupiter-Mass Planet Orbiting the Nearby M Dwarf GJ 849... A Stars and Their Companions: Exoplanets Orbiting Three Intermediate-Mass Subgiants”, The...-Pacific Planet Search. I. A Giant Planet Orbiting 7 CMa”, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume..., F.-Y. and He, J.-J., 2012, “Circumbinary Planets Orbiting the Rapidly Pulsating Subdwarf B-type..., K, 2011, “Detection of a planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aqr..., “Revisiting the proposed planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aquarii... of the proposed planetary system orbiting NSVS 14256825”, Monthly Notices of..., C. M. and Hermes, J. J., 2010, “Two planets orbiting the recently formed post-common... of two giant extrasolar planets orbiting the eclipsing polar UZ Fornacis...-motion resonance of the planets orbiting NN Serpentis”, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume... example, the two planet system orbiting the catacylsmic variable HU Aquarii... Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The residuals from their fully... orbiting around a ∼ 1.5 AU have a period PT P1.5 ∼ 667 days, while particles orbiting... giant planets, HD 204313 b and d, orbiting respectively at 3.04 and 3.95... Li, K., “Detection of a planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aqr..., C. G., “Revisiting the proposed planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aquarii... long period and massive planets orbiting HD 171238 and HD 204313...: The discovery of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars...-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. Raw spectra were reduced using... of the planet and is orbiting at large separations (up to... timescales required to detect companions orbiting beyond 5 AU is greater than... Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The MagAO system... a spectroscopic transit by the planet orbiting the star HD209458”, Astronomy and...-bloated hot Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type stars in Eridanus”, Astronomy...-like planets will be discovered orbiting other stars, and the search... discovery of the first planets orbiting other Sun-like stars (e.g. [1][2][3]) was... that the variety of planets orbiting other stars is far more... host star’s surface (e.g. [4][5][6]), to planets orbiting binary stars (e.g. [7][8]), proposed “diamond planets... first truly Earth-like planets2 orbiting nearby stars, and the search... life on Earth-like planets orbiting other stars will be hugely... and mass to the Earth, orbiting at a suitable distance from their... 3. Butler, R. P. and Marcy, G. W., 1996, “A Planet Orbiting 47 Ursae Majoris”, Astrophysical Journal..., R. G., 2011, “WASP-43b: the closest-orbiting hot Jupiter”, Astronomy and Astrophysics..., E. J., Simon, A. E., Barnes, S. I., Caldwell, C., “The McDonald Observatory Planet Search: New Long-period...), situated on the Murchison Radio Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia, has... Astronomy at the Murchison Radio Observatory The MWA is a low-frequency.... 2007) and is now a commissioned observatory. Figure 1: A tile of the Murchison... in signals received at the observatory (Kung Chie and Chao-Han... location of the Murchison Radio Observatory. Under conditions of low sunspot... smooth. The location for the observatory was chosen in part because... ionosphere above the Murchison Radio Observatory (MRO) during an epoch of... ionosphere above the Murchison Radio Observatory (MRO) during an epoch of... captured at the Learmonth Solar Observatory, Learmonth, Western Australia, indicating a significant... however, to fully achieve the observatory’s potential, careful attention must be... widespread use as a standard geophysical observatory tool for over five decades... OMTI [7] and THEMIS Ground Based Observatory [20] imagers. The BCS output..., et al., "THEMIS Ground Based Observatory System Design," Space Sci. Rev... of the carbon cycle [2, 3, 8]. The technology of monitoring total carbon column densities... first location is the UNSW observatory site, which is on the... July 2013 from our UNSW observatory and from the TCCON-FTS... measured spectra from our UNSW observatory (a); in the legend nSZA ~ θ , n is... instrument at their TCCON-FTIR observatory site. NSO/Kitt Peak FTS..., H., Toon, G.C., Sen, B., Miller, C. and Crisp, D., "Orbiting carbon observatory: inverse method and prospective analysis... with respect to a right-handed orbiting reference frame. Table. 1 shows the... ground attack [5], collision avoidance for orbiting spacecraft [6] and fuel utilisation for... Star wheel and signals: Sydney Observatory’s Shared Sky education program Inter...



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... Carbon Dioxide Measurements from Space: Contributions from a Rapid Reflight of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory... Earth Science .................................................................... 1  1.1.  Carbon Source/Sink Uncertainties ................................................................ 1  1.2.  Advances in Carbon Cycle Science since... of Terms ......................................................................................................................... 49  iii ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE 2009... can be made that the [Orbiting Carbon Observatory] should be reproduced as soon... of low carbon energy policy. In 2002, NASA selected the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO... global carbon cycle by returning space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide... scale carbon sources and sinks and characterize their interannual variability. 1.1. Carbon Source... billion tons of carbon (GtC) into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2... in the atmospheric carbon buildup measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (blue... the oceans. NASA selected the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) in 2002 to address... carbon for centuries to millennia because of the long lifetime of carbon... indicating annual carbon sinks and blue shading as annual carbon sources [Potter... CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE 2009 September 16, dynamics, the atmospheric carbon... accuracy of the inferred carbon fluxes. 13 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM... acquire data very quickly. The Observatory moves along its orbit track... validity of mission data, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory was designed to collect science... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... objectives. In this mode, the observatory points the instrument at a stationary... to nine minutes, allowing the observatory to collect as many as... measured by the space-based observatory and the ground-based FTS... FTS at Kitt Peak National Observatory and Bruker 125 IFS at... from the space-based observatory. 23 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE...-starved carbon-cycle community with thousands of global measurements of carbon dioxide... year. That's what NASA's OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) satellite would have done if... of atmospheric CO2 is the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)” (Decadal Survey, Chapter 7). There... of atmospheric CO2 is the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), scheduled for launch in... after the launch of NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which uses reflected sunlight....barrons.com/article/SB123577849818797453.html]. Carbon capture and sequestration technologies could... the global carbon cycle. It is straightforward to envision carbon fluxes inferred... within the global carbon cycle. 6. Conclusions Advances in carbon cycle science have..., G. Marland, T.A. Boden, N. Kumar, and A.T. Kearney, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel....Carbon source/sink information provided by column CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory.... Buchwitz, M et al., Carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide columns retrieved from..., M., SCIAMACHY WFM-DOAS methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide columns: Algorithm description..., and P. J. Rayner, Contribution of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory to the estimation of CO2..., G. Toon. B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Inverse method and prospective error... C. and Tans P. P., A direct carbon budgeting approach to infer carbon sources and sinks..., R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission, Advances in Space..., D. C. E. Miller, P. L. DeCola, NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction.... 2008. Crisp, D., The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: NASA’s First Dedicated Carbon Dioxide Mission, Proc. SPIE..., P. K. Kasibhatla, any Y. Shimabukuro, Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions... Carbon Program. Report of the NACP Implementation Strategy Group of the U.S. Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group. Washington, DC: U.S. Carbon Cycle Science..., A. J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng, Climate–Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from... of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. Synthesis... of atmospheric CO2 and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) experiment, Comptes Rendus Physique..., Retrieval of XCO2 from simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory measurements using the fast linearized.... Potter, C., S. Klooster, A. Huete, V. Genovese, Terrestrial Carbon Sinks for the United States..., P. O. Wennberg, S. A. Vay, D. M. Matross, and B. C. Daube, Carbon dioxide column abundances at the..., A. E. Schuh, P. J. Rayner, W. Peters, and K. D. Corbin, Carbon flux bias estimation employing the.../) NWP – Numerical Weather Prediction OCO – Orbiting Carbon Observatory (http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov... ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE 2009 September 16, TCCON – Total Carbon...



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... Carbon Dioxide Measurements from Space: Contributions from a Rapid Reflight of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory... Earth Science .................................................................... 1  1.1.  Carbon Source/Sink Uncertainties ................................................................ 1  1.2.  Advances in Carbon Cycle Science since... of Terms ......................................................................................................................... 49  iii ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE June... can be made that the [Orbiting Carbon Observatory] should be reproduced as soon... of low carbon energy policy. In 2002, NASA selected the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO... global carbon cycle by returning space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide... scale carbon sources and sinks and characterize their interannual variability. 1.1. Carbon Source... billion tons of carbon (GtC) into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2... in the atmospheric carbon buildup measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (blue... the oceans. NASA selected the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) in 2002 to address... carbon for centuries to millennia because of the long lifetime of carbon... indicating annual carbon sinks and blue shading as annual carbon sources [Potter... CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE June 25, 2009 dynamics, the atmospheric carbon... accuracy of the inferred carbon fluxes. 13 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM... acquire data very quickly. The Observatory moves along its orbit track... validity of mission data, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory was designed to collect science... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... objectives. In this mode, the observatory points the instrument at a stationary... to nine minutes, allowing the observatory to collect as many as... measured by the space-based observatory and the ground-based FTS... FTS at Kitt Peak National Observatory and Bruker 125 IFS at... from the space-based observatory. 23 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE...-starved carbon-cycle community with thousands of global measurements of carbon dioxide... year. That's what NASA's OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) satellite would have done if... of atmospheric CO2 is the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)” (Decadal Survey, Chapter 7). There... of atmospheric CO2 is the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), scheduled for launch in... after the launch of NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which uses reflected sunlight....barrons.com/article/SB123577849818797453.html]. Carbon capture and sequestration technologies could... the global carbon cycle. It is straightforward to envision carbon fluxes inferred... within the global carbon cycle. 6. Conclusions Advances in carbon cycle science have..., G. Marland, T.A. Boden, N. Kumar, and A.T. Kearney, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel....Carbon source/sink information provided by column CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory.... Buchwitz, M et al., Carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide columns retrieved from..., M., SCIAMACHY WFM-DOAS methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide columns: Algorithm description..., and P. J. Rayner, Contribution of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory to the estimation of CO2..., G. Toon. B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Inverse method and prospective error... C. and Tans P. P., A direct carbon budgeting approach to infer carbon sources and sinks..., R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission, Advances in Space..., D. C. E. Miller, P. L. DeCola, NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction.... 2008. Crisp, D., The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: NASA’s First Dedicated Carbon Dioxide Mission, Proc. SPIE..., P. K. Kasibhatla, any Y. Shimabukuro, Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions... Carbon Program. Report of the NACP Implementation Strategy Group of the U.S. Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group. Washington, DC: U.S. Carbon Cycle Science..., A. J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng, Climate–Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from... of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. Synthesis... of atmospheric CO2 and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) experiment, Comptes Rendus Physique..., Retrieval of XCO2 from simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory measurements using the fast linearized.... Potter, C., S. Klooster, A. Huete, V. Genovese, Terrestrial Carbon Sinks for the United States..., P. O. Wennberg, S. A. Vay, D. M. Matross, and B. C. Daube, Carbon dioxide column abundances at the..., A. E. Schuh, P. J. Rayner, W. Peters, and K. D. Corbin, Carbon flux bias estimation employing the.../) NWP – Numerical Weather Prediction OCO – Orbiting Carbon Observatory (http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov... ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE June 25, 2009 TCCON – Total Carbon...



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... will continue to develop the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 for launch in 2013... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO). In addition, in conjunction... (KDP)-D; - The NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Satellite System) Preparatory Project... and testing of the observatory and the observatory Pre-Ship Review; - Soil.... APG 2.1.1.2: ES-12-2 Complete the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Systems Integration Review. APG... biogeochemical cycles, including the global carbon cycle, land cover, and biodiversity... APG 2.1.3.2: ES-12-2 Complete the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Systems Integration Review. Earth...-12 Launch the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Earth Systematic Missions... APG 2.1.5.3: ES-12-2 Complete the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Systems Integration Review. Earth... climate assessments, for work towards a Carbon Monitoring System (CMS), specifically the... variability and change; atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water... in field work. Carbon Cycle Science: The Carbon Cycle Science project funds... Implementation Schedule Project R&A, IDS Science, Carbon Cycle Science, Ozone Trends, Global..., SIR, and KDP-D and begin observatory level environmental testing; - NPP is... conduct the majority of the Observatory level environmental testing and the... Glory data include: atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate... composition; climate variability and change; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water...; climate variability and change; and carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry. ICESat.... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) The CLARREO mission, a Tier... by Terra include: atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate... by Aqua include: atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate... successfully integrated to the Glory Observatory. The November 2010 LRD was... successfully integrated to the Glory observatory. The November 2010 LRD was... in the loss of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. NASA developed a corrective action plan... successfully integrated to the Glory Observatory. The TIM instrument provides continuity... fly on a future Low-Inclination Observatory (LIO). ES-47 Mission Directorate... The GPM project includes a Core Observatory Spacecraft and a robust set of... the Core Observatory, is ready on schedule. The Core Observatory will leverage... be robust. The NASA Core Observatory will fly in a 65 degree... inclined 35 degrees). The Core Observatory's two scientific instruments will provide... Microwave Imager (TMI). The Core Observatory Spacecraft will be launched from...) Project Commitments The GPM Core Observatory is planned for a launch in... FY 2012 PB Request Core Observatory GSFC Provides platform for the... instruments. Same Same Low-Inclination Observatory N/A N/A Changed to be partner-provided... Dec 2009 Dec 2009 Core Observatory LRD Jul 2013 Jul 2013... Core Observatory GSFC GSFC None Core Observatory: GMI GSFC GSFC None Core Observatory: DPR GSFC GSFC JAXA Launch vehicle and GSFC services: Core Observatory... launch vehicle for the Core Observatory will be provided by a foreign... change, ecosystem function and services, carbon cycling and sequestration, resource management... LDCM project will develop alternative observatory integration and test scenarios to.... Project Preliminary Parameters The ICESat-2 observatory employs a dedicated spacecraft with a multi.... Project Preliminary Parameters The SMAP observatory employs a dedicated spacecraft and will... the accelerated development of an Orbiting Carbon Observatory reflight mission (OCO-2) with the... development section of this document. Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 OCO-2 is a replacement for the... address the related science questions. Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 Instrument OCO-3 is an instrument..., CloudSat, and CALIPSO Complete the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Systems Integration Review. OCO... 16 17 18 19 20 Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment..., National Center for Atmospheric Research. Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 JPL JPL N/A GRACE Earth Science... form the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. This observatory will be launched into a polar... instrument integration with the SAC-D Observatory (Phase D). Recommendation to proceed to... Science Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) FY 2012 Budget Request... Science Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Project Purpose Data received.... The total weight of the observatory is about 530 kilograms. The... Science Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Schedule Commitments Based on... Science Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Project Risk Management Title... variability and change; atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water...



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.... On February 25, 2009, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) satellite, also launched from... using data from the Keck Observatory reported the first definitive detection... will continue to provide a polar-orbiting platform to support (1) environmental monitoring.... On February 24, 2009, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) satellite mission was lost... instruments. Spacewalking astronauts brought the orbiting observatory to a new apex of scientific... mission of the Herschel Space Observatory, a collaborative project between NASA and... molecules. Specifically, the Herschel Space Observatory’s principal objectives are to help... grids. NOAA’s GOES and Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system... rocket. This new NOAA polar-orbiting operational environmental satellite circles the... (EUMETSAT) to ensure seamless polar-orbiting satellite coverage. Under an agreement... satellites, Metop-A, which 2 0 0 9 NOAA’s polar-orbiting satellites—NOAA-18 and NOAA... on the ground. NOAA’s polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites, along with... solar drawings from the Wendelstein Observatory in Austria for the period... launched on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the calibration rocket... X-ray Observatory, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, and the Spitzer Infrared Observatory... those observed from space by orbiting observatories. This work improved the... multi-billion-dollar Chandra X-ray Observatory, operated in orbit for NASA..., Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO). This mission is designed... missions at x-ray (International X-ray Observatory), millimeter (CMB Polarimeter Satellite), and... instruments intended for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). With... goal for the International X-ray Observatory satellite mission of 2 eV at... agencies, and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) component of the National... Oceanography and the Plate Boundary Observatory. In addition, the USGS worked..., and the USGS’s Cascade Volcano Observatory developed a prototype rapid-deployment hazard... to send data to the observatory, and can autonomously request the... included the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the National Astronomy and... National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The... executive agency for the Gemini Observatory—an international A c t i v i t i e s The National Science.... The University of Arizona’s Steward Observatory Mirror Lab is fabricating the... Big Bear Solar Observatory and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California and the Mees Solar Observatory in Hawaii... sensors on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environment Satellite System (NPOESS... construction of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Following the initial discovery of.... The South Pole IceCube Neutrino Observatory deployed 19 new strings of... available for science observations. The observatory expects the completion of all... 2004 met at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. The four working... activities of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), which, the Harvard-Smithsonian.... A c t i v i t i e s together with the Harvard College Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, forms 2 0 0 9 The... dark energy. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls... in A c t i v i t i e s As the Chandra X-ray Observatory entered its second decade of... of discovery with this remarkable observatory. FY 09 marked the third.... 141 142 The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Submillimeter Array (SMA) continued to... to offer its popular monthly Observatory Night lectures and telescope observing... of Astronomy, NASM opened a public observatory that provides visitors with the... loan from the Harvard College Observatory. Programming commemorating the Centennial of...-N PRIME Part of the Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) March 7, 2009... and Refractivity Observatory Common Land Units cosmic microwave background carbon matrix composite... Atmospheric Administration National Optical Astronomy Observatory National Oceanographic Data Center National... for Aeronautical Testing National Polar-orbiting Operational Environment Satellite System NPOESS... Research Announcement National Radio Astronomy Observatory Natural Resources Conservation Service National... National Science Foundation National Solar Observatory NSOF NSPO NSRL NSRS NSTC... Space In-Situ Sensor-web Orbiting Carbon Observatory Organization for Economic Cooperation and... PNT POES PPPL Plate Boundary Observatory plasma-jet-driven magnetic-inertial... Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Princeton Plasma... Aerosol Measurement Experiment Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory synthetic aperture radar Solar Alpha... through Advanced Computing Solar Dynamics Observatory Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft... Satellite Operations Control Center Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Space Exploration...



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OCO D-55208 Orbiting Carbon Observatory–2 (OCO-2) Data Product User’s Guide, ... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... provides a brief overview of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission and then discusses... primary product delivered by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 consists of spatially resolved estimates... the atmospheric carbon science community, quantifies the average concentration of carbon dioxide... column integrated number densities of carbon dioxide and molecular oxygen along...-averaged oxygen concentration (0.20935). These carbon dioxide and oxygen number densities... reflected sunlight, collected by the Observatory’s instrument at wavelengths (colors) within... molecular oxygen A band and two carbon dioxide bands centered at wavelengths... 1.61 and 2.06 microns. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission will produce four primary... molecular oxygen A band and the carbon dioxide bands at wavelengths near... dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (also called XCO2) and... of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in cloud-free scenes... atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, generated monthly by members of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 science...-orbit checkout. An exploratory atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration product is expected... almost 40 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere... are superimposed on active natural carbon cycle that emits more than... measurements are essential to any carbon management strategy. One way to... yield new insights into the carbon cycle, but improvements in sensitivity... Orbiting Carbon Observatory–2 (OCO-2) is NASA’s first dedicated CO2 monitoring satellite. OCO-2 is a “carbon copy” of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which was lost... calibration activities were initiated. The Observatory completed its in-orbit check... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... instrument aperture. (Figure 2-2a). The Observatory collects nadir observations in the.... For these observations, as the Observatory ascends into daylight over the... by 2.25 km. As the Observatory proceeds northward along its orbit... azimuth rotation continues as the Observatory approaches the northern terminator, where... Transform Spectrometers in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) [Washenfelder... information about satellite observations of carbon dioxide. The site is allows... CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural... carbon dioxide dry air mole fractions from the NOAA ESRL carbon cycle..., R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, S. Schroll (2004), The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission, Advances in Space... P. L. DeCola (2008), NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction... fluorescence remote sensing from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2, Remote Sensing of Environment, 147..., P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch (2014b), The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2): spectrometer performance evaluation using... and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on..., A. Wiltshire, and S. Zaehle, (2014), Global carbon budget 2013, Earth Syst. Sci..., D. Crisp, A. Eldering, and M. Gunson, (2015), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) aerosol and cloud screening... global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of.... (2010), Calibration of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network using aircraft... et al. (2011a), The Total Carbon Column Observing Network, Phil. Trans... product Algorithm theoretical basis document Carbon dioxide Colorado State University Data... Aeronautics and Space Administration Oxygen Orbiting Carbon Observatory Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 South Atlantic Anomaly Strong CO2... ratio International atomic time Total Carbon Column Observing Network Coordinated universal... air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide 61



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OCO D-65488 OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) - 2 Level 2 Full Physics Retrieval Algorithm ... November 10, 2010 Version 1.0 Rev 4 ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO) -2 LEVEL 2 FULL PHYSICS ALGORITHM... Covariance Matrix ................................................... 41 3.3.2.1 Profile of Carbon Dioxide Concentration ................................................................... 41 3.3.2.2 Surface Pressure... ................................................... 46 3.4.2.1.1 Composite Optical Properties .................................................................................. 46 3.4.2.1.2 Carbon Dioxide & Water Vapor .............................................................................. 47 3.4.2.1.3 Temperature... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator...]. ............................................................................. 21 Figure 3-6. Laboratory Spectroscopy for carbon dioxide in the near-IR... 1.0 Rev 4 2. Experiment Overview 2.1 Objectives The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is the first National... space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision... mission from reaching orbit, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission was formulated to... than 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere... to our understanding of the carbon cycle over the ocean and... [Crisp et al., 2007]. The Observatory will fly in a loose formation... Transform Spectrometers in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) [Washenfelder... Version 1.0 Rev 4 Instrument Characteristics The Observatory carries and points a single instrument... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... this data collection rate, the Observatory collects ~200 soundings per degree... are roughly parallel to the Observatory y-axis) remains oriented perpendicular to... polarization errors (Figure 2-4 (a)). As the Observatory ascends over the southern terminator... by 2.25 km. As the Observatory proceeds northward along its orbit... azimuth rotation continues as the Observatory approaches the northern terminator, where... Spectrometers in the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON). The software... (FTS) at Kitt Peak National Observatory, a Bruker 125 FTS at JPL... 1.0 Rev 4 Figure 3-6. Laboratory Spectroscopy for carbon dioxide in the near-IR... sun, surface target, and the observatory (Figure 3-10). Observing Geometry: The... types of aerosol, and not carbon dioxide, which represents slightly less..., with the exception of the carbon dioxide profile block. That is... parameter in turn. 3.3.2.1 Profile of Carbon Dioxide Concentration The a priori profile... in the state vector are carbon dioxide concentration (on levels), water... vector elements. 3.4.2.1.2 Carbon Dioxide & Water Vapor The concentration of carbon dioxide (or... a level j, and could represent either carbon dioxide or water vapor. The...-infrared CO2 measurements: Testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept... CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural..., B. Sen, C. Miller and D. Crisp (2008), Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Inverse method and prospective error..., R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, S. Schroll (2004), “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission” Advances in Space... P. L. DeCola (2007), "NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction.... Crisp, D. (2008), “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: NASA’s First Dedicated Carbon Dioxide Mission,” Proc. SPIE... (2004a), Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon Dioxide: 16 12 16 O C O Line... (2004b), Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon Dioxide. II. 16O13C16O and 16O13C18O... of atmospheric CO2 and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) experiment, Comptes Rendus Physique...), Retrieval of XCO2 from simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory measurements using the fast linearized... and 30013 ← 00001 bands of carbon dioxide perturbed by air, J. Mol..., S. A. Vay, D. M. Matross and B. C. Daube (2006), Carbon dioxide column abundances at the..., (2010), “Calibration of the total carbon column observing network using aircraft... Collision Induced Absorption CO Carbon Monoxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide CPU Central Processing... OBC On-Board Calibrator OCO Orbiting Carbon Observatory ppm parts per million RT...-to-Noise Ratio TCCON Total Carbon Column Observing Network TES Tropospheric...



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Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory Committee on Methods for Estimating ... Press. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory http://www.nap.edu/catalog... committee’s analysis suggests that NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which failed on launch... deployed satellites that measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and their potential... carbon dioxide measurements from space: Contributions from a rapid reflight of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory... reserved. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory http://www.nap.edu/catalog... global carbon cycle observing system: A plan to decipher today’s carbon cycle based..., 2008, Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go... reserved. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory http://www.nap.edu/catalog... reserved. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory http://www.nap.edu/catalog... reserved. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory http://www.nap.edu/catalog... = Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer; OCO = Orbiting Carbon Observatory; SCIAMACHY = Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer... P.L. DeCola, 2008, NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction...; Crisp, D., 2008, The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: NASA’s first dedicated carbon dioxide mission, in Sensors... reserved. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory http://www.nap.edu/catalog..., and M. Heimann, 2005, Carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide columns retrieved from..., D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, 2004, The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission, Advances in Space..., S.A. Vay, D.M. Matross, and B.C. Daube, 2006, Carbon dioxide column abundances at the... reserved. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory http://www.nap.edu/catalog... gases to be considered are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs... for a variety of applications, including carbon trading, setting emissions reduction targets... reserved. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory http://www.nap.edu/catalog...



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Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission AGU Press Conference December 18, 2014 The OCO-2 Mission Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 2 OCO-2 OCO-2 Launched July 2, 2014 Launched July 2, 2014 Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 3 OCO-2 Global Sampling Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 4 First OCO-2 Global View of Carbon Dioxide Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 5 Glint Mode Carbon Dioxide : Oct. 31 – Nov. 11, 2014 OCO-2 Observations Total Column Carbon Dioxide [ppm] Theoretical Observations Based on GEOS-5 Model Total Column Carbon Dioxide [ppm] 6 Carbon Dioxide Simulation from NASA GEOS-5 System Total Column Carbon Dioxide [ppm] Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 7 Glint Mode Carbon Dioxide : Oct. 31 – Nov. 11, 2014 OCO-2 Observations Total Column Carbon Dioxide [ppm] Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 8 OCO-2 Target Measurement Movie Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 9 Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 10 Map of TCCON Site Locations www.tccon.caltech.edu Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 11 Averaged Carbon Dioxide at Target Sites Wollongong, Australia Edwards, Calif. 402 400 398 396 Pasadena, Calif. 394 ppm Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 12 Comparison of TCCON and OCO-2 13 Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 14 Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 15 OCO-2 Solar-Induced Fluorescence Aug.-Oct. 2014 Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 16 Summary • OCO-2 is taking global carbon dioxide measurements with unprecedented precision, resolution, and coverage. • These data are being carefully validated against a ground-based network. • A new data product, solar-induced fluorescence, is also being produced from OCO-2, helping us understand the contributions of plants to the natural carbon cycle. • Data release starts this year. Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 17 For More Information… http://oco2.jpl.nasa.gov http://www.nasa.gov/oco First data release by Dec. 30, 2014 http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCO-2 @IamOCO2 Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission 18



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... Telescope, and other low-Earth orbiting spacecraft. When first launched, the... the continuing series of polar orbiting weather satellites. For all of... with the Y e a r NASA airborne and orbiting science instruments yielded data that..., and other gases. A e r o n a u t i c s S p a c e R e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t 12 Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft’s 999th and 1,000th... in a row, deposits of frozen carbon dioxide near the planet’s south... Samuel Oschin Telescope at Palomar Observatory near San Diego, Mike Brown... light from two known planets orbiting stars other than our Sun... (DOC) on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS... DOD and DOC/NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite programs. NPOESS NPOESS... satellites also continued NOAA’s Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) support... part of NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, is representative of these... calibration of the Robotic Lunar Observatory, which is used to investigate... moisture, crop stress, invasive species, carbon sequestration, and range forage quality... multi-spectral carbon sequestration index that can separate soil organic carbon from... included the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the National Astronomy and... National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The... executive agency for the Gemini Observatory—an international partnership operating optical... 72 antennas. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) contracted with Alcatel for... patterns of carbon-cycle processes related to the North American carbon program... calibrating planned carbon and CO2 observations from the NASA 2008 Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO... biogeochemistry in coupled-climate models. A carbon data assimilation activity was initiated... launch of the OCO, the carbon data assimilation activity will utilize... data towards improved characterization of carbon sources and sinks. The SC... Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), which is joined with the Harvard College Observatory in... the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) Observatory, a joint facility south of Tucson... her new responsibilities at the Observatory at the end of the... directly detect light from a planet orbiting a distant star. Using Spitzer, researchers...) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft have made new discoveries... nursery are surrounded by enough orbiting material to form new solar...’s operation of NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory contin- 91 how organic material... continued to offer its popular Observatory Night lectures and telescope observing... science, I learned at the movies.” Observatory Night programs in particular were... remote-sensing data from Earth-orbiting satellites, as well as both... Energy Sciences Network European Southern Observatory Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus European... Space Museum Agricultural Statistics Service Orbiting Carbon Observatory Organization for Economic Cooperation and... and Crop Assessment Division Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites Prometheus Nuclear... Administration National Optical Astronomy Observatory National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System NPOESS Preparatory Project National Radio Astronomy Observatory... Sensing Data Archive National Solar Observatory National Space Organization National Spherical... de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided... Acceleration Probe Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Space Operations Mission Directorate Space...