Спутник ДЗЗ. Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2. [Редактировать]

Данный аппарат является первым изделием NASA для решения задачи изучения поведения диоксида углерода в атмосфере из космоса. OCO-2 должен собирать информацию по всей Земной атмосфере с возможностью определения источников и разделению регионов. Также аппарат должен собирать информацию о круговороте оксида углерода в природе. Платформа аппарата имеет шестиугольную структуру которая зарекомендовала себя как легкая, но одновременно с этим надежная платформа. Аппарат имеет разворачиваемые солнечные панели которые позволяют поместить его под головной обтекатель. Бортовой компьютер разработан для работы в условиях жесткого воздействия со стороны космической среды и контролирует как платформу так и инструмент. Программное обеспечение аппарата позволяет работать по командам как заложенных в него программ так и по командам с Земли. Для связи с центральной наземной станцией используется антенна S диапазона. Научная информация передается по X стволу. Поскольку отслеживать диоксид углерода напрямую невозможно, то его оценка производится на основе съемки поверхности земли в определенных диапазонах длин волн. 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1OCO-2НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип орбиты - НОО
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США
4Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
5Дистанционного зондирования Земли
6Все спутники ДЗЗ

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-08-13. Аппарат достиг целевой орбитыТэги: Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Длина (волны), микрон2.06
2Длина (волны), микрон1.61
3Длина (волны), микрон0.765
4Масса (аппарат), кг447
5Масса (сухая), кг409
6Диаметр (платформы), метра1
7Диаметр (апертуры), см11
8Платформа 1xLeoStar-2
9Площадь поверхности батареи, квадратных метров3
10Высота (платформы), метра2
11Мощность, Вт521

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый ), год2

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2014-035A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Заказчик Космическое агентство США
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2010-04-01349.9
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2010-04-0160.9
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2010-04-01249.0
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2010-04-0140
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-01349.9
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-0160.9
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2011-01-01249.0
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2011-01-0140.0
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01349.9
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-0160.9
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-01249.0
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-0140.0
14Прогнозируемая стоимость (контракта с прооизводителем), млн. долл.2013-01-0153.6
15Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2013-01-01467.7
16Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2013-01-0160.9
17Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2013-01-01371.8
18Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2013-01-0135
19Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2014-04-01467.5
20Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2014-04-0160.9
21Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2014-04-01371.6
22Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2014-04-0135
23Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24427.6
24Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-2460.9
25Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2015-03-24320.3
26Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2015-03-2446.4

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром База Ванденберг
2Дата пуска2014-07-02 09:56:00 UTC
3Полезная нагрузка 1xOrbiting Carbon Observatory 2
4Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7320

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... launched into outer space. The Observatory at Parkes, NSW, played an... of planets have been proposed orbiting a wide variety of stars. Depending... of all proposed multipleplanet systems orbiting PCEBs. In the next section... dynamical investigation. The candidate planets orbiting UZ For move on orbits... that the planetary systems proposed orbiting NN Ser and UZ For...-companion systems have been proposed orbiting highly evolved binary star systems... by which the candidate planets orbiting NN Ser could have been..., “Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799”, Science..., “A Long-Period Jupiter-Mass Planet Orbiting the Nearby M Dwarf GJ 849... A Stars and Their Companions: Exoplanets Orbiting Three Intermediate-Mass Subgiants”, The...-Pacific Planet Search. I. A Giant Planet Orbiting 7 CMa”, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume..., F.-Y. and He, J.-J., 2012, “Circumbinary Planets Orbiting the Rapidly Pulsating Subdwarf B-type..., K, 2011, “Detection of a planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aqr..., “Revisiting the proposed planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aquarii... of the proposed planetary system orbiting NSVS 14256825”, Monthly Notices of..., C. M. and Hermes, J. J., 2010, “Two planets orbiting the recently formed post-common... of two giant extrasolar planets orbiting the eclipsing polar UZ Fornacis...-motion resonance of the planets orbiting NN Serpentis”, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume... example, the two planet system orbiting the catacylsmic variable HU Aquarii... Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The residuals from their fully... orbiting around a ∼ 1.5 AU have a period PT P1.5 ∼ 667 days, while particles orbiting... giant planets, HD 204313 b and d, orbiting respectively at 3.04 and 3.95... Li, K., “Detection of a planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aqr..., C. G., “Revisiting the proposed planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aquarii... long period and massive planets orbiting HD 171238 and HD 204313...: The discovery of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars...-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. Raw spectra were reduced using... of the planet and is orbiting at large separations (up to... timescales required to detect companions orbiting beyond 5 AU is greater than... Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The MagAO system... a spectroscopic transit by the planet orbiting the star HD209458”, Astronomy and...-bloated hot Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type stars in Eridanus”, Astronomy...-like planets will be discovered orbiting other stars, and the search... discovery of the first planets orbiting other Sun-like stars (e.g. [1][2][3]) was... that the variety of planets orbiting other stars is far more... host star’s surface (e.g. [4][5][6]), to planets orbiting binary stars (e.g. [7][8]), proposed “diamond planets... first truly Earth-like planets2 orbiting nearby stars, and the search... life on Earth-like planets orbiting other stars will be hugely... and mass to the Earth, orbiting at a suitable distance from their... 3. Butler, R. P. and Marcy, G. W., 1996, “A Planet Orbiting 47 Ursae Majoris”, Astrophysical Journal..., R. G., 2011, “WASP-43b: the closest-orbiting hot Jupiter”, Astronomy and Astrophysics..., E. J., Simon, A. E., Barnes, S. I., Caldwell, C., “The McDonald Observatory Planet Search: New Long-period...), situated on the Murchison Radio Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia, has... Astronomy at the Murchison Radio Observatory The MWA is a low-frequency.... 2007) and is now a commissioned observatory. Figure 1: A tile of the Murchison... in signals received at the observatory (Kung Chie and Chao-Han... location of the Murchison Radio Observatory. Under conditions of low sunspot... smooth. The location for the observatory was chosen in part because... ionosphere above the Murchison Radio Observatory (MRO) during an epoch of... ionosphere above the Murchison Radio Observatory (MRO) during an epoch of... captured at the Learmonth Solar Observatory, Learmonth, Western Australia, indicating a significant... however, to fully achieve the observatory’s potential, careful attention must be... widespread use as a standard geophysical observatory tool for over five decades... OMTI [7] and THEMIS Ground Based Observatory [20] imagers. The BCS output..., et al., "THEMIS Ground Based Observatory System Design," Space Sci. Rev... of the carbon cycle [2, 3, 8]. The technology of monitoring total carbon column densities... first location is the UNSW observatory site, which is on the... July 2013 from our UNSW observatory and from the TCCON-FTS... measured spectra from our UNSW observatory (a); in the legend nSZA ~ θ , n is... instrument at their TCCON-FTIR observatory site. NSO/Kitt Peak FTS..., H., Toon, G.C., Sen, B., Miller, C. and Crisp, D., "Orbiting carbon observatory: inverse method and prospective analysis... with respect to a right-handed orbiting reference frame. Table. 1 shows the... ground attack [5], collision avoidance for orbiting spacecraft [6] and fuel utilisation for... Star wheel and signals: Sydney Observatory’s Shared Sky education program Inter...



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... Carbon Dioxide Measurements from Space: Contributions from a Rapid Reflight of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory... Earth Science .................................................................... 1  1.1.  Carbon Source/Sink Uncertainties ................................................................ 1  1.2.  Advances in Carbon Cycle Science since... of Terms ......................................................................................................................... 49  iii ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE 2009... can be made that the [Orbiting Carbon Observatory] should be reproduced as soon... of low carbon energy policy. In 2002, NASA selected the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO... global carbon cycle by returning space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide... scale carbon sources and sinks and characterize their interannual variability. 1.1. Carbon Source... billion tons of carbon (GtC) into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2... in the atmospheric carbon buildup measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (blue... the oceans. NASA selected the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) in 2002 to address... carbon for centuries to millennia because of the long lifetime of carbon... indicating annual carbon sinks and blue shading as annual carbon sources [Potter... CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE 2009 September 16, dynamics, the atmospheric carbon... accuracy of the inferred carbon fluxes. 13 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM... acquire data very quickly. The Observatory moves along its orbit track... validity of mission data, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory was designed to collect science... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... objectives. In this mode, the observatory points the instrument at a stationary... to nine minutes, allowing the observatory to collect as many as... measured by the space-based observatory and the ground-based FTS... FTS at Kitt Peak National Observatory and Bruker 125 IFS at... from the space-based observatory. 23 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE...-starved carbon-cycle community with thousands of global measurements of carbon dioxide... year. That's what NASA's OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) satellite would have done if... of atmospheric CO2 is the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)” (Decadal Survey, Chapter 7). There... of atmospheric CO2 is the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), scheduled for launch in... after the launch of NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which uses reflected sunlight....barrons.com/article/SB123577849818797453.html]. Carbon capture and sequestration technologies could... the global carbon cycle. It is straightforward to envision carbon fluxes inferred... within the global carbon cycle. 6. Conclusions Advances in carbon cycle science have..., G. Marland, T.A. Boden, N. Kumar, and A.T. Kearney, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel....Carbon source/sink information provided by column CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory.... Buchwitz, M et al., Carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide columns retrieved from..., M., SCIAMACHY WFM-DOAS methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide columns: Algorithm description..., and P. J. Rayner, Contribution of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory to the estimation of CO2..., G. Toon. B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Inverse method and prospective error... C. and Tans P. P., A direct carbon budgeting approach to infer carbon sources and sinks..., R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission, Advances in Space..., D. C. E. Miller, P. L. DeCola, NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction.... 2008. Crisp, D., The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: NASA’s First Dedicated Carbon Dioxide Mission, Proc. SPIE..., P. K. Kasibhatla, any Y. Shimabukuro, Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions... Carbon Program. Report of the NACP Implementation Strategy Group of the U.S. Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group. Washington, DC: U.S. Carbon Cycle Science..., A. J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng, Climate–Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from... of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. Synthesis... of atmospheric CO2 and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) experiment, Comptes Rendus Physique..., Retrieval of XCO2 from simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory measurements using the fast linearized.... Potter, C., S. Klooster, A. Huete, V. Genovese, Terrestrial Carbon Sinks for the United States..., P. O. Wennberg, S. A. Vay, D. M. Matross, and B. C. Daube, Carbon dioxide column abundances at the..., A. E. Schuh, P. J. Rayner, W. Peters, and K. D. Corbin, Carbon flux bias estimation employing the.../) NWP – Numerical Weather Prediction OCO – Orbiting Carbon Observatory (http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov... ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE 2009 September 16, TCCON – Total Carbon...



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... Carbon Dioxide Measurements from Space: Contributions from a Rapid Reflight of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory... Earth Science .................................................................... 1  1.1.  Carbon Source/Sink Uncertainties ................................................................ 1  1.2.  Advances in Carbon Cycle Science since... of Terms ......................................................................................................................... 49  iii ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE June... can be made that the [Orbiting Carbon Observatory] should be reproduced as soon... of low carbon energy policy. In 2002, NASA selected the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO... global carbon cycle by returning space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide... scale carbon sources and sinks and characterize their interannual variability. 1.1. Carbon Source... billion tons of carbon (GtC) into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2... in the atmospheric carbon buildup measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (blue... the oceans. NASA selected the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) in 2002 to address... carbon for centuries to millennia because of the long lifetime of carbon... indicating annual carbon sinks and blue shading as annual carbon sources [Potter... CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE June 25, 2009 dynamics, the atmospheric carbon... accuracy of the inferred carbon fluxes. 13 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM... acquire data very quickly. The Observatory moves along its orbit track... validity of mission data, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory was designed to collect science... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... objectives. In this mode, the observatory points the instrument at a stationary... to nine minutes, allowing the observatory to collect as many as... measured by the space-based observatory and the ground-based FTS... FTS at Kitt Peak National Observatory and Bruker 125 IFS at... from the space-based observatory. 23 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE...-starved carbon-cycle community with thousands of global measurements of carbon dioxide... year. That's what NASA's OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) satellite would have done if... of atmospheric CO2 is the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)” (Decadal Survey, Chapter 7). There... of atmospheric CO2 is the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), scheduled for launch in... after the launch of NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which uses reflected sunlight....barrons.com/article/SB123577849818797453.html]. Carbon capture and sequestration technologies could... the global carbon cycle. It is straightforward to envision carbon fluxes inferred... within the global carbon cycle. 6. Conclusions Advances in carbon cycle science have..., G. Marland, T.A. Boden, N. Kumar, and A.T. Kearney, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel....Carbon source/sink information provided by column CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory.... Buchwitz, M et al., Carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide columns retrieved from..., M., SCIAMACHY WFM-DOAS methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide columns: Algorithm description..., and P. J. Rayner, Contribution of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory to the estimation of CO2..., G. Toon. B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Inverse method and prospective error... C. and Tans P. P., A direct carbon budgeting approach to infer carbon sources and sinks..., R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission, Advances in Space..., D. C. E. Miller, P. L. DeCola, NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction.... 2008. Crisp, D., The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: NASA’s First Dedicated Carbon Dioxide Mission, Proc. SPIE..., P. K. Kasibhatla, any Y. Shimabukuro, Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions... Carbon Program. Report of the NACP Implementation Strategy Group of the U.S. Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group. Washington, DC: U.S. Carbon Cycle Science..., A. J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng, Climate–Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from... of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. Synthesis... of atmospheric CO2 and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) experiment, Comptes Rendus Physique..., Retrieval of XCO2 from simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory measurements using the fast linearized.... Potter, C., S. Klooster, A. Huete, V. Genovese, Terrestrial Carbon Sinks for the United States..., P. O. Wennberg, S. A. Vay, D. M. Matross, and B. C. Daube, Carbon dioxide column abundances at the..., A. E. Schuh, P. J. Rayner, W. Peters, and K. D. Corbin, Carbon flux bias estimation employing the.../) NWP – Numerical Weather Prediction OCO – Orbiting Carbon Observatory (http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov... ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM SPACE June 25, 2009 TCCON – Total Carbon...



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... will continue to develop the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 for launch in 2013... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO). In addition, in conjunction... (KDP)-D; - The NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Satellite System) Preparatory Project... and testing of the observatory and the observatory Pre-Ship Review; - Soil.... APG 2.1.1.2: ES-12-2 Complete the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Systems Integration Review. APG... biogeochemical cycles, including the global carbon cycle, land cover, and biodiversity... APG 2.1.3.2: ES-12-2 Complete the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Systems Integration Review. Earth...-12 Launch the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Earth Systematic Missions... APG 2.1.5.3: ES-12-2 Complete the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Systems Integration Review. Earth... climate assessments, for work towards a Carbon Monitoring System (CMS), specifically the... variability and change; atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water... in field work. Carbon Cycle Science: The Carbon Cycle Science project funds... Implementation Schedule Project R&A, IDS Science, Carbon Cycle Science, Ozone Trends, Global..., SIR, and KDP-D and begin observatory level environmental testing; - NPP is... conduct the majority of the Observatory level environmental testing and the... Glory data include: atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate... composition; climate variability and change; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water...; climate variability and change; and carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry. ICESat.... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) The CLARREO mission, a Tier... by Terra include: atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate... by Aqua include: atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate... successfully integrated to the Glory Observatory. The November 2010 LRD was... successfully integrated to the Glory observatory. The November 2010 LRD was... in the loss of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. NASA developed a corrective action plan... successfully integrated to the Glory Observatory. The TIM instrument provides continuity... fly on a future Low-Inclination Observatory (LIO). ES-47 Mission Directorate... The GPM project includes a Core Observatory Spacecraft and a robust set of... the Core Observatory, is ready on schedule. The Core Observatory will leverage... be robust. The NASA Core Observatory will fly in a 65 degree... inclined 35 degrees). The Core Observatory's two scientific instruments will provide... Microwave Imager (TMI). The Core Observatory Spacecraft will be launched from...) Project Commitments The GPM Core Observatory is planned for a launch in... FY 2012 PB Request Core Observatory GSFC Provides platform for the... instruments. Same Same Low-Inclination Observatory N/A N/A Changed to be partner-provided... Dec 2009 Dec 2009 Core Observatory LRD Jul 2013 Jul 2013... Core Observatory GSFC GSFC None Core Observatory: GMI GSFC GSFC None Core Observatory: DPR GSFC GSFC JAXA Launch vehicle and GSFC services: Core Observatory... launch vehicle for the Core Observatory will be provided by a foreign... change, ecosystem function and services, carbon cycling and sequestration, resource management... LDCM project will develop alternative observatory integration and test scenarios to.... Project Preliminary Parameters The ICESat-2 observatory employs a dedicated spacecraft with a multi.... Project Preliminary Parameters The SMAP observatory employs a dedicated spacecraft and will... the accelerated development of an Orbiting Carbon Observatory reflight mission (OCO-2) with the... development section of this document. Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 OCO-2 is a replacement for the... address the related science questions. Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 Instrument OCO-3 is an instrument..., CloudSat, and CALIPSO Complete the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Systems Integration Review. OCO... 16 17 18 19 20 Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment..., National Center for Atmospheric Research. Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 JPL JPL N/A GRACE Earth Science... form the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. This observatory will be launched into a polar... instrument integration with the SAC-D Observatory (Phase D). Recommendation to proceed to... Science Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) FY 2012 Budget Request... Science Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Project Purpose Data received.... The total weight of the observatory is about 530 kilograms. The... Science Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Schedule Commitments Based on... Science Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Project Risk Management Title... variability and change; atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water...



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... and most ambitious ground---based observatory ever created with full service... a construction project to a fully fledged observatory. The telescope has already provided... of the partially constructed ALMA observatory in 2011 (image credit: NRAO... (of ESO --- the European Southern Observatory in the Atacama desert of... been renamed to “Chandra X---ray Observatory” in honor of the late... Explorer), CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory), ERBS, CRRES, GFO---1; and builder... X---Ray Telescope (part of ASTRO---1 observatory, Shuttle) Ball (or BATC) Commercial... St---Hubert, Canada) Central Aerological Observatory (Moscow) Convection and Precipitation Electrification... . . . . . . Cold Regions Hydrology High---resolution Observatory (in 2007 a proposed ESA candidate...) Double Sideband Deep Space Climate Observatory (an approved NASA mission, previously... telescope of ESO (European Southern Observatory) in Chile. E---ELT features a 42... Radiation and Climate Experiment), OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), AQUARIUS, HYDROS, and OSTM (Ocean... in Brussels. ESO . . . . . . . . . . . European Southern Observatory. ESO is an intergovernmental, European... desert in Chile: 1) La Silla Observatory, located about 600 km north... was renamed to Herschel Space Observatory in 2002. FID . . . . . . . . . . . Flame Ionization... Orbit Lowering Device GOMAS . . . . . . . Geostationary Observatory for Microwave Atmospheric Sounding (a proposed... Hawaii, Manoa HSO . . . . . . . . . . . Herschel Space Observatory [an ESA astrophysics mission with... Telescope (part of Shuttle ASTRO observatory) Horizontal transmit --- Vertical receive polarization... definition of OSI) Infrared Space Observatory [ESA space science mission (4 instruments... research center) KAO . . . . . . . . . . Kuiper Airborne Observatory (C---141 aircraft of NASA/ARC... was named KAO (Korea Astronomy Observatory). KASI is the national astronomy..., Kazakhstan. KEEO . . . . . . . . . Kamal Ewida Earth Observatory, Egypt (an early warning facility... Facility, NASA S/C, J.9 Lamont---Doherty Earth Observatory (Columbia University, New York, NY...) LIGO . . . . . . . . . . Laser Interferometric Gravitational---wave Observatory LIMEX . . . . . . . . Labrador Ice Margin Experiment... within LWS: SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory), Geospace Storm Probes, Space Environment... and a moored site) Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (campaign) Monodisperse Latex... (Shuttle experiment) Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (Matera, Italy) Microwave Landing System... InfraRed Exploration (of the W. M. Keck Observatory, located near the summit of... storage density. NAO . . . . . . . . . . National Astronomy Observatory, Tokyo, Japan (also NAOJ) NAPP... NCAR/HAO . . . . NCAR / High Altitude Observatory NCASST . . . . . . . National Center for Advanced... Telescope [NASA satellite (an infrared observatory positioned at L2) with a planned... . . . . . . . . . National Optical Astronomy Observatory (the US national observatory for nighttime optical/infrared... of carbon nanotubes deposited on a chip---like substrate. National Radio Astronomy Observatory... (ESA Program) (ClO2) Chlorine dioxide Orbiting Carbon Observatory Ocean Climate Observing Study (campaign... telescope of ESO (European Southern Observatory). OWL is a next---generation optical...). Planetary Boundary Layer Plate Boundary Observatory (a distributed network of GPS stations... of operational polar orbiting satellites), G.13 POGO . . . . . . . . . Polar---Orbiting Geophysical Observatory POL . . . . . . . . . . . Prowdman... 1992) SAFOD . . . . . . . . San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (within the framework.... SALRO . . . . . . . . Saudi Arabian Laser Ranging Observatory, located some 45 km northwest... skins. 6251) SAO . . . . . . . . . . . Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (Cambridge, MA, USA) SAPOS . . . . . . . . . Satellite... optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico. The project... (NASA/JPL, a spaceborne cryogenic infrared observatory dedicated to astronomy, a launch took... its headquarters at Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Manchester, UK, was established... Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (P.195). A cooperative NASA and DLR astronomy observatory. A Boeing... applications. SOHO . . . . . . . . . Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (see K.27) SOI . . . . . . . . . . . . Silicon---On... (campaign) STEREO . . . . . . . Solar---Terrestrial Relations Observatory, K.30 STEX . . . . . . . . . . Sensor Technology Experiment... . . . . . . . . . . . A NASA astronomy mission (a multi---wavelength observatory) to study GRBs (Gamma---Ray...---1, ROCSat---1, Aqua, Terra, Chandra X---Ray Observatory, etc.). Note: Los Angeles based... coverage. USNO . . . . . . . . . United States Naval Observatory (Washington DC, established in 1830..., a 4 m aperture telescope, at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, built by a consortium... by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) near Socorro, New Mexico... Telescope [of ESO (European Southern Observatory) in Chile, consisting of four... later than 2014. VLBI Space Observatory Program (of ISAS, Japan). VSOP...



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.... On February 25, 2009, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) satellite, also launched from... using data from the Keck Observatory reported the first definitive detection... will continue to provide a polar-orbiting platform to support (1) environmental monitoring.... On February 24, 2009, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) satellite mission was lost... instruments. Spacewalking astronauts brought the orbiting observatory to a new apex of scientific... mission of the Herschel Space Observatory, a collaborative project between NASA and... molecules. Specifically, the Herschel Space Observatory’s principal objectives are to help... grids. NOAA’s GOES and Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system... rocket. This new NOAA polar-orbiting operational environmental satellite circles the... (EUMETSAT) to ensure seamless polar-orbiting satellite coverage. Under an agreement... satellites, Metop-A, which 2 0 0 9 NOAA’s polar-orbiting satellites—NOAA-18 and NOAA... on the ground. NOAA’s polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites, along with... solar drawings from the Wendelstein Observatory in Austria for the period... launched on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the calibration rocket... X-ray Observatory, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, and the Spitzer Infrared Observatory... those observed from space by orbiting observatories. This work improved the... multi-billion-dollar Chandra X-ray Observatory, operated in orbit for NASA..., Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO). This mission is designed... missions at x-ray (International X-ray Observatory), millimeter (CMB Polarimeter Satellite), and... instruments intended for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). With... goal for the International X-ray Observatory satellite mission of 2 eV at... agencies, and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) component of the National... Oceanography and the Plate Boundary Observatory. In addition, the USGS worked..., and the USGS’s Cascade Volcano Observatory developed a prototype rapid-deployment hazard... to send data to the observatory, and can autonomously request the... included the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the National Astronomy and... National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The... executive agency for the Gemini Observatory—an international A c t i v i t i e s The National Science.... The University of Arizona’s Steward Observatory Mirror Lab is fabricating the... Big Bear Solar Observatory and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California and the Mees Solar Observatory in Hawaii... sensors on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environment Satellite System (NPOESS... construction of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Following the initial discovery of.... The South Pole IceCube Neutrino Observatory deployed 19 new strings of... available for science observations. The observatory expects the completion of all... 2004 met at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. The four working... activities of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), which, the Harvard-Smithsonian.... A c t i v i t i e s together with the Harvard College Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, forms 2 0 0 9 The... dark energy. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls... in A c t i v i t i e s As the Chandra X-ray Observatory entered its second decade of... of discovery with this remarkable observatory. FY 09 marked the third.... 141 142 The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Submillimeter Array (SMA) continued to... to offer its popular monthly Observatory Night lectures and telescope observing... of Astronomy, NASM opened a public observatory that provides visitors with the... loan from the Harvard College Observatory. Programming commemorating the Centennial of...-N PRIME Part of the Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) March 7, 2009... and Refractivity Observatory Common Land Units cosmic microwave background carbon matrix composite... Atmospheric Administration National Optical Astronomy Observatory National Oceanographic Data Center National... for Aeronautical Testing National Polar-orbiting Operational Environment Satellite System NPOESS... Research Announcement National Radio Astronomy Observatory Natural Resources Conservation Service National... National Science Foundation National Solar Observatory NSOF NSPO NSRL NSRS NSTC... Space In-Situ Sensor-web Orbiting Carbon Observatory Organization for Economic Cooperation and... PNT POES PPPL Plate Boundary Observatory plasma-jet-driven magnetic-inertial... Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Princeton Plasma... Aerosol Measurement Experiment Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory synthetic aperture radar Solar Alpha... through Advanced Computing Solar Dynamics Observatory Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft... Satellite Operations Control Center Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Space Exploration...



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... in the constellation of polar-orbiting systems. [3.4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 5.3, 6.3]  The European Copernicus programme... when the first artificial Earth-orbiting satellites had been launched by... of data from operational polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite systems is... second-generation European polar- 17 orbiting meteorological satellites (Metop and Metop... Chinese Feng-Yun (FY)-3 polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. Here CGMS, with..., some from the operational polar-orbiting and geostationary meteorological satellites and... comprise, in due course, an orbiting pair of C-band Synthetic Aperture... (Meteosat Third Generation) and polar-orbiting (MetopSG) platforms. A dedicated Sentinel-5 precursor... on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, and... Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 missions, with continuation to... of NOAA and EUMETSAT polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. Orbital drift is... by the Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory of the Russian Federal Service... DWD at its Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory. GRUAN measurements are processed centrally...-band IR images from polar-orbiting satellites for (a) the southern polar..., utilizing both geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite data to resolve a three... IR from nadir-viewing polar-orbiting satellites has provided data on..., 1–8 January 2013 Source: NASA Earth Observatory, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov 101... of IR radiometers on polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites, and more...-frequency MW radiometers on polar-orbiting satellites, and from the measurements.... These include data from:  Polar-orbiting global OCR satellite missions, particularly... community. 5.4.5 Carbon dioxide partial pressure The oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon is a key element of the planetary carbon budget. Over...-term interior ocean carbon storage is via a global ocean carbon inventory network..., from both geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. Noteworthy is a record of... of atmospheric carbon. Currently, biomass is a net sink of carbon with a net... to estimate carbon from biomass, as the proportion of carbon by weight... carbon Carbon in soils occurs in organic and inorganic forms. The inorganic carbon... constitutes little to the carbon cycle. Soil organic carbon is derived from... of the carbon cycle. About 10% of the atmospheric carbon cycles through soils each year. Soil organic carbon represents the largest terrestrial carbon pool, amounting to... world’s soil organic carbon stock. This soil organic carbon is vulnerable to... and sink of carbon. Comprehensive measurements of soil organic carbon involve identifying... of soil carbon) or an increase in the rate of carbon cycling. Better measurement of the components of carbon output... in the constellation of polar-orbiting systems.  The European Copernicus programme... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) proposed mission is clearly... routinely from operational meteorological polar-orbiting satellite systems. The Chinese (FY.../NASA mission Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), which, in June 2015..., European and United States polar-orbiting operational meteorological satellites, for which... a continuous coverage-mix of polar orbiting IR and geostationary IR measurements... continued SST observation from polar-orbiting IR and geostationary IR missions... global carbon scientists. Potential applications include constraints on the global carbon budget... Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory 266 (EMSO) and other efforts... AMERIFLUX, ICOS, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and some other... terrestrial carbon fluxes Action: Develop globally gridded estimates of terrestrial carbon flux...: Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps...: Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon Management... Organization (WHO), 2015: Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data: Mortality from Ambient.../Space_for_our_climate/ES A_s_Climate_Change_Initiative_CCI CCL4 carbon tetrachloride CDIAC Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center...) Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (proposed NASA mission) Climate and... Spatiales https://cnes.fr/ carbon monoxide carbon dioxide Community Collaborative Rain, Hail... Observing Strategy Deep Space Climate Observatory http://www.nesdis.noaa.gov... Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory http://www.emso-eu.org... routine weather report European polar-orbiting meteorological satellite series (EUMETSAT) Microwave... MicroWave Humidity Sounder (on polar-orbiting FY Chinese satellites) http://database....noaa.gov/ NEON National Ecological Observatory Network http://www.neoninc.org... on Oceansat-1 and -2 (India) OCO Orbiting Carbon Observatory (NASA) http://oco.jpl.nasa... Suomi NPP Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NASA) http://www.nasa...



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OCO D-55208 Orbiting Carbon Observatory–2 (OCO-2) Data Product User’s Guide, ... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... provides a brief overview of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission and then discusses... primary product delivered by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 consists of spatially resolved estimates... the atmospheric carbon science community, quantifies the average concentration of carbon dioxide... column integrated number densities of carbon dioxide and molecular oxygen along...-averaged oxygen concentration (0.20935). These carbon dioxide and oxygen number densities... reflected sunlight, collected by the Observatory’s instrument at wavelengths (colors) within... molecular oxygen A band and two carbon dioxide bands centered at wavelengths... 1.61 and 2.06 microns. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission will produce four primary... molecular oxygen A band and the carbon dioxide bands at wavelengths near... dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (also called XCO2) and... of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in cloud-free scenes... atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, generated monthly by members of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 science...-orbit checkout. An exploratory atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration product is expected... almost 40 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere... are superimposed on active natural carbon cycle that emits more than... measurements are essential to any carbon management strategy. One way to... yield new insights into the carbon cycle, but improvements in sensitivity... Orbiting Carbon Observatory–2 (OCO-2) is NASA’s first dedicated CO2 monitoring satellite. OCO-2 is a “carbon copy” of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which was lost... calibration activities were initiated. The Observatory completed its in-orbit check... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... instrument aperture. (Figure 2-2a). The Observatory collects nadir observations in the.... For these observations, as the Observatory ascends into daylight over the... by 2.25 km. As the Observatory proceeds northward along its orbit... azimuth rotation continues as the Observatory approaches the northern terminator, where... Transform Spectrometers in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) [Washenfelder... information about satellite observations of carbon dioxide. The site is allows... CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural... carbon dioxide dry air mole fractions from the NOAA ESRL carbon cycle..., R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, S. Schroll (2004), The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission, Advances in Space... P. L. DeCola (2008), NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction... fluorescence remote sensing from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2, Remote Sensing of Environment, 147..., P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch (2014b), The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2): spectrometer performance evaluation using... and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on..., A. Wiltshire, and S. Zaehle, (2014), Global carbon budget 2013, Earth Syst. Sci..., D. Crisp, A. Eldering, and M. Gunson, (2015), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) aerosol and cloud screening... global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of.... (2010), Calibration of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network using aircraft... et al. (2011a), The Total Carbon Column Observing Network, Phil. Trans... product Algorithm theoretical basis document Carbon dioxide Colorado State University Data... Aeronautics and Space Administration Oxygen Orbiting Carbon Observatory Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 South Atlantic Anomaly Strong CO2... ratio International atomic time Total Carbon Column Observing Network Coordinated universal... air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide 61



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... SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER ..…..……… ES-46 Orbiting Carbon Observatory [Development] ES-48 Venture Class... with changes in atmospheric composition; Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems: quantifying, understanding... biogeochemical cycles, including the global carbon cycle, land cover, and biodiversity... carbon stock, at 61 billion tons, almost equals all of the carbon.... Carbon Cycle Science funds research on the distribution and cycling of carbon... instrument integration onto the LDCM observatory. Development and test of one... delivery and integration onto the Observatory. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS... system integration to the Core Observatory was completed. SMAP successfully passed... Observatory and complete the environmental testing. NASA will prepare the core observatory... includes a Core Observatory spacecraft and a GMI. The Core Observatory will leverage passive... will be robust. The Core Observatory includes two scientific instruments which... flown on TRMM. The Core Observatory with both the GMI and... access services. The NASA Core Observatory will fly in a 65 degree... system integration to the Core Observatory was completed. KEY ACHIEVEMENTS PLANNED... environmental testing for the core observatory and will be prepare it... elimination of the Low-Inclination Observatory GMI-2 instrument, associated TDRSS communications... Project/Element Provider Description Core Observatory Provider: GSFC Provides platform for... PB R Same t Cost Share: Core Observatory GM I Provider: GSFC Project M anagement... Center: GSFC Cost Share: Core Observatory DPR Provider: JAXA Project M anagement... Same Provides control of Core Observatory operations, science data processing, and... change, ecosystem function and services, carbon cycling and sequestration, resource management... instrument integration onto the LDCM observatory. Development and test of one... delivery and integration onto the observatory. The project has completed development... test phase for the LDCM observatory in FY 2012 and deliver... schedule due M anagement developed alternate observatory integration and test scenarios to.... PROJECT PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS The ICESat-2 observatory employs a dedicated spacecraft with a multi... TBD New Provides control of Observatory operations, science data processing, and... applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environmental.... PROJECT PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS The SMAP observatory employs a dedicated spacecraft and will... developing a strategy to preserve the observatory design and implementation schedule, while... is managed. SUOMI NATIONAL POLAR ORBITING PARTNERSHIP (SUOMI NPP) Suomi NPP... composition climate variability and change carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry water... interdisciplinary studies of atmospheric composition: carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate...-1 allows paired scene comparisons of: carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; and... SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY 2 (OCO-2) Formulation Development Operations FY... SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY 2 (OCO-2) Formulation Development Operations PROJECT... space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), an important greenhouse... regulate atmospheric carbon dioxide and its role in the carbon cycle. This... improving predictions of future atmospheric carbon dioxide increases and its impact... the OCO-2 project will complete observatory integration and testing, and deliver... SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY 2 (OCO-2) Formulation Development Operations SCHEDULE... SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY 2 (OCO-2) Formulation Development Operations Development... SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY 2 (OCO-2) Formulation Development Operations Project...-resolution R Same t grating spectrometer measuring carbon dioxide and diatomic oxygen near... SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY 2 (OCO-2) Formulation Development Operations Project... SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY 2 (OCO-2) Formulation Development Operations INDEPENDENT... determine readiness to proceed to Observatory-level integration and test. ORR..., 2007) to initiate a series of Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment... Earth Venture-1 selections: • • • • • Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS... California, Guam, Hawaii, and Australia; Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment... provide experimental insights into Arctic carbon cycling, especially the release of... and/or systems, including atmospheric carbon dioxide distribution, with international science... de Aplicaciones Científicas (SAC-D) observatory, launched successfully June 10, 2011... variability and change; atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water... an accurate measurement technique for carbon dioxide, whereby several candidate instruments...



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OCO D-65488 OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) - 2 Level 2 Full Physics Retrieval Algorithm ... November 10, 2010 Version 1.0 Rev 4 ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO) -2 LEVEL 2 FULL PHYSICS ALGORITHM... Covariance Matrix ................................................... 41 3.3.2.1 Profile of Carbon Dioxide Concentration ................................................................... 41 3.3.2.2 Surface Pressure... ................................................... 46 3.4.2.1.1 Composite Optical Properties .................................................................................. 46 3.4.2.1.2 Carbon Dioxide & Water Vapor .............................................................................. 47 3.4.2.1.3 Temperature... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator...]. ............................................................................. 21 Figure 3-6. Laboratory Spectroscopy for carbon dioxide in the near-IR... 1.0 Rev 4 2. Experiment Overview 2.1 Objectives The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is the first National... space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision... mission from reaching orbit, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission was formulated to... than 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere... to our understanding of the carbon cycle over the ocean and... [Crisp et al., 2007]. The Observatory will fly in a loose formation... Transform Spectrometers in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) [Washenfelder... Version 1.0 Rev 4 Instrument Characteristics The Observatory carries and points a single instrument... except downlink orbits, as the Observatory passes over the northern terminator... this data collection rate, the Observatory collects ~200 soundings per degree... are roughly parallel to the Observatory y-axis) remains oriented perpendicular to... polarization errors (Figure 2-4 (a)). As the Observatory ascends over the southern terminator... by 2.25 km. As the Observatory proceeds northward along its orbit... azimuth rotation continues as the Observatory approaches the northern terminator, where... Spectrometers in the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON). The software... (FTS) at Kitt Peak National Observatory, a Bruker 125 FTS at JPL... 1.0 Rev 4 Figure 3-6. Laboratory Spectroscopy for carbon dioxide in the near-IR... sun, surface target, and the observatory (Figure 3-10). Observing Geometry: The... types of aerosol, and not carbon dioxide, which represents slightly less..., with the exception of the carbon dioxide profile block. That is... parameter in turn. 3.3.2.1 Profile of Carbon Dioxide Concentration The a priori profile... in the state vector are carbon dioxide concentration (on levels), water... vector elements. 3.4.2.1.2 Carbon Dioxide & Water Vapor The concentration of carbon dioxide (or... a level j, and could represent either carbon dioxide or water vapor. The...-infrared CO2 measurements: Testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept... CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural..., B. Sen, C. Miller and D. Crisp (2008), Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Inverse method and prospective error..., R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, S. Schroll (2004), “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission” Advances in Space... P. L. DeCola (2007), "NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction.... Crisp, D. (2008), “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: NASA’s First Dedicated Carbon Dioxide Mission,” Proc. SPIE... (2004a), Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon Dioxide: 16 12 16 O C O Line... (2004b), Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon Dioxide. II. 16O13C16O and 16O13C18O... of atmospheric CO2 and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) experiment, Comptes Rendus Physique...), Retrieval of XCO2 from simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory measurements using the fast linearized... and 30013 ← 00001 bands of carbon dioxide perturbed by air, J. Mol..., S. A. Vay, D. M. Matross and B. C. Daube (2006), Carbon dioxide column abundances at the..., (2010), “Calibration of the total carbon column observing network using aircraft... Collision Induced Absorption CO Carbon Monoxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide CPU Central Processing... OBC On-Board Calibrator OCO Orbiting Carbon Observatory ppm parts per million RT...-to-Noise Ratio TCCON Total Carbon Column Observing Network TES Tropospheric...