Спутник связи. Persian Gulf. [Редактировать]

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-02-03. Иранское космическое агентство обнародовало очередной план работ.
Согласно обнародованным данным в ближайшее время страна:
1. Запустит КА Sharif Sat, который имеет массу менее 50 кг и будет способным снимать поверхность Земли с орбит высотой от 350 до 500 км.
2. AUT Sat, который будет иметь массу около 100 кг и иметь массу около 100 кг. САС аппарата составит 10 лет.
Также иранское космическое агентство обнародовало информацию КА Persian Gulf. Согласно сообщению этот спутник будет основан на применении технологии беспроводной связи в целях создания защищенных каналов связи.
Помимо этого, агентство отрапортовало о создании КА Tadbir (улучшенной версии КА Navid). Тэги: Космическое агентство ИранаSharif SatAUT SATPersian Gulf

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..., 2007. The A to Z of the Persian Gulf War 1990–1991 by Clayton... to the states on the Persian Gulf. This vast area includes a number... Soviet Union German Air Force Gulf Cooperation Council General Directorate for... Security Service (Palestinian National Authority) Gulf War Air Power Survey Hizb... stop Iranian forces from attacking gulf shipping. 1988 6 April: Abu Jihad..., Palestine, Arabia, Mesopotamia, and the Persian Gulf. The French also had interests..., the Middle East, and the Persian Gulf. Sometimes Abu Nidal operated in... sent Sykes to Egypt, the Persian Gulf, Mesopotamia, and India in order... August 1971. As in other Persian Gulf States, the Bahraini ruling family... rise of tensions in the Persian Gulf, the force has nearly tripled... that Arab nations in the Persian Gulf would proclaim jihad and join... an expeditionary force to the Persian Gulf to secure their interests in... expeditionary force sent to the gulf was comprised of troops from... from seizing control of the Persian Gulf. See also LANDON, TIM. BRITISH... other Persian Gulf States, although these relations were disrupted by the Gulf War... to alarm Damascus about 102 • GULF WAR a prospective outbreak of armed... INTELLIGENCE IN THE MIDDLE EAST. GULF WAR (2003). See OPERATION IRAQI...’ite) and ethnic (Arab versus Persian) differences, border disputes, and political... replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. The Iran–Iraq War... that connects Iraq with the Persian Gulf. Five days later, Iraq invaded... support already provided by the Persian Gulf States to Iraq for the... oil-producing states in the Persian Gulf. The United States provided intelligence... reopened Iraq’s access to the Persian Gulf. Defense intelligence officer Lieutenant Colonel... other militant groups in the Persian Gulf region, Africa, and Central Asia... of the war in the Persian Gulf, with an eventual Iranian victory... weapons infrastructure. Following the 1991 Gulf War, however, inspectors uncovered a startling.... KUWAITI INTERNAL SECURITY. Before the Gulf War in 1991, Kuwait maintained... of a broad effort among the Persian Gulf States to improve cooperation in... reequip the newly pro-Western gulf state. Landon demonstrated his ability... security and stability of the Persian Gulf.” This NSD was the first...) Report on Intelligence Related to Gulf War Illnesses, dated 2 August 1996... other U.S. military operations in the Persian Gulf, including Operation Earnest Will, the... prevent Iranian forces from attacking gulf shipping; and Operation Praying Mantis... assessing a significant danger in the Persian Gulf. The first American convoy operation... all neutral shipping in the Persian Gulf. This decision divorced the U.S. policy... stop Iranian forces from attacking gulf shipping. Operation Earnest Will was... Libyan territorial claims to the Gulf of Sidra, a body of OPERATION... submarines, located either in the Persian Gulf or the eastern Mediterranean within... B. Roberts while sailing in the Persian Gulf as part of the Operation... inoperable oil platforms in the Persian Gulf, which have since been repaired... potential raid sites in the Persian Gulf. For the execution of the... other Muslim countries, including the Gulf States, Turkey, the Philippines, and... its military forces from the Persian Gulf by 1971, Qatari leaders were... through the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which comprises the Persian Gulf States of... intended impact during the first Gulf War. In 1998, Operation Desert... and commercial centers in the Persian Gulf. The UAE has a free-market..., Wilber was an expert in Persian architecture. As one of the... 2.5. U.S. Intelligence in the Middle East 3. Gulf States’ Intelligence 334 3.1. General 3.2. Bahraini...): 124–43. 3. Gulf States’ Intelligence 3.1. General Cordesman, Anthony H. The Gulf and the... Pictures Enable Saddam to Target Gulf States.” Electronic Telegraph, 10 October... College, 1993. Armstrong, Douglas G. “The Gulf War’s Patched-Together Air Intelligence... Ball, Desmond J. Intelligence in the Gulf War. Canberra: Australian National University... Press, 1992. Centner, Christopher M. “Intelligence, Gulf War Illnesses and Public Perceptions... Officials Criticize Intelligence Handling in Gulf War.” Aviation Week & Space Technology... 1991, 83. Goodman, A. Sue, comp. Persian Gulf War, 1990–1991: Desert Shield..., Communications and Intelligence in the Gulf War. Working Paper no. 238..., Daniel M. “A Beltway Warrior Looks at Gulf War Intelligence.” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings..., no. 5:1–3. Johnson, Richard D. PSYOP, the Gulf Paper War: Psychological Warfare Operations..., Douglas E. “Civil Affairs in the Gulf War: Administration of an Occupied... Positioning System in the Second Gulf War.” Intelligence and National Security.... “Spacecraft Played Vital Role in Gulf War Victory.” Aviation Week & Space... the US Military during the Persian Gulf War. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office... Positioning System in the Second Gulf War. Intelligence and Nationals Security... Eddington, Patrick G. Gassed in the Gulf: The Inside Story of the...– CIA Cover-Up of the Gulf War Syndrome. Washington, D.C.: Insignia, 1997...



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... J. Newman, Safavid Iran. Rebirth of a Persian Empire, London-New York, 2006... Hormuz. Portuguese Interactions in the Persian Gulf Region in the early Modern... Maritime Silk Road: from the Persian Gulf to the East China Sea..., en général, Willem Floor, The Persian Gulf – a Political and Economic History of... Lisbonne, 1995; Svat Soucek, The Persian Gulf. Its Past and Present, Costa... região, ver Willem Floor, The Persian Gulf: A Political and Economic History of... vezes inesperada, reviravolta. W. Floor, The Persian… cit., pp. 106-114, proporciona... A expressão é de Arnold T. Wilson, The Persian Gulf: an historical sketch from the... of Hormuz for Luso-Ottoman Gulf-centred policies in the 16th... Hormuz: Portuguese Interactions in the Persian Gulf Region in the Early Modern... J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, Londres-Nova Iorque, 2006... and the Turks in the Persian Gulf», in D. Couto & R. M. Loureiro (eds.), Revisiting...ínio português, ver W. Floor, The Persian… cit., pp. 170-182; e Salih... XVIII, 1977, p. 33; e A. T. Wilson, The Persian… cit., p. 133. 324 Graça Almeida.... 62 Abdul Aziz M. Awad, «The Gulf in the Seventeenth Century», in... of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, V, 1967, p. 75. 328...ército persa, ver W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 199; A. J. Newman, Safavid… cit..., «Anglo-Portuguese Rivalry in the Persian Gulf: 1615-1635», in Edgar Prestage... Michael, 1935, p. 56; W. Floor, The Persian… cit., pp. 199-203, 215...… cit., p. 27. 77 A. A. M. Awad, «The Gulf…» cit., p. 124; L. Gil Fernández...… cit., fol. 32. W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 204. 81 DRI-I-Doc.... 32-33. 84 W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 209; R. M. Loureiro, «A Perda…» cit.... 79-80. 85 W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 215. Um estreito globalizado.... 162. Ver também W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 210. 91 L. Gil Fern..., Shah… cit., p. 114; A. T. Wilson, The Persian… cit., pp. 131-132. Ver...-462. Ver também W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 209; R. M. Loureiro, «A Perda…» cit... o artigo de Willem Floor, «Dutch-Persian Relations», in Encyclopaedia Iranica. [Consult... ver Rui Manuel Loureiro, «The Persian Ventures of Frei António... & Jorge Flores (ed.), Portugal, the Persian Gulf and Safavid Persia (no prelo...., pp. 57-58; W. Floor, The Persian… cit., pp. 221-224; L. Lockhart... 13… cit., p. 203. W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 22. 116 F. P. M. Luz, O Conselho...-Portuguese…» cit., p. 58; W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 210; F. P. M. Luz, O Conselho… cit... ver o artigo de W. Floor, «Dutch-Persian»… cit. Ver também «Grant of...., pp. 53-55; W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 221; R. M. Loureiro, «A Perda…» cit... 154 W. Floor, The Persian… cit., p. 201. W. Floor, The Persian… cit., pp. 212... Gulf…» cit., p. 126; C. R. Boxer, «Anglo-Portuguese…» cit., p. 91; e também W. Floor, The Persian... R. Matthee, «Between…», cit.; W. Floor, The Persian…, cit., pp. 548-550; e P. Della... nonmonopoly goods from Japanese, Muslim (Persian, Indian and Malay), Chinese, Mon.... Based on various Portuguese and Persian sources this article examines the...” and the problems of the Persian Gulf as by tradition the Persians... on the shores of the Persian Gulf. Nevertheless, relations were hardly cordial.... In the end the Luso-Persian dispute resulted in a lasting diplomatic... India, Diplomacy, Embassies, Indian sultanates, Persian Gulf. Graça Almeida Borges Um Estreito... process. By projecting in the Persian Gulf the conflicts which resumos / Abstracts... Early Modern Period. Keywords: Hormuz; Persian Gulf; Eurasian International Relations; Rivalry and...



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... 16 Looking west 2: Beyond the Gulf P.R. Kumaraswamy 179 17 Looking west... on ‘India’s Relations with the Gulf’ to the Maritime Security Conference... Gas Authority of India Limited Gulf Cooperation Council Global Democracy Initiative... Council Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Award Persian Gulf Residency Pacific Islands Forum people... USSR and to protect the Gulf. Additionally, following Indian state visits... major military presences in the Persian Gulf and East Asia. Critically, the... and the Gulf’, in India’s Grand Strategy in the Gulf, Washington: The... Hope’; c) ‘the island countries’; d) ‘the Persian Gulf’; and e) ‘the principle ISLs [International... Lanes of Communication between the Persian Gulf and Straits of Malacca’. Elsewhere... are being negotiated with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), the Republic... addition, overwhelming dependence on the Gulf region has its own political... interdependence between India and the Gulf contributes to stability to energy... securing reliable supplies from the Gulf. More recently it included multiple... mutual convergence spans from the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean, Malacca Straits and... Strait of Malacca. The Arabian/Persian Gulf lies not far from India... Looking west 1: Iran and the Gulf Mukund Narvenkar Introduction The first... the Arabian/Persian (depending on whose side one was on) ‘Gulf’.1 This... supply of oil from the Persian Gulf region. Accordingly, safe and free... and the Gulf The Gulf India and the relations with the Gulf are... well as from the Gulf. They dominated Gulf maritime trade before the... policy in the Gulf was carried out through the Persian Gulf Residency (PGR... and political concerns in the Gulf: ‘beyond the immediate region, India has vital interests in the Gulf […] the Gulf forms parts of our... substantive engagement with the Arab Gulf states […] the significant stakes...’s interests and presence in the Gulf revolve around various issues, namely... and manpower shortages in the Gulf precipitated phenomenal labour migration to... largest expatriate community in the Gulf countries, which counts more than... appearance of Indians in the Gulf, where professionals and technically quali... regions, Indian expatriates in the Gulf have a higher propensity to remit... maintains cordial relations with the Gulf countries and fosters general stability.... Availability of oil in the Persian Gulf region has been the main... gas was imported from the Persian Gulf. In this energy setting, India... maintain strategic relations with the Gulf, in part to combat potential... and long-running presence of Persian as a widely used language at... Looking west 1: Iran and the Gulf broadening economic relations, with India... Chinese Navy, heightened by China’s Gulf of Aden operations using Gwadar... relationships with India and the Gulf. Economic benefits, technological expertise... 1: Iran and the Gulf 2 A. Pasha, ‘Pax Americana in the Gulf Region. Implications....), India’s Energy Security and the Gulf, Delhi: Academic Excellence, 2006. 3 H. Pant... 2010. 4 S. Pradhan, ‘Indo-Gulf Relations: Mapping Strategic Dimensions’, Gulf Asia Bulletin, No... and Political Presence in the Gulf: A Gulf Perspective’, in A. Sagar and G. Kemp...), India’s Growing Role in the Gulf, Washington: The Nixon Center, 2009. 8 Pranab Mukherjee, cited in M. Janardhan, ‘Gulf Eyes Oil-for-Food Pacts... 2008. 9 S. Pradhan, ‘India and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC): An Economic.... 1, 2010. 10 S. Pradhan, ‘India and Gulf Cooperation Council: Time to Look....), India’s Energy Security and the Gulf, Delhi: Academic Excellence, 2006; S. Pradhan...: Academic Foundation, 2008. 12 A. Rehman, ‘Gulf, A Crucial Factor in India’s Energy....), India’s Energy Security and the Gulf, Delhi: Academic Excellence, 2006. 13.... 17 ‘India Deploys Warships in Gulf Region’, Xinhua, 12 September 2004... 16 Looking west 2: Beyond the Gulf P.R. Kumaraswamy Introduction The Middle East....3d Looking west 2: Beyond the Gulf foreign policy. Normalization of relations... with Israel, while the powerful Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) abandoned secondary... growing rapidly’.12 This growing gulf between consumption and domestic production... for colonial withdrawal,5 and the gulf caused between Indian settlers and... has already signed with several Gulf countries) to facilitate ‘legal’ and... that transports oil from the Persian Gulf to China. The capability to... Understanding and agreements with several Gulf countries to safeguard the interests... major military presences in the Persian Gulf and East Asia. Likewise, Pakistan... Publication, 2003. Ahmed, Z. and Bhatnagar, S. ‘Gulf States and the Conflict....). India’s Energy Security and the Gulf, Delhi: Academic Excellence, 2006. Malik...), India’s Growing Role in the Gulf, Washington: Nixon Center, 2009. ——‘India..., No. 1, 2004. Pradhan, P. ‘India and Gulf Cooperation Council: Time to Look... and Political Presence in the Gulf: A Gulf Perspective’, in A. Sagar and G. Kemp... the Gulf, Washington: The Nixon Center, 2009. ——‘India and the Gulf Cooperation... and the Gulf’, in India’s Grand Strategy in the Gulf, Washington: The....org. Singh, K.R. (ed.), Post-War Gulf Implications for India, New Delhi...



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.../Membranes/Reverse osmosis desalination/Caribbean Gulf/Persian Gulf 20. Boehmer, H., and F.J. Glaze (GEA.../ Bahrain/United Arab Emirates/ISW, Persian Gulf /Gulf Coop. Counc 38. Hammer, M.J. Water.... Index terms: Persian Gulf War, 1991--Environmental Aspects; Oil spills-Persian Gulf; Kuwait--Military...'s water supply with disaster. (Persian Gulf region) (The Gulf War) 34 Los Angeles... 13. Carlson, E. D. Gulf of Oman abyssal sands transported from Persian Gulf. Thesis. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University. 1982, 33 p. Index terms: Persian Gulf... the Persian Gulf. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1971. Geographic Area - South Shore Persian Gulf... in the Arab Gulf. Index terms: NITRATES -- ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION/PERSIAN GULF -WATER POLLU...: polyarom hydrocarbon sediment Persian Gulf/arom hydrocarbon sediment Persian Gulf/river sediment polyarom hydrocarbon..., Shuaiba/Persian Gulf 11. Aldhous, Peter. Oil-well climate catastrophe? {Persian Gulf war). Nature...: DESALINATION PLANTS-- ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS/PERSIAN GULF -- DESALINATION PLANTS/PERSIAN GULF -- THERMAL POWER PLANTS/THERMAL... in Atlantic, Mediterranean, Gulf of Mexico, and Persian Gulf Rept. for Jun 72... Atlantic Ocean/ Mediterranean Sea/Mexico Gulf/Persian Gulf 54. BRUNER, F.; G. CRESCENTINI; F. MANGANI; E. BRANCALEONI.../Persian Gulf/marine pollution/ petroleum industry (development) 56. Bryant, Margi The fragile Persian Gulf...: tar pollution Persian Gulf beach /Tar,petroleum (beach pollution by, of Persian Gulf, in... implications of war in the Persian Gulf. (Persian Gulf crisis)(includes text of letter.... DiBenedetto, William Gulf war could spark devastating oil spills. (Persian Gulf). Journal of... terms: petroleum pollution seawater Persian Gulf/alkylbenzene photooxidation product Persian Gulf /Water pollution (by... pollution in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Marine Pollution... pollution seawater Persian Gulf /Water pollution (by petroleum hydrocarbons, of Persian Gulf} /Waters, ocean (petroleum hydrocarbons in, of Persian Gulf} /Petroleum, oil spills (seawater pollution by hydrocarbons from, in Persian Gulf.../Spill/Persian Gulf/Chemical analysis 112. Fire out, oil flow halted into Persian Gulf.../Sea water/Coastal environment/ Pollution/Persian Gulf/Gulf of Oman/Arabian Sea/Heavy... sources thereof · 129. Gulf oil slick remains unchecked. (Persian Gulf). Japan Economic Newswire... to minimize Gulf oil spill. (Persian Gulf) (International Pages) (War in the Gulf). New... using chemicals to combat Gulf oil spill. (The Persian Gulf War). Washington Post... spill as result of Persian Gulf war) (The Persian Gulf War). Washington Post, Jan... to send oil fence to Gulf. (Persian Gulf). Japan Economic Newswire, Jail 30.../Oil spills/ Persian Gulf/Mathematical model 185. Leal, Donald R. The Gulf isn't dead... EFFECTS/OIL SPILLS-- FIELD TESTS/PERSIAN GULF -- CORALS/PERSIAN GULF -- REEFS /DISPERSIONS/ DISSOLVED 127... 13. 194. Long Gulf war could damage environment. (Persian Gulf War, 1991·). Japan... to find response to gulf oil slick. (Japan, Persian Gulf). Japan Economic Newswire... may have windfall from Gulf crisis. (ecologists, Persian Gulf). Reuters Newswire, August 10... Jensen's report on Persian Gulf oil spill) (The Gulf War). Los Angeles Times... Iraqi tankers hit by U.S. in Gulf. (Persian Gulf War, 1991·). Japan Economic Newswire...: OIL SPILLS-- COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS/PERSIAN GULF-OIL SPILLS/PERSIAN GULF-- WATER POLLUTION /GLOBAL ASPECTS... technologies face crucial test in Gulf. (Persian Gulf). Los Angeles Times, Jan 30...'s water supply with disaster. (Persian Gulf region) (The Gulf War). 147 Los Angeles... Persian Gulf) and various aspects of the treaty are discussed. Index terms: PERSIAN GULF...; Monastersky, Richard Gulf oil threatens ecology, maybe climate. (Persian Gulf oil spill) Science...: OIL SPILLS-- HAZARDS/PERSIAN GULF-- ENVIRONMENTAL 153 QUALITY/ PERSIAN GULF-- WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT /AQUATIC... water annually into the Persian Gulf and is the Gulf's major pollution source... Persian Gulf/seawater pollution nickel Persian Gulf/nickel speciation seawater sediment Persian Gulf 155 /Geological sediments,gulf... with oil spill. (Persian Gulf) (War in the Gulf). New York Times, Jan... bacteria Persian Gulf/seawater sediment oil degrading bacteria/pollution oil bacteria Persian Gulf /Geological sediments,marine/Waters, ocean (oil-degrading bacteria in, in Persian Gulf... profit from cleanup of Gulf. (oil spill in Persian Gulf; environmental services industry... produce a 'dead Gulf.' (Persian Gulf; Freddy Costello) (War in the Gulf) 160 New York... Persian Gulf Coast of Kuwait)/Tar, petroleum (pollution by, of Beaches of Persian Gulf... spill. (oil spill in Persian Gulf) (The Gulf War) Los Angeles Times, Jan... on oil cleanup mission to Gulf. (Persian Gulf) Japan Economic Newswire, Jan 27... bomb oil pumps to s_tem Gulf spill. (Persian Gulf). Japan Economic Newswire, Jan... ecology fund may lose to Gulf aid. (Persian Gulf region). Reuters Newswire, Sept...



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...%, other 1% Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily...: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia Geographic... escarpment Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan... petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world... Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam... oil-rich areas in the Gulf of Guinea ______________________________________________________________________ ERITREA Introduction... the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden...% of its external trade. The Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks have... Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens... note: includes Andaman Australian Bight, Gulf Persian Gulf, Red Sea, bodies km Sea... pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea Environment-international... from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Its fish are... East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea..., or median lines in the Persian Gulf territorial sea: 12 nm Climate...; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water...: Iranian(s) adjective: Iranian Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and..., Christian, and Baha'i 1% Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic... occupies two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Lesser... Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb... Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); it jointly administers... UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE (called... Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran)-over which Iran... Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait Geographic... Turkey Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Gundah Zhur 3,608... in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag... telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have... in 1991 because of the Persian Gulf war Pipelines: crude oil 4,350... badly needed structural reforms. The Persian Gulf crisis that began in August... suspend rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker remittances, and... Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia... plain Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: unnamed location 306...: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf @Kuwait:People Population: 1,913,285... the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE... China Sea, Flores Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Tonkin, Java Sea...: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia Geographic coordinates... gravel Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Qurayn Aba al...-note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits @Qatar... Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north... desert Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133... Geography-note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great... shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal @Saudi Arabia... elsewhere Elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m highest point: Doi... East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and... east Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal Yibir 1,527..., and other 4% Languages: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu Literacy: definition...; claims two islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran: Lesser Tunb... Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb...-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); claims island in the Persian Gulf jointly administered... Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran)-over which Iran...: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South... Israel. Worker remittances from the Persian Gulf states dropped after Iraq invaded.... In the wake of the Persian Gulf crisis, many Palestinians have returned... the Arab States of the Gulf see Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) _________________________________________________________________..., Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization _________________________________________________________________ Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) note-also... 7B Gulf of Bothnia 2.1 1 (a) B29 7T Gulf of Finland 2.2 1 (b) B28 7F Gulf of... A F1 6Z Gulf of Suez 5.2 35 F5 6W Gulf of Aqaba 5.3 36... Gulf of Aden 5.5 38 F3 6D Persian Gulf (Gulf of Iran) 5.6 41 F7 6P Gulf... Azov 3.4 31 B18 8Z Gulf of Lion (Gulf of Lions) -- -- B8 8X... 5D Anadyrskiy Zaliv (Anadyrskiy Gulf) 7.12 -- -- 5Y Gulf of Alaska 7.13 58... D3 5E Gulf of California 7.15 60 D2 3L Gulf of Panama... D18 3U Gulf of Tonkin 6.2 -- D19 3G Gulf of Thailand (Gulf of Siam... (i) F19 6T Joseph Bonaparte Gulf 6.14 -- F20 -Gulf of Carpentaria 6.15 -- E4... (g) E2 4B Teluk Bone (Gulf of Bone, Gulf of Boni) 6.19 48... Iran 32 00 N 53 00 E Persian Gulf Indian Ocean 27 00 N 51...



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... (ENSO) c. Moderating effects of the Gulf Stream system on climate F. Effects... thermocline saltwater bodies: bay estuary gulf lagoon ocean other: acid rain... Stage Florissant Cretaceous Period Formation Gulf Series Great Drought Hell Creek... language Parthian language Pashto language Persian language Prakrit languages Punjabi language... in the Persian, Byzantine, early Russian, and Islamic civilizations a. Ancient Persian education...-Babylonian empires and the Achaemenid Persian Empire (746— 250 Bc) I. The... the establishment of the Achaemenid Persian Empire i. Conjectured origins of the... toward subject peoples 3. The Achaemenid Persian Empire (529-330 Bc) under... Dionysus viii. The Greco-Persian Wars: the Persian (Achaemenid) conquest of Asia... Greeks: the conquest of the Persian Empire (334-330 Bc), Bactria... Erythrae eupatrid geomoroi Gortyn Greco-Persian Wars Halicarnassus helot Himera hoplite... of Iraq and the Sasanid (Persian) Empire and the Byzantine territories... arts and sciences: Greek and Persian influences, the aniconic principle in... petroleum, the Iranian revolution, the Persian Gulf War iii. Sub-Saharan Africa... Space Treaty Palestine Liberation Organization Persian Gulf War Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organization..., Benito Nasser, Gamal Abdel Leyte Gulf, Battle of Manhattan Project Midway... War movement iii. Foreign policy: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) and... crisis, invasion of Panama (1989), Persian Gulf War (1991), economic recession b. The... Eisenhower Doctrine Good Neighbor Policy Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Intermediate-Range... Kuwait (1990) and defeat in Persian Gulf war (1991) e. Radicalization of Egyptian... a dominant Arab power; participation in Persian Gulf War (1991) b. The other Arabian... and union negotiations; formation of Gulf Cooperation Council (1981), unification of... invasion of Kuwait and ensuing Persian Gulf War (1990-91) C. Iran, Afghanistan...



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... Strait, Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North...; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean...: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia Map... petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western... Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand and... the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden... of living of Gazans. The Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also... 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf states have dropped, unemployment has... Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens... Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of... pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea natural hazards... from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Its fish are... East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and..., or median lines in the Persian Gulf territorial sea: 12 nm International... occupies two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Tunb... (Arabic), Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek (Persian) or Lesser Tunb, and Tunb... (Arabic), Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg (Persian) or Greater Tunb; it jointly... UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE, Abu...) or Jazireh-ye Abu Musa (Persian); in 1992 the dispute over...; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water...: Iranian(s) adjective: Iranian Ethnic divisions: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and..., Christian, and Baha'i 1% Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic... Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait Map... in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag... in 1991 because of the Persian Gulf war Pipelines: crude oil 4,350... telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have... badly needed structural reforms. The Persian Gulf crisis that began in August... suspend rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker remittances, and... Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia...: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf @Kuwait:People Population: 1,817,397... international: earth stations destroyed during Gulf war and not rebuilt yet... south, and hurricanes on the Gulf and Caribbean coasts international agreements... the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and the... China Sea, Flores Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Tonkin, Java Sea...: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia Map references... Note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits @Qatar... Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north... Sea Note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great... shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal @Saudi Arabia...-89), $4.5 billion note: aid for Persian Gulf war efforts from coalition allies... East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and...; claims two islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran (Jazireh-ye... Tunb); claims island in the Persian Gulf jointly administered with Iran (Jazireh..., and other 4% Languages: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu Literacy: age...: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South... in Israel and Persian Gulf states. Such transfers from the Gulf dropped after.... In the wake of the Persian Gulf crisis, many Palestinians have returned... by foreign aid. Since the Gulf crisis, remittances have dropped substantially... on Tariffs and Trade GCC -- Gulf Cooperation Council H Habitat -- Commission on... the Arab States of the Gulf see -- Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Coordinating..., Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) note -- also... -- Finland Alaska -- United States Alaska, Gulf of -- Pacific Ocean Aldabra Islands... -- Denmark Bosporus -- Atlantic Ocean Bothnia, Gulf of -- Atlantic Ocean Bougainville Island... [US Consulate General] -- Canada California, Gulf of -- Pacific Ocean Campbell Island... Caribbean Sea -- Atlantic Ocean Carpentaria, Gulf of -- Pacific Ocean Casablanca [US... [US Consulate General] -- Thailand Chihli, Gulf of (see Bo Hai) -- Pacific... Po (Bioko) -- Equatorial Guinea Finland, Gulf of -- Atlantic Ocean Florence [US... Manipa Strait -- Pacific Ocean Mannar, Gulf of -- Indian Ocean Manua Islands... -- Pacific Ocean Okinawa -- Japan Oman, Gulf of -- Indian Ocean Ombai Strait...] -- Panama Panama Canal -- Panama Panama, Gulf of -- Pacific Ocean Papeete -- French... Perouse Strait, La -- Pacific Ocean Persian Gulf -- Indian Ocean Perth [US Consulate...'s -- Antigua and Barbuda Saint Lawrence, Gulf of -- Atlantic Ocean Saint Lawrence... General] -- Germany Sucre -- Bolivia Suez, Gulf of -- Indian Ocean Sulu Archipelago...) -- Antarctica [claimed by France] Thailand, Gulf of -- Pacific Ocean Thessaloniki [US...



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...❤❡r ❞❡t❛✐❧s✳ ❆❝❛❞❡♠✐❝ ❙✉♣♣♦rt ❖✣❝❡✱ ❉✉r❤❛♠ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐t②✱ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐t② ❖✣❝❡✱ ❖❧❞ ❊❧✈❡t✱ ❉✉r❤❛♠ ❉❍✶ ✸❍P ❡✲♠❛✐❧✿ ❡✲t❤❡s❡s✳❛❞♠✐♥❅❞✉r✳❛❝✳✉❦ ❚❡❧✿ ✰✹✹ ✵✶✾✶ ✸✸✹ ✻✶✵✼ ❤tt♣✿✴✴❡t❤❡s❡s✳❞✉r✳❛❝✳✉❦ ✷ Iran, Persian Gulf and Relations with the United... Framework .................................................................................................................... 32 Chapter 2: .......................................................................................................................................................... 35 The Persian Gulf-Arabian Peninsula axis (1956-75... 1.7. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 84 CHAPTER 2: ....................................................................................................................................... 88 THE PERSIAN GULF AND EXTERNAL POWERS, NATIONALISM, HEGEMONY... for Soviet “intervention” in the Persian Gulf (1968-79) ......................................................... 105 2.1.5. The reality...- Gulf pre-emptions and collaborations ......................................................................................................................................................................114 2.2.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 114 2.2.2. The Upper Persian Gulf islands... hegemony: southern Arabia meets the Persian Gulf ........... 227 3.5. Saudi hegemony on southern...: US assurances as liability for Persian Gulf? ................................... 339 CHAPTER 8: .....................................................................................................................................345 THE PRE... of arms race in the Persian Gulf .................................................................. 390 10.6. The paradoxes of... the Persian Gulf. Negative references to the Shah’s stance against his Gulf and... Sea- Persian Gulf power and as a “2nd pillar” of the Gulf security respond... the Gulf with Egypt as interacting powers in the Arabian Peninsula-Persian Gulf... and quasiinstitutional expressions of the Persian Gulf community and anomalies of opposition... construction in the pre-1979 Persian Gulf. 1.2. Preliminary Hypothesis Our analytical approach..., the ‘exclusive’ regional interests of Persian Gulf’s major powers propose their relative... introducing the difficult case of Persian Gulf balance of power between ideologically... handy for the determination of Persian Gulf comprising Arabian Peninsula, as a selfsustaining... a century or longer’. In the Persian Gulf-Arabian Peninsular security and geopolitical... Sea-Arab Sea and the Persian Gulf (henceforth Gulf). While the latter Indian... Africa, the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf, while the Western naval preponderance... a purely radicalizing role in the Persian Gulf affairs. Admittedly, Peking has already... further diplomatic initiatives in the Persian Gulf during 1967-75despite lacking exclusive...’s ability to become a full-fledged Persian Gulf maritime power without a drastic reconfiguration..., the Shah had further institutionalized Persian Gulf’s maritime security through collaboration with... for the Gulf states……..we would propose that the Persian Gulf become a “closed... the Gulf, William Luce (1961-66) remained a staunch believer of the Persian Gulf... diplomacy. The case for the Persian Gulf powers’ shifting their traditional allegiance... Peninsular which directly spilled into Persian Gulf affairs until 1974. This research... hegemony: southern Arabia meets the Persian Gulf The fact that Johnson administration... in the Persian Gulf’: ‘who fear that UAR influence in the Gulf would...’s understanding (or lack thereof) of Persian Gulf’s issues seemed a clear endorsement of... of Iran-Saudi connections over Persian Gulf’s territorial rivalry and Saudi interests... Gulf Security Community, should Shah was restrained from overreaction: ‘…In the Persian Gulf... in Gulf of Oman and Arabian sea, as well as Persian Gulf, and... the Persian Gulf security when confronted with a superpower fait-accompli of leaving Persian Gulf... conservative /republican regimes in the Persian Gulf were managed through careful security..., while seeking demilitarization of the Persian Gulf subcomplex to protect its southern... Nixon showed his indifference to Persian Gulf’s security under “selective Détente” which...” which countenanced regional hegemonic struggle. Persian Gulf Security Complex therefore offered a number... Afghanistan’s security, was decidedly the Persian Gulf, Arabian Peninsula and western Asia... Soviet-supported “subversion” in the Persian Gulf area’, Hoveyda challenged the geopolitics... Persian Gulf were not clearly directed towards the “cooperative security’ among the Gulf... of Virginia. Ramazani, R. K. (1972). The Persian Gulf: Iran's role. Charlottesville: University Press..., P. (January 01, 1998). Debating the Persian Gulf. Survival. 40,1, 547. Snyder D. Glen...



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... Arabian Gulf, during the nineteenth century. PRPG Political Resident in the Persian Gulf: the senior British political representative in the Gulf region... leader. Sirbaz Persian soldiers. SNOPG Senior Naval Officer of the Persian Gulf: the title of the commander of Britain‘s Gulf squadron... for naming the Gulf region––the ―Arabian Gulf‖ and the ―Persian Gulf‖––are used.... His book, The Persian Gulf: Rise of the Gulf Arabs (2007),20 discusses... Willem Floor, The Persian Gulf: The Rise of the Gulf Arabs: the Politics... the Arabian Gulf region. 22 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and... Willem Floor, The Persian Gulf: The Rise of the Gulf Arabs, The Politics... on the Persian Littoral 1747-1792, Chapter 2: A Description of the Persian Gulf in..., 92; J.B Kelly, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880 (Oxford: Oxford University.... 47 J.B.Kelly, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880 (Oxford: Oxford University.... 49 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, vol... Bruce, Political Resident in the Persian Gulf to Bombay Government, 20 August... in J.B.Kelly, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880 (Oxford: Oxford University... s”, 373. 7 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, vol... Regarding the Affairs of the Persian Gulf, 1801-1853 (Calcutta: Superintendent of... 84 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, 857. 143 Abdulaziz Al Khalifa... from 3 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, vol... of the Senior Naval Officer Persian Gulf (SNOPG). After spending nearly eleven... Persian Gulf, November 30, 1838; Letter from Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf... 39 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, 858; Letter from Shaikh Abdullah...; Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf to I.P. Willoughby, Secretary to Government... in the Persian Gulf to Shaikh 167 Abdulaziz Al Khalifa Chapter V 9. Persian Encroachments... Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf to I.P. Willoughby, Secretary to the... Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf to I.P. Willoughby, Secretary to the... in the Persian Gulf to Commodore G.B. Brucks, Commander of the Gulf Squadron on... Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf to I.P. Willoughby, Secretary to the... Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf on 30 November 1838 enclosing... in the Persian Gulf to Commodore G.B. Brucks, Commander of the Gulf Squadron on... Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf enclosing letter from Lt. Sharp... Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf to I.P. Willoughby, Secretary to the... Regarding the Affairs of the Persian Gulf, 1801-1853 (Calcutta: Superintendent of...", 385; J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, 858. 169 Abdulaziz Al Khalifa... Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf to I.P. Willoughby, Secretary to the... Captain S. Hennell, Resident in the Persian Gulf to I.P. Willoughby, Secretary to the... his 5 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, vol.... 27 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 869.... 30 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 868... also J.B. Kelly, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880 (Oxford: The Clarendon... also J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 868...‖ 397; J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 869...‖, 398; J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 869...‖, 399; J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 870...‖, 399; J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 870... also J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 872.... 65 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 873... Ibid, J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 877.... 90 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 877.... 94 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 877.... 101 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 873..., 112. J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 878.... 108 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 878... 110 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, p 878...-419; J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, 878....-Col. E.G. Political Resident in the Persian Gulf 1823-1827 Significance to the... Regarding the Affairs of the Persian Gulf, 1801-1853 (Calcutta: Superintendent of... Willem Floor, 'The Persian Gulf: The Rise of the Gulf Arabs, The Politics... on the Persian Littoral 1747-1792, Chapter 2: ―A Description of the Persian Gulf in... the Gulf, 1745-1900, (Albany: S.U.N.Y. Press, 1997). Floor, Willem. The Persian Gulf: The Rise of the Gulf Arabs: The Politics...-48. Kelly, J.B. Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880 (Oxford: Oxford University...



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...−Iraq War, 1980−88........................................................................................................76 Persian Gulf War, 1991................................................................................................................................77 Territorial Disputes... under the Gulf Cooperation Council............................................................................82 Military Capabilities of the Persian Gulf States... Kuwaiti Armed Forces in the Persian Gulf War.............................................................................89 Personnel, Training, and... Rights Practices...............................................................................................................................93 Bahrain.........................................................................................................................................................94 Persian Gulf War..........................................................................................................................................96 Internal Security...........................................................................................................................................97......................................................................................107 Omani Role in the Persian Gulf War, 1991...............................................................................................109 Internal Security... Iran−Iraq War, 1980−88 • Persian Gulf War, 1991 • Territorial Disputes • Regional... under the Gulf Cooperation Council • Military Capabilities of the Persian Gulf States • Kuwait... Kuwaiti Armed Forces in the Persian Gulf War • Personnel, Training, and Recruitment... System • Human Rights Practices • Bahrain • Persian Gulf War • Internal Security • Qatar • United... Forces • Omani Role in the Persian Gulf War, 1991 • Internal Security Federal... study Preface This edition of Persian Gulf States: Country Studies replaces the... on Geographic Names by using Persian Gulf or gulf. The body of the... 6 Qatar, a country study Introduction Figure 1. Persian Gulf States: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar.... The ruling families in the Persian Gulf states represent shaykhs (see Glossary... the extensive coastlines of the Persian Gulf states, trade, fishing, shipbuilding, and... as the fourth millennium B.C. The Persian Gulf, however, also constitutes a ready channel... Coast. The boundaries of the Persian Gulf states were considered relatively unimportant..., following participation in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Bahrain signed a defense cooperation.... Britain's 1971 withdrawal from the Persian Gulf led to Qatar's full independence... in traditional style U navailable Figure 2. Persian Gulf States: Topography THE FIVE COUNTRIES... along the Persian Gulf. Most of Oman lies along the Gulf of Oman... study TRADE IN THE GULF The Persian Gulf lies between two of the... gulf because of its strategic importance. Competition between Red Sea and Persian Gulf... from North Africa to the Persian Gulf. The Egyptians, however, regained control... construction is a major enterprise of Persian Gulf states. Courtesy Embassy of the...; similar forts exist in most Persian Gulf states. Courtesy Anthony Toth During... A SMALL COUNTRY dominated by the Persian Gulf's largest ruling family, the Al... 160 kilometers north into the Persian Gulf from the Arabian Peninsula. Varying... opportunities attracted Arabs from other Persian Gulf countries and foreign workers (mostly... with the gulf amirates. The strategic importance of the Persian Gulf became increasingly... until Britain's withdrawal from the Persian Gulf in 1971. Historical Overview 75... and Iraq only peripherallyaffected the Persian Gulf states. In May 1981, Bahrain... military supplies abandoned after the Persian Gulf War. Kuwait was suspected of... study Regional Security Problems The Persian Gulf is a relatively constricted geographic area... Saddam Husayn's defeat in the Persian Gulf War, the region's security appeared... Peninsula Shield force. During the Persian Gulf War, national contingents deployed separately... Gulf Cooperation Council 83 Qatar, a country study Military Capabilities of the Persian Gulf... during the Persian Gulf War. A fundamental constraint for all the gulf states has... were Military Capabilities of the Persian Gulf States 84 Qatar, a country study... plan. Military Capabilities of the Persian Gulf States 85 Qatar, a country study... strategy and tactics of the Persian Gulf War, the Kuwaiti forces participating..., Training, and Recruitment Unlike other Persian Gulf states, Kuwait has a conscription system... Soviet missile systems before the Persian Gulf War. Traditionally, the officer corps... study Persian Gulf War Bahrain played a limited but active role in the gulf... Persian Gulf War, 1991 Oman's perceptions of the strategic problems in the gulf... the Musandam Peninsula—border the Persian Gulf. Nevertheless, sharing the guardianship of..., treats numerous topics dealing with Persian Gulf security, including local disputes, United...