Спутник ФКИ. Phoenix Mars Lander. [Редактировать]

Феникс — посадочный модуль НАСА для изучения Марса, работавший в 2008 году. Феникс стал первым аппаратом, запущенным по программе Mars Scout. На его борту находился комплекс приборов, позволяющих изучать геологическую историю воды, а также исследовать среду, с целью выявления условий, благоприятных для жизни микроорганизмов. «Феникс» — шестой аппарат, полностью успешно севший на поверхность Марса. Также «Феникс» стал первым аппаратом, успешно совершившим посадку в полярном регионе Марса. Техническое и научное руководство в проекте «Феникс» осуществляли Лаборатория реактивного движения и Университет Аризоны соответственно, изготовлением аппарата занималась компания Lockheed Martin Space System, Канадское космическое агентство снабдило зонд метеокомплексом. Кроме того, проект шёл при партнёрстве университетов США, Канады, Швейцарии, Дании, Германии и Великобритании. Запуск аппарата состоялся 4 августа 2007 года, успешная посадка произошла 25 мая 2008 года.

Аппарат, приземлившийся в зоне марсианской Арктики, был призван ответить на три ключевых вопроса: пригодны ли полярные районы Марса для жизни, тает ли там периодически лед и как менялись погодные условия в зоне приземления в исторический период, а также исследовать особенности марсианского климата. Главной задачей миссии являлся поиск воды на Красной планете. «За водой» — именно так звучал неофициальный лозунг проекта. К тому же считается, что Феникс стал ещё одной ступенькой на пути к будущему полёту на Марс людей. 18 июня 2008 г. этот зонд нашёл лёд, который потом растаял. 1 августа 2008 года после тщательного исследования выяснилось, что лёд был водяной.

Последний сеанс связи с аппаратом прошёл 2 ноября 2008 года, и 10 ноября этого же года было объявлено об окончании миссии.

В рамках проекта NASA выполняло запуск устройства, Университет штата Аризона курировал создание оборудования, установленного на космическом аппарате, а компания Lockheed Martin сконструировала и построила собственно сам корабль. В задачи Jet Propulsion Laboratory, подразделения Калифорнийского технологического института (California Institute of Technology), входят управление маневрированием марсианского зонда в космосе, а также расчет траектории движения. Помимо этого JPL взяла на себя посадку корабля на поверхность Красной планеты. «Мозгом» аппарата является его бортовой компьютер BAE Systems RAD6000, построенный на базе RISC-процессоров, использующих 32-разрядную архитектуру IBM Power и работающий под управлением ОСРВ VxWorks. Среди функций компьютера, устойчивого к значительным перепадам температур и имеющего защиту от радиации, — навигация, а также управление научным оборудованием и электропитанием космического аппарата.

Полезная нагрузка:

  • Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). В состав оборудования корабля входит построенная в Университете штата Аризона оптическая система Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Она состоит из двух камер, смонтированных на выдвижной башенке высотой около 2 м, и предназначена для визуального исследования планеты. Система позволит получать стереоизображения арктической марсианской пустыни с разрешением 1024×1024 в оптическом и инфракрасном диапазонах. SSI будет поддерживать манипуляции механической руки и даст возможность формировать цифровые модели рельефа (ЦМР) окружающей корабль местности, что, в свою очередь, обеспечит создание трёхмерных виртуальных изображений марсианского пространства. Помимо этого SSI поспособствует геоморфологическому и минералогическому анализу Красной планеты. Ещё одной задачей является исследование оптических свойств атмосферы Марса, в частности — визуальная оценка количества пыли в воздухе. Кроме вышеперечисленных задач, SSI будет вести наблюдение за количеством пыли, осаждающейся на приземлённом космическом аппарате, что позволит сделать вывод о скорости осадконакопления и особенностях протекания атмосферных и эрозионных процессов на планете, а также даст возможность оценивать запылённость солнечных батарей и вызванное этим фактором снижение количества энергии. Последнее напрямую влияет на время функционирования Феникса.
  • Установленная на конце манипулятора камера Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) создана совместно учёными из Университета штата Аризона и немецким Институтом Макса Планка. Камера укреплена непосредственно возле ковша и позволяет в деталях видеть место, где проводится забор образцов грунта и льда. Изображение стенок вырытой траншеи, как полагают учёные, позволит геологам определить наличие и очерёдность залегания напластований. В частности, изображения, на которых видны цвета и размеры частиц грунта, слагающего поверхность Марса в вертикальном разрезе, дадут возможность сделать выводы об изменении условий залегания осадков, а значит, и об истории изменения марсианского климата. Камера снабжена двумя источниками света, верхний из которых состоит из 36 голубых, 18 зелёных и 18 красных ламп, а нижний — из 16, 8 и 8 ламп соответственно. Помимо этого в состав устройства входят два моторчика, первый меняет фокусное расстояние объектива, а второй поднимает и опускает прозрачный пылезащитный кожух. Максимальное разрешение камеры — 23 микрона на пиксел.
  • Основной инструмент корабля — манипулятор Robotic Arm (RA), созданный JPL и способный двигаться вперёд-назад, вправо-влево, вверх и вниз, а также совершать круговые движения. Длина устройства составляет 2,35 м. На Земле манипулятор испытывали в американской Долине Смерти, местности с очень твёрдым грунтом, где он смог выкопать за 4 часа траншею глубиной 25 см. В задачи метеорологического оборудования (MET, Meteorological Station), созданного Канадским космическим агентством, входит ежедневная фиксация изменений марсианской погоды путем использования датчиков температуры и атмосферного давления, а также измерение концентрации пыли и ледяного пара в воздухе Красной планеты с помощью лидара (light detection and ranging, LIDAR). Лидар будет посылать короткие импульсы света вертикально вверх и фиксировать отражённые атмосферой сигналы, что поможет выявить наличие невидимых невооружённым глазом облаков, тумана и мест концентрации пыли. При этом температура на планете будет измеряться с помощью трёх термопар, установленных на выдвижной башенке высотой 1,2 м. Такое инженерное решение сможет фиксировать вертикальный профиль температуры у поверхности Марса.
  • Модуль MECA (Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer), создание которого курировалось JPL, включает в себя оптический и сканирующий атомно-силовой микроскопы. Работа последнего основана на использовании сил атомных связей, действующих между атомами вещества. Атомный микроскоп — результат работы швейцарского консорциума, а оптический создан Университетом штата Аризона. Максимальное разрешение оптического микроскопа — 4 мкм, атомного — 10 нм. Микроскопические изображения марсианского грунта будут использоваться, в частности, для поиска доказательств того, что изучаемый субстрат когда-либо подвергался воздействию воды. Для этого будет проводиться поиск крошечных вкраплений глины. Оптический микроскоп снабжён инструментами подсветки — в его состав входят красная, зелёная, синяя и ультрафиолетовая лампы. Одноразовые средства подготовки образцов при этом созданы с использованием силикона. Помимо этого в состав MECA входит инструмент для химического анализа растворенных в воде образцов грунта. Подобный метод исследования позволяет определять pH полученного раствора, а также выявлять наличие кислорода, углекислого газа, хлоридов, бромидов и сульфатов. MECA также содержит инструмент для определения тепловой и электрической проводимости образцов — для этого используются три иглы, вмонтированные в верхнюю часть механической руки.
  • Модуль TEGA (Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer), построенный университетами штатов Аризона и Техаса в Далласе, является предметом особой гордости команды Феникса. Устройство содержит восемь миниатюрных одноразовых муфельных печек, в которых происходит нагревание образцов марсианского грунта. По своим размерам каждая такая печка напоминает стержень шариковой ручки. Нагревание проходит медленно, при этом определяется теплоёмкость образца. Когда температура в печке достигает 1000 °C, нагретый материал начинает выделять газ, который анализируется встроенным масс-спектрометром, определяющим концентрацию конкретных молекул и атомов в образце.
  • Последний из инструментов, Mars Descent Imager (MARDI), был создан компанией Malin Space Science Systems, и представляет собой камеру, которая может использоваться для фотографирования места спуска в процессе снижения аппарата на поверхность Марса. Ожидалось, что съёмка начнётся после того, как Феникс снизится до высоты примерно в 7 км и сбросит термозащиту. Фотографии помогут точно определить место, где сел корабль, а также предоставить информацию о географических, геоморфологических и геологических особенностях близлежащего ландшафта. Полученные снимки также могут помочь определить, является ли место посадки типичным для приполярных регионов Марса. То есть могут ли полученные в ходе проекта результаты быть распространены на всю арктическую марсианскую пустыню. MARDI весит около полукилограмма и, как предполагалось, израсходует на создание серии снимков не более 3 Вт электричества. Угол обзора при этом будет составлять 66°, размер каждой фотографии 1024×1024 пиксела, а время экспозиции равно 4 мс. Однако, предстартовые тесты летательного аппарата идентифицировали потенциальную проблему в обработках данных от камеры в течение критических моментов заключительного этапа посадки на поверхность планеты. Это привело к решению не использовать камеру. Инструмент также содержит микрофон, который, равно как и камера, не был использован.

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
132003НайтиНайти
2Mars Scout 1НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг680

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САСMay 25, 2008[1] – November 2, 2008 (lost communication); November 10, 2008[1]
90 Martian sols (planned)
157 Martian sols (actual)
2Дата (сведения с орбиты)2008-05-25

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2007-034A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.520
2Оператор Космическое агентство США

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2007-08-04 at 09:26:34 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xPhoenix Mars Lander
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 603 документов по запросу «Phoenix Mars Lander». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Phoenix and an Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer to NASA for the Mars..., including the Mars Sample Return mission and the ESA Lunar Lander. CSA... (Thermal Plasma Analyzer) Launched Phoenix NASA Mars Lander to examine the waterice-rich... in NASA (Lidar sensor for Phoenix Mars lander and asteroid sample return Osirix... Phoenix Mars lander and Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return missions Exomars, Lunar and Mars... scientific instruments for exploration missions (Phoenix, MSL and the planned Osiris... Lander: Though Mars is the current focus of ESA robotic activities, a Lunar Lander... France) Lander’s heat shield and thermal aft system (Astrium France) Mars orbiter to 2003 Launched Mars Express & Beagle-2 lander ESA Euroconsult...-chargeable lithium-ion batteries Qinetiq Lander communication system Teldix Wheels Intespace... DLR Prime contractor for the Lander See Mars Express The objective of... as the Philae lander in Rosetta or the Mascot lander in Japanese... platform), in Mars Express (prime contractor of the Beagle-2 lander), in Exomars... probe ESA (Huygens) ESA Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub... the lander. Global architecture of the lander ground segment, Comet orbiter and lander... than any other mission to Mars Phobos Lander to collect soil samples... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale MicrOmega... of Martian samples) NASA Mars lander to study Mars inner composition IPGP VBB... Sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale MicrOmega... Mars orbiter to study the upper atmosphere ESA Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub-surface water Mars Express Rosetta ESA for the orbiter DLR for the lander Comet orbiter and lander to study the... Acoustic Monitoring Experiment) ROLIS (Rosetta Lander Imaging System) COSIMA (Cometary Secondary... Mars Lander to study Mars inner composition DLR Institute of Space Systems Mars lander and... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) BELA (BepiColombo Laser Altimeter... recently announced that the lunar lander for Chandrayaan-2 incorporated technologies that... European Commission – July 2012 Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub-surface water Comet orbiter and lander... studying the possibility of a Mars orbiter and lander, MELOS, which would be... MELOS JAXA Mars orbiter and lander to study the evolution of Mars climate... a joint mission involving a lunar orbiter, a lander and a rover. The configuration of... Mars surface. Russia will also provide a RTG for the 2016 European lander... Exploration missions 1999 Launched Mars Polar Lander NASA Mars lander IKI LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) 2001 Launched 2001 Mars... lander missions), the Vega program (comet rendez-vous), and more recently Mars... Mars orbiter to search for subsurface water from orbit and drop a lander... Lander 2008 Launched 2018 Planned Chandrayaan-1 ISRO Lunar orbiter Exomars ESA Lander... platform, Beagle-2 lander, Exomars rover, propulsion sub-systems for Mars Express, Venus... of the Robotic Lunar Lander program. Though this Lander will be developed... Mission cost Mars Climate Orbiter Orbiter 1998 $655 million Mars Polar Lander Lander 1998 $165 million 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter 2001... million Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbiter 2005 $720 million Phoenix Lander 2007 $386 million Mars... (Mars Color Imager) Lockheed Martin Prime contractor for the orbiter and lander flight system Malin Space Science Systems MARDI (Mars Descent... Failed during Mars orbit insertion Mars Polar Lander NASA Robotic spacecraft lander to study the soil and climate of Mars...) National Laboratory 2007 Launched Phoenix NASA Mars Lander to examine the water-ice... Mars missions (contributed to Spirit and Opportunity rovers development, and to Phoenix lander... report most Martian missions (Mars Climate Observer, Mars Polar Lander, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MSL... drilling systems in Mars missions developing a commercial Lunar lander high temperature materials (Shuttle, Orion) mini-cameras for Mars orbiters... technologies than the ill-fated Mars Lander. Euroconsult for the European Commission... Lander, 2018: achieve precise soft landing near the South Pole Moon Lander... living conditions assessment Chandrayaan-2, 2016: Lander which will release the Indian...: backup to Chang’e-5 Mars Orbiter Mars Lander MAVEN, 2013: explore Mars upper atmosphere and... the interior of Mars Exomars, 2016: European Demonstration Lander Mars Rover Exomars, 2018: European Rover for exobiology and geology research Mars... was responsible for developing a demonstration Lander, which is a capability currently not... ATV and Lunar lander to develop a Cargo Lunar Lander which would resupply...



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... Moon. 3 Radar data from ESA’s Mars Express orbiter indicated massive deposits of water ice under Mars’ south pole. Radar soundings down... 11 m deep. NASA’s Phoenix lander was launched to Mars to retrieve soil and... encountered on future trips to Mars by humans. The team also... volunteers for a simulated trip to Mars, in which six “astronauts” will... will face on a trip to Mars. Their “spaceship” will be a series... for transmissions between Earth and Mars, and food will be the... JAXA, consisting of a mother spacecraft, a lander, a sampling system, an instrument payload... missions to the Moon and Mars. The Group’s report notes that... the Moon (and later of Mars) is a valid and important objective...) released images taken by the MARS Reconnaissance Orbiter of the two... landers. NASA’s 10-year-old Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) experienced failure... 6 December 2006, recent images of Mars compared with images recorded during... from the now-silent Mars Global Surveyor’s Mars Orbital Camera. The two... Imaging System (HiRise) on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) began to...’s data capabilities. Observations from NASA’s Mars Odyssey during March revealed seven dark spots on Mars near the volcano Arisa Mons... who discovered them. An Earth-Mars Cave Detection Programme was subsequently... areas similar to those on Mars (e.g., the Mojave Desert in the... techniques for Themis using these “Mars analogues,” to get more information on the newly discovered Mars caves. According to a NASA announcement... July, both of the agency’s Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, successfully survived a major sandstorm on Mars, when 51 they were over... competing proposals under the agency’s Mars Scout programme to send an... University of Colorado proposed the Mars Atmosphere and Evolution Mission (Maven), to address key questions about Mars climate and habitability, and improve... others. Radar data from ESA’s Mars Express orbiter, released on 14... water ice under Mars’ south pole. The spacecraft’s Mars Advanced Radar for.... MARSIS was subsequently trained on Mars’ north pole, where prior observations... the radiation doses to which Mars had been exposed from both... damage due to the frigid Mars temperatures, limiting predicted cell lifetimes... X-ray spectrometer aboard NASA’s Spirit Mars rover indicate a very high concentration... in the same patch of Mars’ surface. During the first week... tool for use on NASA’s Mars Surface Laboratory (MSL) 2009 mission.../-30 Celsius in the harsh Mars radiation environment. As the active... MSL spacecraft. NASA’s 1500-kg Phoenix Mars lander was launched on 4 August from... soil and ice samples in Mars’ north polar region. The spacecraft... Spirit and Opportunity rovers, so Phoenix will use 12 hydrazine-powered... by Aerojet (USA), to set Phoenix down, following separation from the... at 570 m altitude. After landing, Phoenix will use its 2.4-m arm to... clouds after the spacecraft lands. Phoenix’s main objectives are to search... hold food sources for life. Phoenix carries eight ovens to bake... the journey to continue to Mars and 53 other destinations.” Scientists... Congress will include a 1,300-kg lander on the Moon in 2015... mission in 2020. The testbed lander, weighing 4 tonnes when launched by... engine would then lower the lander to a point 4 m above the surface... the four landing struts. The lander would be equipped with a rover...-scale drop test of the lander’s descent, which caused some structural... the 2007 Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge on 21 June. The... composition. Following a gravity assist from Mars in February 2009 and an... of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, Dawn will study.... Rosetta received a gravity assist from Mars on 25 February and another... July 2010. During the Mars swingby, the Philae lander’s Imaging System (CIVA... for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory Mission as the Mars Lander Engine (MLE... stage of NASA’s planned lunar lander. Goal of the tests was... craters on the Moon and Mars. The 74-kg rovers, developed... commands required by the current Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. Eurobot... and, eventually, human exploration of Mars. (2) International Institute of Space Law...: the example of the Moon, Mars and other Celestial Bodies” that... Environment,” and five sub-themes: Mars (robotic and human exploration), the... reached by humans. The planet Mars is recognised as the focus of this programme, with Mars Sample Return as its driving... actor in defining and driving Mars Sample Return missions. There is... is to send humans to Mars in the longer term, research... with neutrons on Mars’ surface as part of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory... a lunar orbital module and a lunar lander with a mobile scientific laboratory. The... of a lunar orbital module and a lander with the help of an...’s Phobos Explorer mission to the Mars moon in 2009. The agreement... after it begins to orbit Mars, before it proceeds to land... the space environment of 103 Mars. China and Russia had previously...’s 4-August launch of the Phoenix mission to Mars, and the Agency’s Dawn...



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... LEO – The Moon and Mars ……………………………………………….. 2.2.1 Moon ……………………………………………………………………………… 2.2.2 Mars ………………………………………………………………………………. 10 10 10 11 11... 3.2 Joint Development for Robotic Exploration – Mars Sample Return ………………………… 17 3.3 Collaborative Human... 3.4 An Eventual Human Mission to Mars ………………………………………………. 19 Part 4: Summary and Way... latter, such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group, having a more... Exploration Journey A human mission to Mars is surely a long-term objective...’s natural satellite, and spacecraft at Mars continued unabated on their course.... 2.2 Beyond LEO – The Moon and Mars 2.2.1 Moon Lunar scientific exploration will... information about where to send a lander to maximize the return on... locations for the Altair lunar lander (one of the elements of... generation crew and cargo vehicles). 2.2.2 Mars Mars is a key focus for space... evolution. The scientific exploration of Mars is motivated by the search... life ever exist on Mars? Will Mars be able to support human... are the questions that drive Mars exploration with current investigations centered.... 2 NCRSASL - 63 landforms. Spacecraft at Mars map mineralogical and geomorphological features... are the U.S. Mars Odyssey (launched in 2001), ESA’s Mars Express (launched in 2003), and the U.S. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... U.S. Mars Phoenix lander, which performed superbly until the onset of the polar winter. Mars... of the near surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been successfully... maps of critical atmospheric properties. Mars Express has been exploring the interior, surface, and atmosphere of Mars. It as produced high-resolution... composition of the icecaps. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity... water activity on Mars. The complement of the Phoenix spacecraft (which completed... potential of the Martian arctic. Phoenix was the first mission to... and water ice to the lander platform for sophisticated scientific analysis... continue the scientific exploration of Mars. There are currently two U.S. missions... measurements, assessing the habitability of Mars for past or present life... Phobos-Grunt lander. Phobos-Grunt is expected to study Mars from orbit... study of Mars. 3.2 Joint Development for Robotic Exploration – Mars Sample Return A Mars Sample... many international priority lists for Mars science. In 1993, the international community established the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) to... a forum for the coordination of Mars exploration and develop an international... “Preliminary Planning for an International Mars Sample Return Mission: Report of... that launches the sample from Mars’ surface. The reference architecture also... vehicle and the Altair lunar lander. Together, these vehicles will all... to deliver the Altair lunar lander, four astronauts and cargo anywhere... missions. A variant of the lunar lander will serve as an autonomous... requirements for a human mission to Mars at its Exploration Conference in July, and NASA finalized its Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0. A brief review... the Mars radiation and solitary environment. A successful human mission to Mars will... knowledge derived from lunar and Mars missions (see paras 2.2.1 and 2.2.2) • Chandrayaan... mission • Several Mars orbiting and landed missions including Phoenix in 2008 (see... 3.1) Development of a reference architecture for Mars Sample Return mission by iMARS...: Selected Documents 2009, vol. 2 PhobosGrunt Mars Science Lab NCRSASL - 72 ISECG...-board the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA Mars Express missions. Last... for field testing for robotic Mars exploration technologies (rovers mobility/long... a GIS (Geographical Information System) for Mars called PAGIS (Planetary Geosciences Information... commit funds to the ESA Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme (currently... prototypes for future Moon and Mars exploration missions. 2008 Highlights: Significant... weather station on the NASA Phoenix Mars lander marked the first time that... instruments for the Moon and Mars, manipulators and tools, vision systems... control and a terrestrial breadboard of a Mars science rover. Space Law: Selected... space missions: ILN, Selene-2, Mars Sample Return, Mars Science Orbiter, Lunar mobility... terrestrial prototypes of Moon and Mars rovers and other space technologies... on the definition of a Lunar Lander. The ELIPS-Period 3 P rogramme (timeframe... Advanced Re-entry Vehicle, Lunar Lander activities and scenario studies analysing... framework of a long-term cooperation. A Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme with...-term technology goals leading to a Mars Sample Return mission, and system... lifetime extension and the lunar lander development activities. Space Law: Selected... exploration programs – we landed on Mars, added to the International Space... Exploration: NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander safely reached a soft landing on Mars on May 25... continues. http://www.nasa.gov/phoenix. NASA has also partnered with... Ares V and the Altair lunar lander were capable of landing astronauts...



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... to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments...; published 15 October 2008. [1] Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on... the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars... to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments...: Scout Selection Process [2] Phoenix is the first Mars Scout mission: a Principal Investigator... Phoenix mission and serve as a guide during and after the mission. 2. Phoenix... of key instruments from the Mars Polar Lander. Smith, who had been... investigations are addressed by the Phoenix mission. The complete MEPAG document... the surface and interior of Mars.’’ A polar lander can contribute to this.... The Phoenix mission derives its heritage from the 2001 lander that was canceled in 2000 after the failure of the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) to return any... Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) projects. [23] Several instruments on the 2001 lander.... 2.2. First Scout Mission 2.2.1. Partners [25] Phoenix finds a balance between private industry... designed the lander on the basis of its series of Mars craft... MPL and Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) and finally the 2001 lander and... phase of the E00A18 Table 1. Phoenix Timeline Phase A B C/D E Date Activity 1 Jan.... 2.2.2. Timeline [29] Table 1 shows the Phoenix timeline. A long phase B allowed time... April 2007. 2.2.3. Science Team [31] Phoenix has a large science team garnered... Table 2. Instrument Suite on the Phoenix Mission Instrument (Lead Institution) Surface... was available. The subsystems on Phoenix bring heritage although some subsystems... biobarrier. heritage of the 2001 Mars lander, even though sister boards and... flown to Mars on the twin spacecraft Mars Polar Lander and Mars Climate Orbiter. Clearly, the landing systems on Mars Polar Lander... and pressures expected for the Phoenix lander. The team struggled for months... Objectives 3.1. Level 1 Requirements [43] The Phoenix mission first and foremost is... E00A18 Table 3. Level 1 Requirements for Phoenix Theme Present climate Digging and... are exploring a potentially habitable zone; Phoenix is rated category IVc, meaning... System in a timely fashion. The Phoenix archiving working group responsible for... Objectives 4.1. Science Investigations [54] The Phoenix instrument suite can be divided... nm. M. T. Lemmon et al. (The Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager Investigation, manuscript... Evolved Gas Analyzer on the Phoenix Mars Lander, manuscript in preparation, 2008) has.... 5. Mission 5.1. Mission Success [89] The Phoenix mission began with a Delta 2 launch... al., Mesoscale modeling of the phoenix landing locations, manuscript in preparation... to Earth time operations and Phoenix becomes a weather station monitoring conditions... environment during the Phoenix landed seasons. 6. Conclusions [106] Phoenix is targeted to an unexplored region of Mars where ice... both disciplines. [112] Acknowledgments. The Phoenix science team appreciates the immense... Phoenix can rise from the ashes. References Arvidson, R. E., et al. (2008), Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix landing site selection and.../2007JE003021. Bass, D., and K. Talley (2008), Phoenix surface mission operations processes, J. Geophys..., R. G., et al. (2008), NASA Mars 2007 Phoenix Lander Robotic Arm and Icy Soil... northern plains of Mars with special reference to Phoenix landing surfaces, J. Geophys... (2008), Mission design of the Phoenix Mars scout mission, J. Geophys. Res., doi... of Phoenix landing sites with 75-cm bistatic radar received by Mars...), Telltale wind indicator for the Mars Phoenix lander, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A04, doi... press. Keller, H. U., et al. (2008), Phoenix robotic arm camera, J. Geophys. Res... Mars with MRO HiRISE stereo images: Meter-scale slopes of candidate Phoenix... al. (2008), The 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory, J. Geophys... SSI calibration target onboard the Mars Phoenix 2007 lander: Design, calibration and science... at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, J. Geophys... predictions for candidate 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander sites using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling...), Mars 2007 Phoenix scout mission organic free blank (OFB): Method to distinguish Mars... (2008), Effects of the 2007 Phoenix lander descent thruster plum on the... the northern plains of Mars at the Phoenix Mission candidate landing sites... MVACS Surface Stereo Imager on Mars Polar Lander, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 17...), Atmospheric environment expected for the Phoenix landed season and location, J. Geophys..., and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113... (2008), Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A08... Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029...



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... life on Mars. ESA also announced a plan to launch a Lunar Lander mission... targets to send the Lunar Lander by the end of the... its plan to launch a Lunar Lander mission which will explore the... targets to send the Lunar Lander by the end of this...-Grunt unmanned lander to one of the moon of Mars, Phobos, was... soil samples. >> Russia will develop a lander that will ferry a rover to... in space. >> Data from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander suggest liquid water has interacted... to attempt to contact the lander, which may be hibernating while... 2011. >> >> Effort to contact NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander had also continued during the... of Phoenix showing the lander shrouded in dry-ice frost on Mars were...’s Mars Odyssey orbiter started to listen for possible radio transmissions from Phoenix. >> >> Mars... without hearing anything from the lander and attempts were made in... 2010, it was declared that Phoenix had ended operations after repeated... autonomous “drop” tests of a robotic lander test article - in a record 10... with Armadillo Aerospace, 2009 Lunar Lander Challenge award recipient (with winner... worth of data about robotic lander projects - doubling the potential impact... culminate the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander X PRIZE - 158 - Challenge. Masten Space... their 2009 Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge win. >> Boeing was named... lunar exploration programme. Chang’e 3, a soft lander and rover, and Chang’e 4, a sample... as an orbiter and soft lander (South pole) with small rover...-Globe mission as a similar soft lander (North pole) and an orbiter....3 Mars Exploration Recent missions MGS (Mars Global Surveyor), NASA’s mission in Mars orbit... interior. By studying Mars for several Martian years (a Mars year is about... with Earth on 2 November 2006. Phoenix, a lander mission, was the first chosen... spacecraft. Phoenix was launched in August 2007. It uses a lander that was intended for use by 2001’s Mars Surveyor lander prior... lost Mars Polar Lander. Phoenix landed on the icy northern pole of Mars between... the 150 Martian-day mission, Phoenix deployed its robotic arm and... collected by the robotic arm, Phoenix carried an ‘oven’ and a ‘portable.... In November 2008, signals from Phoenix ceased, as expected with the... from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed evidence of severe ice damage to Phoenix’s solar panels. Current missions Mars Odyssey, the NASA... haematite. Mars Odyssey supported landing site selection for the Phoenix Scout mission... and energetic atoms, MaRSMars Radio Science experiment, MARSIS – Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding), and a lander. The lander, Beagle.... The Beagle-2 lander, after a nominal separation from the Mars Express orbiter on... the lander. Since the start of science operations in early 2004, Mars... scientific collaboration between Mars Express, both rovers and Mars Odyssey is expected... discoveries. MER (Mars Exploration rovers), consisting of two identical lander rover missions... orbiter with eleven experiments and a lander with nine further experiments. The..., the orbiter will deploy the lander which will focus on determining... geological and climate history of Mars. ESA’s Mars Express orbiter continues its... Martian surface. In 20082009, the Phoenix lander successfully studied the northern polar... NASA and ESA (MSL, EXO-MARS, Mars Trace Gas Orbiter) will focus... Wet Chemistry Laboratory on the Phoenix Mars Lander performed aqueous chemical analyses of... biggest surprise found by the Phoenix mission because it was widely... three soil samples analysed by Phoenix’s wet chemistry laboratory. It could...’s Phoenix Mars lander (namely, that perchlorate was present in soil samples from Mars) suggest... perchlorate -- the surprise finding from Phoenix -- was added to desert soil...’s Phoenix mission, a Category IVc lander, landed on the north polar plains of Mars... sterile until the lander reached Mars. Orbital imaging of the lander throughout the... the collapse of the lander’s solar panels. The Phoenix mission confirmed that... as water ice by the Phoenix lander. The spacecraft also continues to... through Mars Odyssey, as well as a significant fraction of Phoenix data. ESA’s Mars... Mars Phoenix mission and are being used to similarly to support other Mars lander... III) and a lander that will not access any Mars special regions and... the latest NASA Mars Mission Phoenix and with the NASA Mars Rovers Spirit...’s comet mission Rosetta and its lander Philae, which currently carries a large... Mars under the ExoMars programme during this decade. A number of orbiter, lander... Itokawa. Several lunar orbiter or lander missions are planned for this... decade, such as China’s Chang’e-3 (lander) and Chang’e-4 (sample return) as...-1 (Russian lunar lander with Indian orbiter) and Luna Resource-2 (Russian lander, rover...) Lunar rover (China) Lunar soft lander and rover (China) Lunar sample... LWS LYRA LYRA MARCI MARIE MaRS MARS EXPRESS MARSIS MASTER Matroshka MAVEN... Spectrometer Mars Climate Sounder Marangoni Experiment in Space Mars Exploration Joint Initiative Mars...



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Canadian Contribution to the Phoenix Mars Mission Canadian Science Team James A. ... Achievements During the Phoenix Mars Mission Mission Results The Phoenix spacecraft was launched... the mission on Mars. Figure . Photographs of the Phoenix LIDAR with the... the Phoenix lander provided temperature measurements throughout the 150 sol Phoenix mission (a Mars sol... surface of Mars throughout the entire Phoenix mission. 5 Pressure Measurements The Phoenix MET... on the surface of Mars during the entire Phoenix Mission. 6 Publications in... and Results LIDAR on the Phoenix Mars mission Whiteway, J., M. Daly, A. Carswell, C. Dickinson... Near-Surface Fog at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Moores, J. E., L. Komguem, J. A. Whiteway... and dust devils at the Phoenix Mars mission landing site Ellehoj, M.D., H. P. Gunnlauggson... 2010. Phoenix LIDAR observations of dust in the atmosphere of Mars Whiteway...-216377). Phoenix LIDAR Observations of Dust, Clouds, and Precipitation on Mars J. Whiteway..., March 2009. LIDAR on the Phoenix Mars Mission: First Results Whiteway, J., M. Daly... Forth Mars Polar Science Conference, Davos, 2006. LIDAR on the Phoenix Mars Mission... 2009 Phoenix LIDAR Atmospheric Dust Measurements on Mars J. Whiteway, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem Mars Dust... 2009. Phoenix LIDAR Observations of the Cloud Topped Boundary Layer on Mars... 2009. Phoenix LIDAR observations of dust, clouds and precipitation on Mars Whiteway... and vortices at the Phoenix landing site on Mars Ellehøj M. D., Gunnlaugsson H. P., Taylor... of the effect of the Phoenix Mars lander on the temperature sensors. Davis.... (Poster). 11 Winds at the Mars Phoenix landing site Holstein-Rathlou, C., H. P.Gunnlaugsson.... Phoenix LIDAR observations of the cloud topped boundary layer on Mars Whiteway..., May 2009. Winds at the Mars Phoenix landing site Gunnlaugsson, H. P., C. Holstein-Rathlou... the wind sensor on the Phoenix Mars Lander Davis, J. A., C.F. Lange. , 17th Annual Conference..., May, 2009. Winds at the Mars Phoenix landing site Gunnlaugsson, H. P., C. Holstein-Rathlou..., 2009. Phoenix LIDAR Atmospheric Dust Measurements on Mars Whiteway, J., C. Dickinson, L. Komguem. Mars Dust... 25, 2009. LIDAR on the Phoenix Mars mission: First results Whiteway, J., M. Daly... 2008. Phoenix: Summer weather in Green Valley (126W, 68N ON MARS) Taylor... Mars atmosphere: Modelling and Observations November 10–13, 2008 Williamsburg, Virginia. Phoenix: Dustless devils at the lander Site Ellehøj M. D., Taylor... Mars atmosphere: Modelling and Observations November 10–13, 2008 Williamsburg, Virginia. Phoenix..., San Francisco, Dec 2008. 13 Phoenix Mars lander: Vortices and dust devils at... the momentum transfer over the Phoenix Mars lander Presentation and article by J. A. Davis... Canadian meteorological instruments on the Phoenix Mars Lander using CFD Poster by C. F. Lange... Wind Experiment for the NASA Phoenix Mars Lander 2008 C. Holstein-Ratlau, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, S. K. Jensen... 2008, Vienna, Austria. The NASA Phoenix Mars mission Taylor, P. CMOS Annual Congress.... Introduction to Phoenix Presentation by Jim Whiteway to CSA Mars Atmosphere Discipline... on the temperature of the Phoenix Lander Davis, J. and C Lange 5th International... temperature measurements taken from the Phoenix Mars Polar Lander Davis, J. and C Lange 15th... Print Canada Joins the Phoenix Mission to Mars A. I. Carswell Chapter 8 of “Canada..., Apogee Books, 2008. Phoenix MET - a Weather Station on Mars by Peter Taylor..., 3 July 2008 Phoenix-MET: Canada's Weather Station on Mars. Seminar by C. Lange... 10, 2009. Phoenix-MET: Canada's Weather Station on Mars. Several seminars by..., Feb 25, 2009. Phoenix: Following the Water on Mars. Invited Lecture by..., Ontario, Dec 7, 2009 (8 + 15 students). Phoenix, Mars glaciology,water cycle and isotopes... Milne’s class about Mars glaciology. University of Ottawa. Phoenix overview and tutorial... 18, 2009. The Phoenix Mission: A Maple Leaf on Mars Peter Taylor, Presented... Mars: Should we go? J. Freemantle York University May 10, 2008. The Phoenix... Historical Society in Toronto, 2008. Phoenix Mars Lander Mission. Invited Lecture by C. Lange..., 2008. Landed Operations of the Phoenix Mars Lander, talk by C. Lange at the... 6, 2008. “Landed Operations of the Phoenix Mars Lander” and “Estimating the Effect of... Meteorological Station MET on the Phoenix Mars Lander”, talks by C. Lange at the..., 2008. Surface Operations of the Phoenix Mars Lander, talk by C. Lange at the... , 16, 2008. Phoenix-MET: Canada's Weather Station on Mars, talk by C. Lange..., Oct 17, 2008. The Phoenix Mission to Mars Allan Carswell. Presentation to.... May 24, 2007. The Phoenix Mission to Mars Allan Carswell. Presentation to... May 25, 2007. The Phoenix Mission to Mars Jim Whiteway. Presentation to Kindergarden Class, May 2007. The Phoenix Mission to Mars Peter Talyor RCI Gala... 26, 2007. 19 Phoenix: Following the Water on Mars C. Lange. Presentation to..., Edmonton. May 2007. Phoenix: Following the Water on Mars C. Lange. Invited Lecture...



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... Conference 2 - 5 August 2009, Denver, Colorado Phoenix Electrical Power Subsystem – Power at... Power Subsystem (EPS) of the Phoenix Mars Lander. This paper describes this direct...-power electronics to power the Phoenix Lander throughout its successful mission. It... used to predict performance. Figure 1. Phoenix Self Portrait. This picture is... together from several photos of Phoenix and the surrounding Martian surface... the Earth from the Sun 1 Phoenix Power Engineer, Lockheed Martin Space... Stop S8700, AIAA New Member 2 Phoenix Power Engineer, Lockheed Martin Space... Evolved Gas Analyzer I. Introduction T HE Phoenix Lander was launched on August 4, 2008.... Then, on May 25th, 2008, Phoenix screamed into the Martian atmosphere... Phoenix, the journey was long in time as well as distance. Phoenix was aptly named, as it resurrected the Lander from the Mars Surveyor 2001 Program. The Lander portion of... after the loss of the Mars Polar Lander during the EDL Phase... in storage since the cancellation. Phoenix provided a second life for these... PIU Backplane Figure 2. Phoenix Power Subsystem Block Diagram. Phoenix utilized rigid and... II. Power Subsystem Overview The Phoenix Power Subsystem was a direct energy... for the MSP 2001 Lander, which rendezvoused with Mars at 1.45 AU. However, it was insufficient for Phoenix, which... Array took care of Phoenix’s power needs Figure 3. Phoenix Cruise Solar Array Wings. during the interplanetary journey to Mars, while the Lander was encased in the... the taught Figure 4. Phoenix Surface Solar Array Wings. Phoenix utilized flexible disc... wings from deploying Fortunately, the Phoenix landing site was flat, level... the main batteries Figure 5. The Phoenix EPS Avionics Suite and failed.... It had some benefit for Phoenix because the battery temperature could... “Lazarus Mode”, which enabled the Lander to recover from a totally discharged... and the Lander was safe on the 11 surface of Mars, the.../battery voltages) built up Figure 6. Phoenix Lander Deck. The EPS Components, with... one-way-light-time to Phoenix was 15-20 minutes, which... The most critical phase of Phoenix’s journey was Entry, Descent, and..., the landing legs were deployed, lander separation occurred, and finally, the... sol. Another unique challenge for Phoenix was that several of these... warm. However, following Phoenix’s deep space cruise to Mars, several NSIs were... heritage, and reducing its Figure 7. Phoenix Entry Descent and Landing. This... the level against which the Phoenix spacecraft flight lot performance was... termed “Tactical Operations”. At first, Phoenix was monitored round-the-clock..., after the last communications pass, Phoenix would enter a low power Sleep.... The Power Model used for Phoenix was the Multi-Mission Power... a few customizations were necessary for Phoenix operations. MMPAT is a parameter-driven... the above plot for the Phoenix Surface Mission.5 American Institute of... of the landed environment for Phoenix included parametric files that defined... the Phoenix Lander would have only a short lifetime on the surface of Mars... a minimum amount of time that Phoenix should be awake and active... pretty close to nominal. The Lander’s orientation was nearly perfect (0.68... mission was very nice for Phoenix, as the sun did not... routine of “14 hour” days. Phoenix’s polar location ensured that its... maintained while the Lander was awake. When the Lander enters Sleep Mode..., the last communications from the lander Figure 11. Energy Trending. Available... and Astronautics 092407 VI. Conclusion Phoenix was a very unique mission from...-driven deployments, etc.) required for Phoenix. The lessons learned on this... hopefully manned missions. Acknowledgments The Phoenix Program was led by Principal... for the development of the Phoenix spacecraft. Thanks to Chris Lewicki... made to MMPAT for the Phoenix mission. The authors are indebted... as a way to characterize the Phoenix Flight Lot of NSIs without.... References 1 Phoenix Program Website, URL: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/phoenix/images/press/vert_12.html [cited 28 June 2009]. 2 Gregory, T., “Mars Phoenix..., P. N., Kornfeld, R., Shaffer, S., Schoenenberger, M., and Skulsky, D., Phoenix EDL Reconstruction, Report., Jet Propulsion..., W. E., “Summary of Landed Mission Performance (Phoenix EPS Final Report),” Lockheed Martin..., B. D., and Desai, P. N., “Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing System..., and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander” AIAA Paper 2008-7346, Proceedings... Chemistry Laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander,” J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00A19... Identification of Minerals at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site. American Geophysical Union...., “Near-Surface Humidity at the Phoenix Landing Site as Measured by... al, “Phoenix: Summer Weather in Green Valley (126W, 68N on Mars),” Third... Acceptance Data Package for the Phoenix Solar Array,” ATK Space Systems...



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... International Conference on Environmental Systems Phoenix Mars Lander Mission: Thermal and CFD Modeling..., 2201 AZ, The Netherlands The Phoenix Mars Lander, launched on August 4, 2007, landed... planned 90-day lifespan). The Lander was equipped with instruments designed... the LIDAR and the full Lander, based on environmental thermal conditions... processes and climate history of Mars 1. Phoenix was equipped with a suite of... the Phoenix mission in understanding the weather processes active on Mars today... an artistic view of the Phoenix Lander and its instruments. Figure 2 shows... for characterizing Mars’ present climate and weather processes at the Phoenix landing... Figure 1. Artistic view of the Phoenix Lander showing different instruments (Credit: NASA... provide thermal isolation from the Lander deck as well as to... at the front (Right). Figure 6. Phoenix Lander thermal model. and internal natural... included as per the JPL Phoenix Environmental Specifications 4 but in the... Missions (the Phoenix Lander, the Global Surveyor, Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) it...), specific to 4 sols along the Phoenix mission: 9, 32, 119, and 147... 60 80 100 120 140 Phoenix Sol 16 14 12 10... 80 100 120 140 60 Phoenix Sol 0 Figure 7. Atmospheric temperature and... the 151 sols of the Phoenix mission. LTST, Hours mission midpoint... Figure 8 provides the wind the Phoenix mission. magnitude and direction as... CFD study5 of the overall Lander demonstrated that the two other... affected by heating from the Lander deck and instruments, depending on... of the environment of the Phoenix landing site by entering some... Aeronautics and Astronautics The exact Phoenix landing site coordinates are 68... Global Surveyor orbiting Mars, measurement of the Phoenix landing shows that the... ground thermal inertial at the Phoenix landing would be around 250... thermal environment at the Phoenix landing site. Phoenix Sol # Optical Depth 9 32... 0.50 0.65 0.24 0.50 Table 1: Phoenix landing site environmental parameters Surface... MET instruments and the various Lander components, classical empirical Nusselt equations... the sols considered during the Phoenix mission, only forced convection cases...: 1) the LIDAR and, 2) the full Lander. In both cases, the Martian... Martian air from the powered Phoenix instruments and hotter spacecraft surfaces... on the LIDAR and the Lander, two sets of simulations were... the problem of the full Lander, it was not possible to... of simulations involved the complete Lander with all the instruments on... (Left) and of the full Lander (Right). direction to be varied... 7×2.5×1.5 m was used whereas for the Lander a domain size of 50×10... the Open Lander geometry was used to approximate the full Lander. Next... with a constant temperature. For the Lander, all surfaces were set to... wall. All surfaces on the Lander were also given a constant temperature... the LIDAR. For the full Lander, however, the simulation contained only... which mimicked data from the Phoenix Mission on sol 52. Wind... (Left) and of the full Lander (Right). on the heat transfer... of 5%. CASE LIDAR U∞ (m/s) {4.14, 15} LANDER 4.14 Table 4. Initial conditions used... the full Lander For the simulation involving the full Lander, the analysis is complicated by the three-dimensionality of the Lander... Figure 17. Schematic of the Lander deck showing the direction of... cases analysed for the full Lander. on the local heat transfer... from the distance from the Lander deck. It can also be... two horizontal planes above the Lander deck. Here, the effects of... coefficient of the LIDAR. Lander were provided in Figure 21... z = 0.250 m plane (Right) of the Lander for various wind directions. 17... z = 0.250 m plane (Right) of the Lander for various wind directions. 18... Thermal analysis of the full Lander was performed for the four... contours of temperature for the Lander during hot and cold conditions... average temperature values of various Lander’s components. In order to illustrate... to 4 m/s, as measured by the Phoenix Telltale, and an arbitrary wind... velocities: 4 m/s as measured by the Phoenix during sol 32, and an... the thermal design of the Lander (mainly due to USA ITAR.... Contours of temperature on the Lander for hot (top) and cold... on Mars, such as Phoenix, the Global Surveyor, Odyssey and the Mars Reconnaissance... velocity, defining the environment of Phoenix for four sols during its... a CFD analysis of the full Lander was used to determine local... amount of instrumentation of the Lander, 2) our lack of knowledge of... real operation modes of the Phoenix bus and payloads, as well... precise design details of the Phoenix flight hardware (mainly due to... for the Phoenix Mars Lander”, IAC-06-A.3.03, 2006. 2 Taylor, P., et al., “Phoenix Meteorological... and Related Data From the Phoenix MET Station and Their Use.... 6 Arvidson, R., D. et al., “Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix Landing Site Selection and....1029/2007JE003021. 7 L. K. Tamppari, L.K., et al., “Phoenix and MRO Coordinated Atmospheric Science...., “Permafrost and Polygons at the Phoenix Landing Site”, 40th Lunar and...



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... imagers for NASA’s Mars Polar Lander, launched in 1999, and Phoenix Mars Lander, launched in... an unsuccessful attempted Mars landing by Mars Polar Lander in 1999 without definitive... Mars — NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the European Space Agency’s Mars... their trajectories around Mars, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey orbiter each... Kit Comparing Two Mars Rover Projects Mars Science Laboratory Mars Exploration Rovers Rovers... mission life on Mars 1 Mars year (98 weeks) 90 Mars sols (13 weeks... stage uses eight rockets, called Mars lander engines (MLE), positioned around its... goals, Mars Pathfinder set ambitious objectives and surpassed them. This lander released... information from instruments on the lander and the rover. The information... for the lander and seven days for the rover. Mars Global Surveyor... landing sites for the Phoenix Mars Lander and the two Mars Exploration Rovers. It... became the destination for the Phoenix Mars Lander. Odyssey’s camera system, which examines... landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers, Phoenix and Curiosity. Relays via... way for the rovers and Phoenix to send information to Earth.... Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enabled the Phoenix mission to choose... and surface operations of Curiosity. Phoenix Mars Lander (August 2007 – November 2008): In... and selected missions to Mars: Mars Scout missions. The Phoenix Mars Lander proposal, submitted by... 2007. The mission sent a stationary lander with a robotic digging arm and... environment in a far-northern zone. Phoenix confirmed and examined deposits of... presence of thawed water. The lander also found soil chemistry with... also carry a European-built small lander demonstrator. InSight (in consideration for... into a broader history. Similarly, the Phoenix Mars Lander investigated a site with intriguing characteristics...- 55 Press Kit latitude regions. Phoenix landed at a far-northern site... the soil above the ice, Phoenix found a chemical called perchlorate, which... synergy among Mars spacecraft, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which reached Mars in 2006, found a less rocky, safer landing site for Phoenix... found at the foot of a lander spacecraft, but it may have... equator on modern Mars, including possibly beneath the Viking 2 Lander, than most... Mars flyby 7/14/65, returned 21 photos Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71, lander operated... photos Mars 4: USSR, 7/21/73, failed Mars orbiter, flew past Mars 2/10/74 Mars 5: USSR, 7/25/73, Mars orbiter... days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/12/74, lander failed due to fast impact Mars 7: USSR, 8/9/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/9/74, lander missed the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 6/19/76-1980, lander 7/20/76-1982 Zond 2: USSR, 11/30/64, Mars flyby, passed Mars but radio failed, returned no planetary data Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/761987, lander 9/3/76-1980; combined, the..., 7/7/88, Mars orbiter and Phobos lander, lost 8/88 en route to Mars Mariner 7: U.S., 3/27/69, Mars flyby.../88, Mars orbiter and Phobos lander, lost 3/89 near Phobos Mars 1969A: USSR, 3/27/69, Mars orbiter... Mars Observer: U.S., 9/25/92, Mars orbiter, lost just before Mars arrival 8/21/93 Mars 1969B: USSR, 4/2/69, Mars orbiter, failed during launch Mars..., Mars orbiter, failed during launch Kosmos 419: USSR, 5/10/71, Mars lander, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived 11/27/71, no useful data, lander burned up due to steep entry Mars Science Laboratory Launch Mars 96... penetrators, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander/rover, landed 7/4/97... arrival 9/23/99 Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2: U.S., 1/3/99, lander/two penetrators, lost on arrival 12/3/99 Mars Odyssey: U.S., 3/7/01, Mars orbiter... communication relay Mars Express/Beagle 2: European Space Agency, 6/2/03, Mars orbiter/lander, orbiter completed prime mission 11/05, currently in extended mission; lander lost on arrival 12/25/03 Mars Science Laboratory Launch Mars Exploration... of science and communication relay Phoenix Mars Lander: U.S., 8/4/07, Mars lander, landed 5/25/08, completed...



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... Earth’s Mars Science Laboratory Landing 7 Press Kit Mars Science Laboratory Investigations Mars Science... imagers for NASA’s Mars Polar Lander, launched in 1999, and Phoenix Mars Lander, launched in... an unsuccessful attempted Mars landing by Mars Polar Lander in 1999 without definitive... Mars — NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the European Space Agency’s Mars... with a Mars orbiter passing overhead. In their trajectories around Mars, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey orbiter each... Kit Comparing Two Mars Rover Projects Mars Science Laboratory Mars Exploration Rovers Rovers... mission life on Mars 1 Mars year (98 weeks) 90 Mars sols (13 weeks... stage uses eight rockets, called Mars lander engines (MLE), positioned around its... goals, Mars Pathfinder set ambitious objectives and surpassed them. This lander released... information from instruments on the lander and the rover. The information... for the lander and seven days for the rover. Mars Global Surveyor... landing sites for the Phoenix Mars Lander and the two Mars Exploration Rovers. It... became the destination for the Phoenix Mars Lander. Odyssey’s camera system, which examines... landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers, Phoenix and Curiosity. Relays via... way for the rovers and Phoenix to send information to Earth.... Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enabled the Phoenix mission to choose... and surface operations of Curiosity. Phoenix Mars Lander (August 2007 – November 2008): In... and selected missions to Mars: Mars Scout missions. The Phoenix Mars Lander proposal, submitted by... 2007. The mission sent a stationary lander with a robotic digging arm and... environment in a far-northern zone. Phoenix confirmed and examined deposits of... presence of thawed water. The lander also found soil chemistry with... into a broader history. Similarly, the Phoenix Mars Lander investigated a site with intriguing characteristics...- 54 Press Kit latitude regions. Phoenix landed at a far-northern site... the soil above the ice, Phoenix found a chemical called perchlorate, which... synergy among Mars spacecraft, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which reached Mars in 2006, found a less rocky, safer landing site for Phoenix... found at the foot of a lander spacecraft, but it may have... equator on modern Mars, including possibly beneath the Viking 2 Lander, than most... Mars 1969B: USSR, 4/2/69, Mars orbiter, failed during launch Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71, lander operated... photos Mars 4: USSR, 7/21/73, failed Mars orbiter, flew past Mars 2/10/74 Mars 5: USSR, 7/25/73, Mars orbiter... days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/12/74, lander failed due to fast impact Mars 7: USSR, 8/9/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/9/74, lander missed the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 6/19/76–1980, lander 7/20/76–1982 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76–1987, lander 9/3/76..., 7/7/88, Mars orbiter and Phobos lander, lost 8/88 en route to Mars Phobos 2: USSR, 7/12/88, Mars orbiter and Phobos lander, lost 3/89 near Phobos Mars Observer: U.S., 9/25/92, Mars... 8: U.S., 5/8/71, Mars orbiter, failed during launch Mars Global Surveyor: U.S., 11/7/96, Mars orbiter...: USSR, 5/10/71, Mars lander, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 96: Russia, 1/16..., launch vehicle failed Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived 11/27/71, no useful data, lander burned up due to steep entry Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander/rover... arrival 9/23/99 Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2: U.S., 1/3/99, lander/two penetrators, lost on arrival 12/3/99 Mars Odyssey: U.S., 3/7/01, Mars orbiter... communication relay Mars Express/Beagle 2: European Space Agency, 6/2/03, Mars orbiter/lander, orbiter completed prime mission 11/05, currently in extended mission; lander lost on arrival 12/25/03 Mars Exploration Rover... of science and communication relay Phoenix Mars Lander: U.S., 8/4/07, Mars lander, landed 5/25/08, completed..., Phobos lander and sample return, achieved Earth orbit only Mars Science Laboratory...