Спутник ФКИ. Phoenix Mars Lander. [Редактировать]

Феникс — посадочный модуль НАСА для изучения Марса, работавший в 2008 году. Феникс стал первым аппаратом, запущенным по программе Mars Scout. На его борту находился комплекс приборов, позволяющих изучать геологическую историю воды, а также исследовать среду, с целью выявления условий, благоприятных для жизни микроорганизмов. «Феникс» — шестой аппарат, полностью успешно севший на поверхность Марса. Также «Феникс» стал первым аппаратом, успешно совершившим посадку в полярном регионе Марса. Техническое и научное руководство в проекте «Феникс» осуществляли Лаборатория реактивного движения и Университет Аризоны соответственно, изготовлением аппарата занималась компания Lockheed Martin Space System, Канадское космическое агентство снабдило зонд метеокомплексом. Кроме того, проект шёл при партнёрстве университетов США, Канады, Швейцарии, Дании, Германии и Великобритании. Запуск аппарата состоялся 4 августа 2007 года, успешная посадка произошла 25 мая 2008 года.

Аппарат, приземлившийся в зоне марсианской Арктики, был призван ответить на три ключевых вопроса: пригодны ли полярные районы Марса для жизни, тает ли там периодически лед и как менялись погодные условия в зоне приземления в исторический период, а также исследовать особенности марсианского климата. Главной задачей миссии являлся поиск воды на Красной планете. «За водой» — именно так звучал неофициальный лозунг проекта. К тому же считается, что Феникс стал ещё одной ступенькой на пути к будущему полёту на Марс людей. 18 июня 2008 г. этот зонд нашёл лёд, который потом растаял. 1 августа 2008 года после тщательного исследования выяснилось, что лёд был водяной.

Последний сеанс связи с аппаратом прошёл 2 ноября 2008 года, и 10 ноября этого же года было объявлено об окончании миссии.

В рамках проекта NASA выполняло запуск устройства, Университет штата Аризона курировал создание оборудования, установленного на космическом аппарате, а компания Lockheed Martin сконструировала и построила собственно сам корабль. В задачи Jet Propulsion Laboratory, подразделения Калифорнийского технологического института (California Institute of Technology), входят управление маневрированием марсианского зонда в космосе, а также расчет траектории движения. Помимо этого JPL взяла на себя посадку корабля на поверхность Красной планеты. «Мозгом» аппарата является его бортовой компьютер BAE Systems RAD6000, построенный на базе RISC-процессоров, использующих 32-разрядную архитектуру IBM Power и работающий под управлением ОСРВ VxWorks. Среди функций компьютера, устойчивого к значительным перепадам температур и имеющего защиту от радиации, — навигация, а также управление научным оборудованием и электропитанием космического аппарата.

Полезная нагрузка:

  • Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). В состав оборудования корабля входит построенная в Университете штата Аризона оптическая система Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Она состоит из двух камер, смонтированных на выдвижной башенке высотой около 2 м, и предназначена для визуального исследования планеты. Система позволит получать стереоизображения арктической марсианской пустыни с разрешением 1024×1024 в оптическом и инфракрасном диапазонах. SSI будет поддерживать манипуляции механической руки и даст возможность формировать цифровые модели рельефа (ЦМР) окружающей корабль местности, что, в свою очередь, обеспечит создание трёхмерных виртуальных изображений марсианского пространства. Помимо этого SSI поспособствует геоморфологическому и минералогическому анализу Красной планеты. Ещё одной задачей является исследование оптических свойств атмосферы Марса, в частности — визуальная оценка количества пыли в воздухе. Кроме вышеперечисленных задач, SSI будет вести наблюдение за количеством пыли, осаждающейся на приземлённом космическом аппарате, что позволит сделать вывод о скорости осадконакопления и особенностях протекания атмосферных и эрозионных процессов на планете, а также даст возможность оценивать запылённость солнечных батарей и вызванное этим фактором снижение количества энергии. Последнее напрямую влияет на время функционирования Феникса.
  • Установленная на конце манипулятора камера Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) создана совместно учёными из Университета штата Аризона и немецким Институтом Макса Планка. Камера укреплена непосредственно возле ковша и позволяет в деталях видеть место, где проводится забор образцов грунта и льда. Изображение стенок вырытой траншеи, как полагают учёные, позволит геологам определить наличие и очерёдность залегания напластований. В частности, изображения, на которых видны цвета и размеры частиц грунта, слагающего поверхность Марса в вертикальном разрезе, дадут возможность сделать выводы об изменении условий залегания осадков, а значит, и об истории изменения марсианского климата. Камера снабжена двумя источниками света, верхний из которых состоит из 36 голубых, 18 зелёных и 18 красных ламп, а нижний — из 16, 8 и 8 ламп соответственно. Помимо этого в состав устройства входят два моторчика, первый меняет фокусное расстояние объектива, а второй поднимает и опускает прозрачный пылезащитный кожух. Максимальное разрешение камеры — 23 микрона на пиксел.
  • Основной инструмент корабля — манипулятор Robotic Arm (RA), созданный JPL и способный двигаться вперёд-назад, вправо-влево, вверх и вниз, а также совершать круговые движения. Длина устройства составляет 2,35 м. На Земле манипулятор испытывали в американской Долине Смерти, местности с очень твёрдым грунтом, где он смог выкопать за 4 часа траншею глубиной 25 см. В задачи метеорологического оборудования (MET, Meteorological Station), созданного Канадским космическим агентством, входит ежедневная фиксация изменений марсианской погоды путем использования датчиков температуры и атмосферного давления, а также измерение концентрации пыли и ледяного пара в воздухе Красной планеты с помощью лидара (light detection and ranging, LIDAR). Лидар будет посылать короткие импульсы света вертикально вверх и фиксировать отражённые атмосферой сигналы, что поможет выявить наличие невидимых невооружённым глазом облаков, тумана и мест концентрации пыли. При этом температура на планете будет измеряться с помощью трёх термопар, установленных на выдвижной башенке высотой 1,2 м. Такое инженерное решение сможет фиксировать вертикальный профиль температуры у поверхности Марса.
  • Модуль MECA (Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer), создание которого курировалось JPL, включает в себя оптический и сканирующий атомно-силовой микроскопы. Работа последнего основана на использовании сил атомных связей, действующих между атомами вещества. Атомный микроскоп — результат работы швейцарского консорциума, а оптический создан Университетом штата Аризона. Максимальное разрешение оптического микроскопа — 4 мкм, атомного — 10 нм. Микроскопические изображения марсианского грунта будут использоваться, в частности, для поиска доказательств того, что изучаемый субстрат когда-либо подвергался воздействию воды. Для этого будет проводиться поиск крошечных вкраплений глины. Оптический микроскоп снабжён инструментами подсветки — в его состав входят красная, зелёная, синяя и ультрафиолетовая лампы. Одноразовые средства подготовки образцов при этом созданы с использованием силикона. Помимо этого в состав MECA входит инструмент для химического анализа растворенных в воде образцов грунта. Подобный метод исследования позволяет определять pH полученного раствора, а также выявлять наличие кислорода, углекислого газа, хлоридов, бромидов и сульфатов. MECA также содержит инструмент для определения тепловой и электрической проводимости образцов — для этого используются три иглы, вмонтированные в верхнюю часть механической руки.
  • Модуль TEGA (Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer), построенный университетами штатов Аризона и Техаса в Далласе, является предметом особой гордости команды Феникса. Устройство содержит восемь миниатюрных одноразовых муфельных печек, в которых происходит нагревание образцов марсианского грунта. По своим размерам каждая такая печка напоминает стержень шариковой ручки. Нагревание проходит медленно, при этом определяется теплоёмкость образца. Когда температура в печке достигает 1000 °C, нагретый материал начинает выделять газ, который анализируется встроенным масс-спектрометром, определяющим концентрацию конкретных молекул и атомов в образце.
  • Последний из инструментов, Mars Descent Imager (MARDI), был создан компанией Malin Space Science Systems, и представляет собой камеру, которая может использоваться для фотографирования места спуска в процессе снижения аппарата на поверхность Марса. Ожидалось, что съёмка начнётся после того, как Феникс снизится до высоты примерно в 7 км и сбросит термозащиту. Фотографии помогут точно определить место, где сел корабль, а также предоставить информацию о географических, геоморфологических и геологических особенностях близлежащего ландшафта. Полученные снимки также могут помочь определить, является ли место посадки типичным для приполярных регионов Марса. То есть могут ли полученные в ходе проекта результаты быть распространены на всю арктическую марсианскую пустыню. MARDI весит около полукилограмма и, как предполагалось, израсходует на создание серии снимков не более 3 Вт электричества. Угол обзора при этом будет составлять 66°, размер каждой фотографии 1024×1024 пиксела, а время экспозиции равно 4 мс. Однако, предстартовые тесты летательного аппарата идентифицировали потенциальную проблему в обработках данных от камеры в течение критических моментов заключительного этапа посадки на поверхность планеты. Это привело к решению не использовать камеру. Инструмент также содержит микрофон, который, равно как и камера, не был использован.

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
132003НайтиНайти
2Mars Scout 1НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг680

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САСMay 25, 2008[1] – November 2, 2008 (lost communication); November 10, 2008[1]
90 Martian sols (planned)
157 Martian sols (actual)
2Дата (сведения с орбиты)2008-05-25

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2007-034A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.520
2Оператор Космическое агентство США

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2007-08-04 at 09:26:34 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xPhoenix Mars Lander
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 960 документов по запросу «Phoenix Mars Lander». [Перейти к поиску]


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... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 8.6.10. Mars Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 8.6.11. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 8.6.12. Phoenix Mars Lander. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 8.6.13. Zukünftige Missionen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 8.6.13.1. Mars Science Laboratory... für Phoenix Mars Lander, MOLA Regionale Karte bei 68,5° N, 240° O mit aufgetragener geplanter Landestelle für Phoenix... Landegebiets für Mars Lander Phoenix Geplante Landestelle für Phoenix Mars Lander, Context Camera Detail der Landestelle des Phoenix Mars Lander mit... Phoenix-Landung, Mars Color Imager Phoenix Mars Lander am Fallschirm kurz vor der Landung, HiRISE Phoenix Mars Lander am Fallschirm kurz vor der Landung, HiRISE Phoenix Mars Lander an der... Aufprallspuren von Phoenix auf der Oberfläche, HiRISE Fallschirm des Phoenix Mars Lander auf... HiRISE Aufnahmen von Phoenix gewinnt, Einzelbild und Movie Phoenix Mars Lander am Fallschirm während... Phoenix Mars Lander Wissenschaftler bei Arbeiten am Phoenix Mars Lander Wissenschaftler bei Arbeiten am Phoenix Mars Lander im Reinraum Phoenix Mars Lander auf dem Mars, künstlerische... Phoenix Mars Lander Vorbereitung des Phoenix Mars Landers für erste Tests in der Vakuumkammer Absenken des Phoenix Mars Lander... Roboterarms des Phoenix Mars Lander Phoenix Mars Lander auf dem Mars, künstlerische Darstellung Phoenix Mars Landers auf dem Mars, Anaglyph, künstlerische Darstellung Wissenschaftler bei Arbeiten am Phoenix Mars Lander mit ausgeklappten Sonnenkollektoren Phoenix Mars Lander beendet die Untersuchungen mit Winterbeginn, künstlerische Darstellung Phoenix Mars Lander im Moment der Landung, künstlerische Darstellung Roboterarm des Phoenix Mars Lander, Modelldarstellung Thermales Gas-Massenspektrometer auf Phoenix Mars Lander Mars Bestandsverzeichnis 2009... Einsatz auf Phoenix MECA Instrumente auf Phoenix Mars Lander Position der Phoenix-Landestelle bei 68° N, 233° O bezogen auf die Erde Phoenix Mars Lander auf dem Weg zum Mars, Einzelbild aus Movie Phoenix Mars Lander 7 min... Movie Phoenix Mars Lander beim Eintritt in die MarsAtmosphäre, Einzelbild aus Movie Phoenix Mars Lander etwa 1 km über der Oberfläche, Einzelbild aus Movie Phoenix Mars Lander... aus Movie Phoenix Mars Lander unmittelbar vor der Landung, Einzelbild aus Movie Phoenix Mars Lander vom... auf dem Mars, Movie Route des Phoenix Mars Lander von der Erde zum Mars, Einzelbild... derzeit am Mars befinden und Flugbahn des Phoenix Mars Landers Fallschirmtest für Phoenix Mars Lander in...üsen des Phoenix Mars Lander, Einzelbild und Movie Größe der Landeellipse des Phoenix Mars Lander im Vergleich mit Long Island, NY Größe der Landeellipse des Phoenix Mars Lander... Landegebiet des Phoenix Mars Lander, topographische Karte Phoenix Mars Lander auf dem Weg zum Mars bei einem... Eingeklappter Roboterarm des Phoenix Mars Lander kurz nach der Landung Mars, weite Ebenen der... PIA10714 Mars, eines der Standbeine des Phoenix Mars Lander auf fester Oberfläche Mars, Rand... des Phoenix Mars Lander kurz nach der Landung Einer der Sonnenkollektoren des Phoenix Mars Lander kurz nach der Landung Mars, weite Ebenen der... Echtfarbe Mars, eines der Standbeine des Phoenix Mars Lander auf dem Boden im Detail Phoenix Lander auf dem Mars und... vom Phoenix Lander während des Abstiegs am Fallschirm macht, Einzelbild und Movie Phoenix Mars Lander am Fallschirm kurz vor der Landung, Aufnahme: HiRISE auf MRO Phoenix Mars Lander... MRO Mars, amerikanische Flagge und Mini-DVD an Deck des Phoenix Mars Lander Phoenix Landestelle, Zoom auf Fallschirm und Hülle, Einzelbild und Movie Phoenix Mars Lander... von Phoenix auf der Oberfläche, HiRISE (MRO) Fallschirm des Phoenix Mars Lander auf... MRO Aufnahmen von Phoenix gewinnt, Einzelbild und Movie Phoenix Mars Lander am Fallschirm während..." unterhalb des Phoenix Mars Lander, RAC Roboterarm-Kamera blickt unter den Phoenix Mars Lander, Einzelbild und... den Triebwerken unter dem Phoenix Mars Lander, RAC Marsboden am Phoenix Mars Lander mit weggeblasener Erde...



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... signs of biological compounds on Mars. European Space Agency (ESA) selected the Urey Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector (Urey..., collected from 2 meters (6.6 feet) beneath Mars’s surface. Urey would then trap... for Probing for Life on Mars: Detector To Hunt for Organic... exploration of the Moon and Mars. 17 4 February Expedition 14 Commander... to launch a joint mission to Mars in 2009, marking a milestone in... would launch a Chinese satellite to Mars, along with Russia’s Phobos Explorer... Russian Plan Joint Mission to Mars,” 28 March 2007. 44 NASA... of the arm of the Mars rover Spirit had measured a concentration... strongest evidence to date that Mars was much wetter in the... York, Principal Investigator for the Mars rovers’ scientific instruments, underscored the... after nearly 1,200 days on Mars makes it even more remarkable.” J. Douglas McCuistion, Director of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, added that the...,” 22 May 2007. 71 NASA, “Mars Rover Spirit Unearths Surprise Evidence... Rover Finds Surprising Evidence for Mars’ Watery Past,” 21 May 2007... enable research on the Moon, Mars, and other destinations in Earth... focus to the Moon and Mars programs, warning, “We can’t repeat.... 109 AUGUST 2007 4 August NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander launched aboard a Delta-2 rocket from...). The 350-kilogram (772-pound) Lander carried scientific instruments and a robotic... central Greenland or northern Alaska. Phoenix’s instruments included eight onboard ovens... avoid contamination, Phoenix would use each oven just once. Phoenix also carried... data revealing the composition of Mars’s surface minerals and of its...); John Johnson Jr., “Phoenix Spacecraft Launches to Mars,” Los Angeles Times, 6 August..., to transport human explorers to Mars. Gilbrech had joined NASA in... exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations in Earth... NASA’s JPL announced that the Phoenix Mars Lander flight-operations team had successfully... August. During its flight to Mars, Phoenix had communicated with Earth via... UHF radio after landing on Mars. Because the X-band radio unit... that would jettison shortly before Phoenix reached the Martian atmosphere, the... communications once the craft reached Mars. 129 5 September South Korean Vice... shortly before 129 NASA JPL, “Phoenix Mars Lander Status Report: Radar and Other... (accessed 9 August 2010); Dave Mosher, “Phoenix Spacecraft Passes In-Flight Tests... announced that its solar-powered Mars rover duo, Spirit and Opportunity..., FL), 7 September 2007. 132 NASA, “Mars Rovers Survive Severe Dust Storms... a special issue about water on Mars. The issue included five reports... the detailed images that NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) had captured...’s primary mission was to study Mars’s hydrologic history, using six scientific... the resolution of any previous Mars imager. The papers published in... evidence for liquid water on Mars was rare and difficult to discern. NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), which had visited Mars in 1999... flows of liquid water on Mars. However, MRO’s observations suggested otherwise... images suggested that objects impacting Mars had triggered trickles of water... indicated that the cap on Mars’s south pole held the largest... nearly four Earth years of Mars exploration. Steven W. Squyres of Cornell..., “NASA Orbiter Provides Insights About Mars Water and Climate,” news release...=&hits=10&RESULT FORMAT=&fulltext=Mars+Reconnaissance+Orbiter&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype... Bryner, “Hope for Water on Mars Dims with Sharp New Images... asteroids located in orbit between Mars and Jupiter—Vesta in 2011...) instrument would travel to Mars aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), a robotic... would conduct similar investigations on Mars— measuring hydrogen to analyze the... extend the missions of the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity... twin rovers had landed on Mars in January 2004, embarking on... last 90 days. John L. Callas, Mars Rover Project Manager at NASA... Operations for Its Long-Lived Mars Rovers,” news release 07-208... responsibility for designing the lunar lander and other lunar-surface systems... the development of the lunar lander’s descent stage and the development... systems of Ares 5, the lunar lander, and for other lunar-surface... responsibility for developing the lunar lander’s ascent stage and Ares 5’s power... supporting roles in the lunar-lander project and lead responsibility for... assembly of the human lunar lander, help integrate lunar-habitat modules... supporting roles in the lunar-lander project, in addition to lead... the testing of the lunar-lander descent engine. 159 Mission Specialists... Center Roles for Ares 5, Lunar Lander,” Space.com, 30 October 2007... 2006. Using hand-me-down Mars Express designs, ESA had quickly... Macro-Fiber Composite Mars Global Surveyor Memorandum of Understanding Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Marshall Space Flight Center Mars Science Laboratory...?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=Mars+ Reconnaissance+Orbiter&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype...



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... the Moon and eventually to Mars and other destinations. During each... the lunar lander descent stage. use on the lunar lander ascent stage... missions to the Moon and Mars. Three initiated experiments, the Threshold... support long-duration transits to Mars. A c t i v i t i e s remained on board as part... and Aura; and the Mars Exploration Rovers and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Communications.... Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Phoenix, and Dawn were Mesosphere (AIM... change in appearance and dissipate. Phoenix, a Mars Lander, also launched aboard a Delta II... seven-minute descent through the Mars atmosphere to land on the... Events and F i s c a l for future lunar/Mars missions. 19 recommendation accepted by... of the northern polar region. Phoenix will be the an icy... the far-northern plains of Mars has ever been favorable for... are located in orbit between Mars and Jupiter, and they have... on Mars. Its robotic arm will dig to F i s c a l • The Phoenix mission to Mars... the first observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, scientists were able... telescopic camera ever sent to Mars began examining the planet last.... During 2007, after having explored Mars for 3.5 years in missions originally designed for three months, NASA’s Mars rovers faced perhaps their biggest... their groundbreaking field work on Mars. NASA’s Spirit rover analyzed a patch... strongest evidence yet that ancient Mars was much wetter than it... in Mars’ past, which continues to spur the hope that Mars was... 2 0 0 7 ing to the Moon and Mars time to seek shelter and... robotic spacecraft, and the Phoenix mission to Mars. All three suc­ cessfully... be signs of life on Mars. Another technique, F i s c a l observations of the... of human exploration missions to Mars, the Moon, or on the... of habitats on the Moon, Mars, or spacecraft. Researchers used experiments... be heavily involved in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission whose... processes on the surface of Mars. A e r o n a u t i c s S p a c e R e p o r t o f t h e 74 rim of the 800... Experiment (HiRise) camera aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). This camera... the highest resolution images of Mars from orbit (~30cm/ pixel) and... the Mars Science Laboratory rover, as well as support numerous Mars science... resolution digital elevation models of Mars ever made. In particular, images...) for first use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission, which is... that is currently operating on Mars. Also a chair of the MER... the science teams for the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and... Sounding (MARSIS) radar instrument on Mars Express; the HiRISE and Shallow..., included work on the Moon, Mars, Earth, Titan, and Venus, resulting... and military Unknown August 4, 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander 2007-034A Delta 2 Planetary science...-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System A c t i v i t i e s Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and... Defense Agency Manufacturing Extension Partnership Mars Exploration Rover Massachusetts Institute of... Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Marshall Space Flight...



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...@nasa.gov Washington, D.C. Guy Webster Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena... and a schedule of programming for Phoenix Mars lander activities, visit http://www.nasa... The Phoenix Mars Lander will investigate a site in the far north of Mars. The... north and south hemispheres of Mars. Phoenix will dig down to the... observations from earlier Mars landers closer to the equator. Phoenix will use... or later. Science Instruments The Phoenix Mars Lander carries seven science instruments, three... not open until after Phoenix has landed on Mars. 10 The robotic... Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, though with an improved illumination system. For the Phoenix... 2001 Lander mission, which was canceled in 2000. The instrument for Phoenix... the lander. The Canadian Space Agency provided the Meteorological Station for Phoenix... operational life of the Phoenix Mars lander after it reaches Mars is 90 Martian... the Phoenix team less then three months to use the lander’s instruments... used. 17 Mission Overview NASA’s Mars Phoenix Lander mission is flying to a site.... Interplanetary Cruise and Approach to Mars Phoenix began the portion of its... three hours before Phoenix enters the atmosphere of Mars on May 25... and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. During the cruise phase, the Phoenix lander remains tucked... Mars. Before the first maneuver, Phoenix was flying a trajectory that would miss Mars.... In the months before Phoenix reaches Mars, the lander is not the only... system on Phoenix resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in 1999 but did not land successfully. Engineers for Phoenix have remedied all the vulnerabilities identified in reviews of Mars Polar Lander... it reaches the top of Mars’ atmosphere, Phoenix will jettison the cruise... following the lander too closely and draping it after touchdown, Phoenix will... in the northern hemisphere of Mars. When Phoenix sets its three legs... beginning its first night on Mars, Phoenix will have an opportunity to... a functional near-twin of the Phoenix lander installed for testing of commands... on Phoenix is compatible with relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express. Phoenix... of making sure Phoenix doesn’t transport Earth life to Mars is to... spores survive. 26 Spacecraft The Phoenix Mars lander has a science payload and systems... of the shove that propels Phoenix to Mars comes from the launch... the lander’s array will stay folded inside the aeroshell until Phoenix reaches Mars... arm camera Surface stereoscopic imager Phoenix lander Mars descent imager (below deck) Meteorological.... Telecommunications From the surface of Mars, Phoenix will use the ultrahigh frequency... the voyage from Earth to Mars, Phoenix is using a different set of... and Control Phoenix keeps oriented as it flies toward Mars by using... coatings. The deck of the Phoenix lander doubles as an insulation layer... Mars’ Disc A miniature digital videodisc attached to the deck of the Phoenix lander... fits into a broader history. The Phoenix lander will also investigate a site with... NASA’s Mars missions together constitute the agency’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander mission.... The other finalist was Phoenix, a stationary lander to dig into icy soil... landing sites for Phoenix, as well as for the Mars Exploration Rover... sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays via this... are planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003... of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will serve as a relay asset for Phoenix and later surface missions. q Mars Science Laboratory (2009...” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first. NASA..., Mars orbiter, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived..., lander burned up due to steep entry Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71, lander operated... days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/12/74, lander failed due to fast impact Mars 7: USSR, 8/9/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/9/74, lander missed the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander..., lander 7/20/76-1982 45 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander... penetrators, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed... arrival 9/23/99 Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2: U.S., 1/3/99, lander and two penetrators... all previous Mars missions combined. 46 Program/Project Management Phoenix Mars Lander is a project... executive for Mars Scouts, Ramon DePaula is program executive for Phoenix and... David Beaty are Mars chief scientists, Barry Goldstein is Phoenix project manager...



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... an artist’s concept of the Phoenix Lander with legs deployed and thrusters... artwork for several Mars missions [1]. During lander surface operations, the Phoenix project generated many exotic images from Mars. One... the Phoenix flight system. ........................................... 17 Figure 1-12 Phoenix Lander. ........................................................................................... 21 Figure 1-13 Phoenix science... antenna pattern (Lander mockup, 401.6 MHz). ... 63 Figure 2-34 Phoenix UHF antennas among other deck objects. ...................................... 64 Figure 2-35 (Left) Phoenix Lander mockup; (Right) Phoenix model with ground effect... the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging into soil and... JPL [5]. In May 2010, the Phoenix Lander project ended operations after repeated... with the lander. No transmission from the lander was detected. Phoenix also did... ice damage to the lander’s solar panels. Phoenix was not designed to... The spacecraft for the Phoenix Lander mission to Mars was assembled and tested... Phoenix trajectory to Mars. 9 Figure 1-6 Interplanetary trajectory. During the cruise phase, the Phoenix lander... on Phoenix resembled Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander (MPL) reached Mars in... for Phoenix remedied all the vulnerabilities identified in reviews of Mars Polar Lander... System Description Phoenix flew the existing lander from the Mars Surveyor Program (MSP.... The lander’s array stayed folded inside the aeroshell until Phoenix reached Mars. The... coatings. The deck of the Phoenix lander doubled as an insulation layer... mission. 1.6.2 Payload (Science Instruments) The Phoenix Mars Lander carried seven science instruments, three... payload. 20 Figure 1-12 Phoenix Lander. Figure 1-13 Phoenix science payload elements. 21... • Terminal descent • Lander preparation Roughly 5 minutes prior to Phoenix entry, the cruise... during these critical events, the Phoenix lander was required to provide UHF... terminal descent, the lander transmitted at 32 kbps. Phoenix had a requirement to.... 37 Chute Deploy Lander Sep TD TD +1 min Phoenix was planned to..., all communications to the lander was through the Phoenix UHF transceiver. MRO... spacecraft. The Mars01 Lander environments enveloped those of Phoenix for the WTS... Phoenix entry configuration. Figure 2-26 Phoenix landed configuration. 55 2.5.1 UHF Transceiver The Phoenix lander... a full-duplex link between the Phoenix lander and Odyssey, using the Proximity... antenna pattern (Lander mockup, 401.6 MHz). 63 Figure 2-34 Phoenix UHF antennas.... 64 Figure 2-35 (Left) Phoenix Lander mockup; (Right) Phoenix model with ground effect... used on Mars Polar Lander (MPL) and a longer one added for Phoenix. The... Phoenix Lander distinguished itself in a number of ways from previous Mars missions. First, Phoenix... This section compares a set of Phoenix lander return-link actual data volumes... from Phoenix [37]. Figure 4-19 Overflight durations between MEX orbiter and Phoenix. Mars Express was not used routinely to support Phoenix during... to demonstrate MEX lander relay capabilities. For this the Phoenix team sent... of Mars surface vehicles such as the Mars Science Laboratory and the Phoenix Lander... storage. To retrieve the lander data, the Phoenix project sent a telemetry retrieval...] and [36]. Since Phoenix operated as a stationary lander, the relative orbiter geometry... orbiters. The Phoenix lander used a 3-day planning cycle while the Mars Express used... 8 References [1] “Photo galley, the spacecraft,” Phoenix Mars Mission website, University of Arizona.... http://phoenix.lpl.arizona.edu/images.php?gID=140&cID=1 [2] “Phoenix Lander Self Portrait on Mars, Vertical Projection,” JPL Phoenix Mission website...?feature=2017 [6] “Phoenix Mars Lander Is Silent, New Image Shows Damage,” Phoenix Mars Mission (website), University of Arizona, Tucson, May 24, 2010. http://phoenix.lpl.arizona.edu/05_25_10_pr.php [7] Mars Phoenix Lander, NASA Facts (web....jpl.nasa.gov/news/fact_sheets/mars-phoenix.pdf [8] Phoenix Mars Lander, “Mission Overview” (web page... to Article 14.) [14] NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander Working With Sticky Soil, July....nasa.gov/news/phoenix/release.php?ArticleID=1808 [15] Phoenix Mars Mission, Uncovering..., Mason, Ohio), May 4, 2001. [21] Phoenix Mars Lander, “News and Features,” (web site..., “Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission,” 2010 IEEE Aerospace Conference..., UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena..., California, May 6, 2008. [36] G. Signori, Phoenix Mars Lander Telecommunications Development and Operational Lessons...] C. A. Lewicki, J. Krajewski, P. Ilott, and J. Dates, “Phoenix Mars Scout UHF Relay-Only Operations...



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... any subsequent lander mission in recent years. The recent Mars Exploration Rovers... (Table 3): Viking Lander 1 and 2 (VL1, VL2), Mars Pathfinder (MPF), and Phoenix (PHX). The... the upper thermocouple on the Phoenix lander, showing examples of p and T variations... 4. 4.1.2. Mars Pathfinder Meteorological Instrumentation [52] The MPF comprised the larger stationary lander... in Figure 11. 4.1.3. Phoenix Meteorological Instrumentation [55] Phoenix’s payload included the Meteorological...” [Taylor et al., 2008, p.1]. The Phoenix MET package made direct atmospheric... the entry and descent. The Phoenix MET package consisted of temperature... deflection being estimated utilizing the Phoenix lander’s imaging system (see Figure 12... estimates of winds at the Phoenix landing site. Adapted from Holstein... the Martian PBL perspective, the Phoenix MET package observations have been... two Mars Exploration Rovers [Lemmon et al., 2004], and the Phoenix lander [Moores... 3 Martian years (Figure 4). 4.2.3. Phoenix LIDAR [66] The Phoenix lander’s payload included the first... optical extinction coefficient at the Phoenix landing site, derived from the... snow‐like precipitation over the Phoenix site, as graphically illustrated in... and time, derived from the Phoenix LIDAR backscatter signal at a wavelength... in a similar manner. 4.4. Use of Mars Lander Data to Validate Surface Layer... from the Viking, Pathfinder, and Phoenix missions have been used to...]; Davy et al. [2010] for Phoenix data). On Earth, such validations... both the Pathfinder and the Phoenix landers were equipped still for... of z0T. From Pathfinder and Phoenix, one could use the measured.... Spectra of temperature from the Phoenix lander [Davy et al., 2010], normalized... 2 [Rafkin et al., 2004] and Phoenix [Tyler et al., 2008; Michaels... modeling in high‐latitude regions (Phoenix landing site) that the influence... support of, e.g., the MER and Phoenix missions have been reported for..., including the MER rover and Phoenix lander) spacecraft, at best equipped with..., since the Viking, Pathfinder, and Phoenix landers have already made extensive... of exobiologically or geologically focused lander missions, and (2) the relatively modest... landing vehicle called the MetNet lander (Mars Network lander (MNL); http://www.meiga... RG3005 with capacitive sensors of Phoenix and MSL heritage. Dust observations... from the lander to minimize thermal contamination from the lander itself of... Mars Climate Sounder (MRO) Mars Exploration Rover M Meteorological package (PHX) Meteorological Network: Mars lander... Institute Mars Express Mars Global Surveyor Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MER) Mars Network lander; see also MetNet Mars Observer Camera (MGS) Mars Odyssey 2001 Mars Orbiter...) Phobos and Mars mission launched by Soviet Union Phoenix specific humidity atmospheric... Imaging Subsystem (VO) Viking Lander 1 Viking Lander 2 Viking lander Viking Meteorology Instrument System... climate evolution of Mars but could also place future lander missions at... and related data from the Phoenix MET station and their use... Polar region of Mars: A study of the 2007 Phoenix Mars lander sites, Geophys. Res... and dust devils at the Phoenix Mars mission landing site, J. Geophys. Res...), Telltale wind indicator for the Mars Phoenix lander, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A04, doi...), A boundary layer model for Mars: Comparison with Viking lander and entry data... (1972), Meteorology experiments: The Viking Mars lander, Icarus, 16, 196–204. Hess...), Preliminary meteorological results on Mars from the Viking 1 lander, Science, 193, 788... al. (2010), Winds at the Phoenix landing site, J. Geophys. Res., 115... Mars limited area model and simulations of atmospheric circulations for the Phoenix... science experiments: The Viking Mars orbiter and lander, Icarus, 16, 57–73. Michaels, T. I. (2006), Numerical modeling of Mars... predictions for candidate 2007 Phoenix Mars lander sites using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling... (2010), Atmospheric dynamics at the Phoenix landing site as seen by... for liquid water at the Phoenix landing site, J. Geophys. Res., 114... (2003), Convective vortices on Mars: A reanalysis of Viking Lander 2 meteorological data, sols... atmospheric boundary layer in the Mars Pathfinder lander conditions, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125...), Boundary layer simulations for the Mars Phoenix lander site, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 136, 1497... and meteorology instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 4045..., and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113... seasonal pressure variations during the Phoenix mission, J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E15... Martian atmosphere in support of Phoenix, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A12, doi... (2008), Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A08.... (2009a), Phoenix lidar observations of dust, clouds, and precipitation on Mars, in... Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix, J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00A27, doi... Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) on Phoenix, J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E14, doi...



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....thompson-1@nasa.gov Guy Webster Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena... and a schedule of programming for Phoenix Mars lander activities, visit http://www.nasa.... 3. Internet Information Information about NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander mission, including an electronic copy... The Phoenix Mars Lander will investigate a site in the far north of Mars to... north and south hemispheres of Mars. Phoenix will dig down to the... or later. Science Instruments The Phoenix Mars Lander carries seven science instruments, three... not open until after Phoenix has landed on Mars. The robotic arm... Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, though with an improved illumination system. For the Phoenix... 2001 Lander mission, which was canceled in 2000. The instrument for Phoenix... the lander. The Canadian Space Agency provided the Meteorological Station for Phoenix... fly on Phoenix was originally built for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander mission... on Mars Polar Lander. Research Strategy The planned operational life of the Phoenix Mars lander after it reaches Mars is 90 Martian... gives the Phoenix team three months to use the lander’s instruments to... questions. 17 Mission Overview NASA’s Mars Phoenix Lander mission will travel to a site... trajectory is planned for Phoenix to arrive at Mars on May 25... Interplanetary Cruise and Approach to Mars Phoenix will begin the portion of... before Phoenix enters the atmosphere of Mars, more than nine months later. Phoenix... and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. During the cruise phase, the Phoenix lander will remain... system on Phoenix resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in 1999 but did not land successfully. Engineers for Phoenix have remedied all the vulnerabilities identified in reviews of Mars Polar Lander... it reaches the top of Mars’ atmosphere, Phoenix will jettison the cruise... in the northern hemisphere of Mars. When Phoenix sets its three legs... verification of the lander’s fitness to proceed, Phoenix will begin its digging... a functional near-twin of the Phoenix lander installed for testing of commands... on Phoenix is compatible with relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express. Phoenix... spores survive. 27 Spacecraft The Phoenix Mars lander has a science payload and systems... of the shove that propels Phoenix to Mars comes from the launch... the lander’s array will stay folded inside the aeroshell until Phoenix reaches Mars... arm camera Surface stereoscopic imager Phoenix lander Mars descent imager (below deck) Meteorological.... Telecommunications From the surface of Mars, Phoenix will use the ultrahigh frequency... the voyage from Earth to Mars, Phoenix will use a different set of... coatings. The deck of the Phoenix lander doubles as an insulation layer... Mars’ Disc A miniature digital videodisc attached to the deck of the Phoenix lander... fits into a broader history. The Phoenix lander will also investigate a site with... missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander mission, now in final.... The other finalist was Phoenix, a stationary lander to dig into icy soil... sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays via this... are planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003... a relay asset for Phoenix and later surface missions. q Mars Science Laboratory (2009...” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first. NASA..., Mars orbiter, failed during launch Kosmos 419: USSR, 5/10/71, Mars lander, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived..., lander burned up due to steep entry Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71, lander operated... days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/12/74, lander failed due to fast impact Mars 7: USSR, 8/9/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/9/74, lander missed the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 6/19/76-1980, lander 7/20/76-1982 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander 9/3/76... Mars Phobos 2: USSR, 7/12/88, Mars/Phobos orbiter/lander, lost 3/89 near Phobos Mars... landers, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed... for Mars Exploration Rovers Mars Express/Beagle 2: European Space Agency, 6/2/03, Mars orbiter/lander... phase 47 Program/Project Management Phoenix Mars Lander is a project led by principal... David Beaty are Mars chief scientists, Barry Goldstein is Phoenix project manager...



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....thompson-1@nasa.gov Guy Webster Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena... and a schedule of programming for Phoenix Mars lander activities, visit http://www.nasa.... 3. Internet Information Information about NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander mission, including an electronic copy... The Phoenix Mars Lander will investigate a site in the far north of Mars to... north and south hemispheres of Mars. Phoenix will dig down to the... or later. Science Instruments The Phoenix Mars Lander carries seven science instruments, three... not open until after Phoenix has landed on Mars. The robotic arm... Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, though with an improved illumination system. For the Phoenix... 2001 Lander mission, which was canceled in 2000. The instrument for Phoenix... the lander. The Canadian Space Agency provided the Meteorological Station for Phoenix... fly on Phoenix was originally built for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander mission... on Mars Polar Lander. Research Strategy The planned operational life of the Phoenix Mars lander after it reaches Mars is 90 Martian... gives the Phoenix team three months to use the lander’s instruments to... questions. 17 Mission Overview NASA’s Mars Phoenix Lander mission will travel to a site... trajectory is planned for Phoenix to arrive at Mars on May 25... Interplanetary Cruise and Approach to Mars Phoenix will begin the portion of... before Phoenix enters the atmosphere of Mars, more than nine months later. Phoenix... and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. During the cruise phase, the Phoenix lander will remain... system on Phoenix resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in 1999 but did not land successfully. Engineers for Phoenix have remedied all the vulnerabilities identified in reviews of Mars Polar Lander... it reaches the top of Mars’ atmosphere, Phoenix will jettison the cruise... in the northern hemisphere of Mars. When Phoenix sets its three legs... verification of the lander’s fitness to proceed, Phoenix will begin its digging... a functional near-twin of the Phoenix lander installed for testing of commands... on Phoenix is compatible with relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express. Phoenix... spores survive. 27 Spacecraft The Phoenix Mars lander has a science payload and systems... of the shove that propels Phoenix to Mars comes from the launch... the lander’s array will stay folded inside the aeroshell until Phoenix reaches Mars... arm camera Surface stereoscopic imager Phoenix lander Mars descent imager (below deck) Meteorological.... Telecommunications From the surface of Mars, Phoenix will use the ultrahigh frequency... the voyage from Earth to Mars, Phoenix will use a different set of... coatings. The deck of the Phoenix lander doubles as an insulation layer... Mars’ Disc A miniature digital videodisc attached to the deck of the Phoenix lander... fits into a broader history. The Phoenix lander will also investigate a site with... missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander mission, now in final.... The other finalist was Phoenix, a stationary lander to dig into icy soil... sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays via this... are planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003... a relay asset for Phoenix and later surface missions. q Mars Science Laboratory (2009...” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first. NASA..., Mars orbiter, failed during launch Kosmos 419: USSR, 5/10/71, Mars lander, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived..., lander burned up due to steep entry Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71, lander operated... days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/12/74, lander failed due to fast impact Mars 7: USSR, 8/9/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/9/74, lander missed the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 6/19/76-1980, lander 7/20/76-1982 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander 9/3/76... Mars Phobos 2: USSR, 7/12/88, Mars/Phobos orbiter/lander, lost 3/89 near Phobos Mars... landers, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed... for Mars Exploration Rovers Mars Express/Beagle 2: European Space Agency, 6/2/03, Mars orbiter/lander... phase 47 Program/Project Management Phoenix Mars Lander is a project led by principal... David Beaty are Mars chief scientists, Barry Goldstein is Phoenix project manager...



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...@nasa.gov Washington, D.C. Guy Webster Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena... and a schedule of programming for Phoenix Mars lander activities, visit http://www.nasa... The Phoenix Mars Lander will investigate a site in the far north of Mars. The... north and south hemispheres of Mars. Phoenix will dig down to the... observations from earlier Mars landers closer to the equator. Phoenix will use... or later. Science Instruments The Phoenix Mars Lander carries seven science instruments, three... not open until after Phoenix has landed on Mars. 10 The robotic... Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, though with an improved illumination system. For the Phoenix... 2001 Lander mission, which was canceled in 2000. The instrument for Phoenix... the lander. The Canadian Space Agency provided the Meteorological Station for Phoenix... operational life of the Phoenix Mars lander after it reaches Mars is 90 Martian... the Phoenix team less then three months to use the lander’s instruments... used. 17 Mission Overview NASA’s Mars Phoenix Lander mission is flying to a site.... Interplanetary Cruise and Approach to Mars Phoenix began the portion of its... three hours before Phoenix enters the atmosphere of Mars on May 25... and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. During the cruise phase, the Phoenix lander remains tucked... Mars. Before the first maneuver, Phoenix was flying a trajectory that would miss Mars.... In the months before Phoenix reaches Mars, the lander is not the only... system on Phoenix resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in 1999 but did not land successfully. Engineers for Phoenix have remedied all the vulnerabilities identified in reviews of Mars Polar Lander... it reaches the top of Mars’ atmosphere, Phoenix will jettison the cruise... following the lander too closely and draping it after touchdown, Phoenix will... in the northern hemisphere of Mars. When Phoenix sets its three legs... beginning its first night on Mars, Phoenix will have an opportunity to... a functional near-twin of the Phoenix lander installed for testing of commands... on Phoenix is compatible with relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express. Phoenix... of making sure Phoenix doesn’t transport Earth life to Mars is to... spores survive. 26 Spacecraft The Phoenix Mars lander has a science payload and systems... of the shove that propels Phoenix to Mars comes from the launch... the lander’s array will stay folded inside the aeroshell until Phoenix reaches Mars... arm camera Surface stereoscopic imager Phoenix lander Mars descent imager (below deck) Meteorological.... Telecommunications From the surface of Mars, Phoenix will use the ultrahigh frequency... the voyage from Earth to Mars, Phoenix is using a different set of... and Control Phoenix keeps oriented as it flies toward Mars by using... coatings. The deck of the Phoenix lander doubles as an insulation layer... Mars’ Disc A miniature digital videodisc attached to the deck of the Phoenix lander... fits into a broader history. The Phoenix lander will also investigate a site with... NASA’s Mars missions together constitute the agency’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander mission.... The other finalist was Phoenix, a stationary lander to dig into icy soil... landing sites for Phoenix, as well as for the Mars Exploration Rover... sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays via this... are planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003... of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will serve as a relay asset for Phoenix and later surface missions. q Mars Science Laboratory (2009...” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first. NASA..., Mars orbiter, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived..., lander burned up due to steep entry Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71, lander operated... days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/12/74, lander failed due to fast impact Mars 7: USSR, 8/9/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/9/74, lander missed the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander..., lander 7/20/76-1982 45 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander... penetrators, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed... arrival 9/23/99 Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2: U.S., 1/3/99, lander and two penetrators... all previous Mars missions combined. 46 Program/Project Management Phoenix Mars Lander is a project... executive for Mars Scouts, Ramon DePaula is program executive for Phoenix and... David Beaty are Mars chief scientists, Barry Goldstein is Phoenix project manager...



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... Phoenix and an Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer to NASA for the Mars..., including the Mars Sample Return mission and the ESA Lunar Lander. CSA... (Thermal Plasma Analyzer) Launched Phoenix NASA Mars Lander to examine the waterice-rich... in NASA (Lidar sensor for Phoenix Mars lander and asteroid sample return Osirix... Phoenix Mars lander and Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return missions Exomars, Lunar and Mars... scientific instruments for exploration missions (Phoenix, MSL and the planned Osiris... Lander: Though Mars is the current focus of ESA robotic activities, a Lunar Lander... France) Lander’s heat shield and thermal aft system (Astrium France) Mars orbiter to 2003 Launched Mars Express & Beagle-2 lander ESA Euroconsult...-chargeable lithium-ion batteries Qinetiq Lander communication system Teldix Wheels Intespace... DLR Prime contractor for the Lander See Mars Express The objective of... as the Philae lander in Rosetta or the Mascot lander in Japanese... platform), in Mars Express (prime contractor of the Beagle-2 lander), in Exomars... probe ESA (Huygens) ESA Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub... the lander. Global architecture of the lander ground segment, Comet orbiter and lander... than any other mission to Mars Phobos Lander to collect soil samples... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale MicrOmega... of Martian samples) NASA Mars lander to study Mars inner composition IPGP VBB... Sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale MicrOmega... Mars orbiter to study the upper atmosphere ESA Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub-surface water Mars Express Rosetta ESA for the orbiter DLR for the lander Comet orbiter and lander to study the... Acoustic Monitoring Experiment) ROLIS (Rosetta Lander Imaging System) COSIMA (Cometary Secondary... Mars Lander to study Mars inner composition DLR Institute of Space Systems Mars lander and... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) BELA (BepiColombo Laser Altimeter... recently announced that the lunar lander for Chandrayaan-2 incorporated technologies that... European Commission – July 2012 Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub-surface water Comet orbiter and lander... studying the possibility of a Mars orbiter and lander, MELOS, which would be... MELOS JAXA Mars orbiter and lander to study the evolution of Mars climate... a joint mission involving a lunar orbiter, a lander and a rover. The configuration of... Mars surface. Russia will also provide a RTG for the 2016 European lander... Exploration missions 1999 Launched Mars Polar Lander NASA Mars lander IKI LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) 2001 Launched 2001 Mars... lander missions), the Vega program (comet rendez-vous), and more recently Mars... Mars orbiter to search for subsurface water from orbit and drop a lander... Lander 2008 Launched 2018 Planned Chandrayaan-1 ISRO Lunar orbiter Exomars ESA Lander... platform, Beagle-2 lander, Exomars rover, propulsion sub-systems for Mars Express, Venus... of the Robotic Lunar Lander program. Though this Lander will be developed... Mission cost Mars Climate Orbiter Orbiter 1998 $655 million Mars Polar Lander Lander 1998 $165 million 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter 2001... million Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbiter 2005 $720 million Phoenix Lander 2007 $386 million Mars... (Mars Color Imager) Lockheed Martin Prime contractor for the orbiter and lander flight system Malin Space Science Systems MARDI (Mars Descent... Failed during Mars orbit insertion Mars Polar Lander NASA Robotic spacecraft lander to study the soil and climate of Mars...) National Laboratory 2007 Launched Phoenix NASA Mars Lander to examine the water-ice... Mars missions (contributed to Spirit and Opportunity rovers development, and to Phoenix lander... report most Martian missions (Mars Climate Observer, Mars Polar Lander, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MSL... drilling systems in Mars missions developing a commercial Lunar lander high temperature materials (Shuttle, Orion) mini-cameras for Mars orbiters... technologies than the ill-fated Mars Lander. Euroconsult for the European Commission... Lander, 2018: achieve precise soft landing near the South Pole Moon Lander... living conditions assessment Chandrayaan-2, 2016: Lander which will release the Indian...: backup to Chang’e-5 Mars Orbiter Mars Lander MAVEN, 2013: explore Mars upper atmosphere and... the interior of Mars Exomars, 2016: European Demonstration Lander Mars Rover Exomars, 2018: European Rover for exobiology and geology research Mars... was responsible for developing a demonstration Lander, which is a capability currently not... ATV and Lunar lander to develop a Cargo Lunar Lander which would resupply...