Спутник ФКИ. Phoenix Mars Lander. [Редактировать]

Феникс — посадочный модуль НАСА для изучения Марса, работавший в 2008 году. Феникс стал первым аппаратом, запущенным по программе Mars Scout. На его борту находился комплекс приборов, позволяющих изучать геологическую историю воды, а также исследовать среду, с целью выявления условий, благоприятных для жизни микроорганизмов. «Феникс» — шестой аппарат, полностью успешно севший на поверхность Марса. Также «Феникс» стал первым аппаратом, успешно совершившим посадку в полярном регионе Марса. Техническое и научное руководство в проекте «Феникс» осуществляли Лаборатория реактивного движения и Университет Аризоны соответственно, изготовлением аппарата занималась компания Lockheed Martin Space System, Канадское космическое агентство снабдило зонд метеокомплексом. Кроме того, проект шёл при партнёрстве университетов США, Канады, Швейцарии, Дании, Германии и Великобритании. Запуск аппарата состоялся 4 августа 2007 года, успешная посадка произошла 25 мая 2008 года.

Аппарат, приземлившийся в зоне марсианской Арктики, был призван ответить на три ключевых вопроса: пригодны ли полярные районы Марса для жизни, тает ли там периодически лед и как менялись погодные условия в зоне приземления в исторический период, а также исследовать особенности марсианского климата. Главной задачей миссии являлся поиск воды на Красной планете. «За водой» — именно так звучал неофициальный лозунг проекта. К тому же считается, что Феникс стал ещё одной ступенькой на пути к будущему полёту на Марс людей. 18 июня 2008 г. этот зонд нашёл лёд, который потом растаял. 1 августа 2008 года после тщательного исследования выяснилось, что лёд был водяной.

Последний сеанс связи с аппаратом прошёл 2 ноября 2008 года, и 10 ноября этого же года было объявлено об окончании миссии.

В рамках проекта NASA выполняло запуск устройства, Университет штата Аризона курировал создание оборудования, установленного на космическом аппарате, а компания Lockheed Martin сконструировала и построила собственно сам корабль. В задачи Jet Propulsion Laboratory, подразделения Калифорнийского технологического института (California Institute of Technology), входят управление маневрированием марсианского зонда в космосе, а также расчет траектории движения. Помимо этого JPL взяла на себя посадку корабля на поверхность Красной планеты. «Мозгом» аппарата является его бортовой компьютер BAE Systems RAD6000, построенный на базе RISC-процессоров, использующих 32-разрядную архитектуру IBM Power и работающий под управлением ОСРВ VxWorks. Среди функций компьютера, устойчивого к значительным перепадам температур и имеющего защиту от радиации, — навигация, а также управление научным оборудованием и электропитанием космического аппарата.

Полезная нагрузка:

  • Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). В состав оборудования корабля входит построенная в Университете штата Аризона оптическая система Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Она состоит из двух камер, смонтированных на выдвижной башенке высотой около 2 м, и предназначена для визуального исследования планеты. Система позволит получать стереоизображения арктической марсианской пустыни с разрешением 1024×1024 в оптическом и инфракрасном диапазонах. SSI будет поддерживать манипуляции механической руки и даст возможность формировать цифровые модели рельефа (ЦМР) окружающей корабль местности, что, в свою очередь, обеспечит создание трёхмерных виртуальных изображений марсианского пространства. Помимо этого SSI поспособствует геоморфологическому и минералогическому анализу Красной планеты. Ещё одной задачей является исследование оптических свойств атмосферы Марса, в частности — визуальная оценка количества пыли в воздухе. Кроме вышеперечисленных задач, SSI будет вести наблюдение за количеством пыли, осаждающейся на приземлённом космическом аппарате, что позволит сделать вывод о скорости осадконакопления и особенностях протекания атмосферных и эрозионных процессов на планете, а также даст возможность оценивать запылённость солнечных батарей и вызванное этим фактором снижение количества энергии. Последнее напрямую влияет на время функционирования Феникса.
  • Установленная на конце манипулятора камера Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) создана совместно учёными из Университета штата Аризона и немецким Институтом Макса Планка. Камера укреплена непосредственно возле ковша и позволяет в деталях видеть место, где проводится забор образцов грунта и льда. Изображение стенок вырытой траншеи, как полагают учёные, позволит геологам определить наличие и очерёдность залегания напластований. В частности, изображения, на которых видны цвета и размеры частиц грунта, слагающего поверхность Марса в вертикальном разрезе, дадут возможность сделать выводы об изменении условий залегания осадков, а значит, и об истории изменения марсианского климата. Камера снабжена двумя источниками света, верхний из которых состоит из 36 голубых, 18 зелёных и 18 красных ламп, а нижний — из 16, 8 и 8 ламп соответственно. Помимо этого в состав устройства входят два моторчика, первый меняет фокусное расстояние объектива, а второй поднимает и опускает прозрачный пылезащитный кожух. Максимальное разрешение камеры — 23 микрона на пиксел.
  • Основной инструмент корабля — манипулятор Robotic Arm (RA), созданный JPL и способный двигаться вперёд-назад, вправо-влево, вверх и вниз, а также совершать круговые движения. Длина устройства составляет 2,35 м. На Земле манипулятор испытывали в американской Долине Смерти, местности с очень твёрдым грунтом, где он смог выкопать за 4 часа траншею глубиной 25 см. В задачи метеорологического оборудования (MET, Meteorological Station), созданного Канадским космическим агентством, входит ежедневная фиксация изменений марсианской погоды путем использования датчиков температуры и атмосферного давления, а также измерение концентрации пыли и ледяного пара в воздухе Красной планеты с помощью лидара (light detection and ranging, LIDAR). Лидар будет посылать короткие импульсы света вертикально вверх и фиксировать отражённые атмосферой сигналы, что поможет выявить наличие невидимых невооружённым глазом облаков, тумана и мест концентрации пыли. При этом температура на планете будет измеряться с помощью трёх термопар, установленных на выдвижной башенке высотой 1,2 м. Такое инженерное решение сможет фиксировать вертикальный профиль температуры у поверхности Марса.
  • Модуль MECA (Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer), создание которого курировалось JPL, включает в себя оптический и сканирующий атомно-силовой микроскопы. Работа последнего основана на использовании сил атомных связей, действующих между атомами вещества. Атомный микроскоп — результат работы швейцарского консорциума, а оптический создан Университетом штата Аризона. Максимальное разрешение оптического микроскопа — 4 мкм, атомного — 10 нм. Микроскопические изображения марсианского грунта будут использоваться, в частности, для поиска доказательств того, что изучаемый субстрат когда-либо подвергался воздействию воды. Для этого будет проводиться поиск крошечных вкраплений глины. Оптический микроскоп снабжён инструментами подсветки — в его состав входят красная, зелёная, синяя и ультрафиолетовая лампы. Одноразовые средства подготовки образцов при этом созданы с использованием силикона. Помимо этого в состав MECA входит инструмент для химического анализа растворенных в воде образцов грунта. Подобный метод исследования позволяет определять pH полученного раствора, а также выявлять наличие кислорода, углекислого газа, хлоридов, бромидов и сульфатов. MECA также содержит инструмент для определения тепловой и электрической проводимости образцов — для этого используются три иглы, вмонтированные в верхнюю часть механической руки.
  • Модуль TEGA (Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer), построенный университетами штатов Аризона и Техаса в Далласе, является предметом особой гордости команды Феникса. Устройство содержит восемь миниатюрных одноразовых муфельных печек, в которых происходит нагревание образцов марсианского грунта. По своим размерам каждая такая печка напоминает стержень шариковой ручки. Нагревание проходит медленно, при этом определяется теплоёмкость образца. Когда температура в печке достигает 1000 °C, нагретый материал начинает выделять газ, который анализируется встроенным масс-спектрометром, определяющим концентрацию конкретных молекул и атомов в образце.
  • Последний из инструментов, Mars Descent Imager (MARDI), был создан компанией Malin Space Science Systems, и представляет собой камеру, которая может использоваться для фотографирования места спуска в процессе снижения аппарата на поверхность Марса. Ожидалось, что съёмка начнётся после того, как Феникс снизится до высоты примерно в 7 км и сбросит термозащиту. Фотографии помогут точно определить место, где сел корабль, а также предоставить информацию о географических, геоморфологических и геологических особенностях близлежащего ландшафта. Полученные снимки также могут помочь определить, является ли место посадки типичным для приполярных регионов Марса. То есть могут ли полученные в ходе проекта результаты быть распространены на всю арктическую марсианскую пустыню. MARDI весит около полукилограмма и, как предполагалось, израсходует на создание серии снимков не более 3 Вт электричества. Угол обзора при этом будет составлять 66°, размер каждой фотографии 1024×1024 пиксела, а время экспозиции равно 4 мс. Однако, предстартовые тесты летательного аппарата идентифицировали потенциальную проблему в обработках данных от камеры в течение критических моментов заключительного этапа посадки на поверхность планеты. Это привело к решению не использовать камеру. Инструмент также содержит микрофон, который, равно как и камера, не был использован.

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
132003НайтиНайти
2Mars Scout 1НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг680

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САСMay 25, 2008[1] – November 2, 2008 (lost communication); November 10, 2008[1]
90 Martian sols (planned)
157 Martian sols (actual)
2Дата (сведения с орбиты)2008-05-25

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2007-034A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.520
2Оператор Космическое агентство США

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2007-08-04 at 09:26:34 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xPhoenix Mars Lander
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 835 документов по запросу «Phoenix Mars Lander». [Перейти к поиску]


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...@nasa.gov Washington, D.C. Guy Webster Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena... and a schedule of programming for Phoenix Mars lander activities, visit http://www.nasa... The Phoenix Mars Lander will investigate a site in the far north of Mars. The... north and south hemispheres of Mars. Phoenix will dig down to the... observations from earlier Mars landers closer to the equator. Phoenix will use... or later. Science Instruments The Phoenix Mars Lander carries seven science instruments, three... not open until after Phoenix has landed on Mars. 10 The robotic... Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, though with an improved illumination system. For the Phoenix... 2001 Lander mission, which was canceled in 2000. The instrument for Phoenix... the lander. The Canadian Space Agency provided the Meteorological Station for Phoenix... operational life of the Phoenix Mars lander after it reaches Mars is 90 Martian... the Phoenix team less then three months to use the lander’s instruments... used. 17 Mission Overview NASA’s Mars Phoenix Lander mission is flying to a site.... Interplanetary Cruise and Approach to Mars Phoenix began the portion of its... three hours before Phoenix enters the atmosphere of Mars on May 25... and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. During the cruise phase, the Phoenix lander remains tucked... Mars. Before the first maneuver, Phoenix was flying a trajectory that would miss Mars.... In the months before Phoenix reaches Mars, the lander is not the only... system on Phoenix resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in 1999 but did not land successfully. Engineers for Phoenix have remedied all the vulnerabilities identified in reviews of Mars Polar Lander... it reaches the top of Mars’ atmosphere, Phoenix will jettison the cruise... following the lander too closely and draping it after touchdown, Phoenix will... in the northern hemisphere of Mars. When Phoenix sets its three legs... beginning its first night on Mars, Phoenix will have an opportunity to... a functional near-twin of the Phoenix lander installed for testing of commands... on Phoenix is compatible with relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express. Phoenix... of making sure Phoenix doesn’t transport Earth life to Mars is to... spores survive. 26 Spacecraft The Phoenix Mars lander has a science payload and systems... of the shove that propels Phoenix to Mars comes from the launch... the lander’s array will stay folded inside the aeroshell until Phoenix reaches Mars... arm camera Surface stereoscopic imager Phoenix lander Mars descent imager (below deck) Meteorological.... Telecommunications From the surface of Mars, Phoenix will use the ultrahigh frequency... the voyage from Earth to Mars, Phoenix is using a different set of... and Control Phoenix keeps oriented as it flies toward Mars by using... coatings. The deck of the Phoenix lander doubles as an insulation layer... Mars’ Disc A miniature digital videodisc attached to the deck of the Phoenix lander... fits into a broader history. The Phoenix lander will also investigate a site with... NASA’s Mars missions together constitute the agency’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander mission.... The other finalist was Phoenix, a stationary lander to dig into icy soil... landing sites for Phoenix, as well as for the Mars Exploration Rover... sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays via this... are planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003... of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will serve as a relay asset for Phoenix and later surface missions. q Mars Science Laboratory (2009...” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first. NASA..., Mars orbiter, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived..., lander burned up due to steep entry Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71, lander operated... days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/12/74, lander failed due to fast impact Mars 7: USSR, 8/9/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/9/74, lander missed the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander..., lander 7/20/76-1982 45 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander... penetrators, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed... arrival 9/23/99 Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2: U.S., 1/3/99, lander and two penetrators... all previous Mars missions combined. 46 Program/Project Management Phoenix Mars Lander is a project... executive for Mars Scouts, Ramon DePaula is program executive for Phoenix and... David Beaty are Mars chief scientists, Barry Goldstein is Phoenix project manager...



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... any subsequent lander mission in recent years. The recent Mars Exploration Rovers... (Table 3): Viking Lander 1 and 2 (VL1, VL2), Mars Pathfinder (MPF), and Phoenix (PHX). The... the upper thermocouple on the Phoenix lander, showing examples of p and T variations... 4. 4.1.2. Mars Pathfinder Meteorological Instrumentation [52] The MPF comprised the larger stationary lander... in Figure 11. 4.1.3. Phoenix Meteorological Instrumentation [55] Phoenix’s payload included the Meteorological...” [Taylor et al., 2008, p.1]. The Phoenix MET package made direct atmospheric... the entry and descent. The Phoenix MET package consisted of temperature... deflection being estimated utilizing the Phoenix lander’s imaging system (see Figure 12... estimates of winds at the Phoenix landing site. Adapted from Holstein... the Martian PBL perspective, the Phoenix MET package observations have been... two Mars Exploration Rovers [Lemmon et al., 2004], and the Phoenix lander [Moores... 3 Martian years (Figure 4). 4.2.3. Phoenix LIDAR [66] The Phoenix lander’s payload included the first... optical extinction coefficient at the Phoenix landing site, derived from the... snow‐like precipitation over the Phoenix site, as graphically illustrated in... and time, derived from the Phoenix LIDAR backscatter signal at a wavelength... in a similar manner. 4.4. Use of Mars Lander Data to Validate Surface Layer... from the Viking, Pathfinder, and Phoenix missions have been used to...]; Davy et al. [2010] for Phoenix data). On Earth, such validations... both the Pathfinder and the Phoenix landers were equipped still for... of z0T. From Pathfinder and Phoenix, one could use the measured.... Spectra of temperature from the Phoenix lander [Davy et al., 2010], normalized... 2 [Rafkin et al., 2004] and Phoenix [Tyler et al., 2008; Michaels... modeling in high‐latitude regions (Phoenix landing site) that the influence... support of, e.g., the MER and Phoenix missions have been reported for..., including the MER rover and Phoenix lander) spacecraft, at best equipped with..., since the Viking, Pathfinder, and Phoenix landers have already made extensive... of exobiologically or geologically focused lander missions, and (2) the relatively modest... landing vehicle called the MetNet lander (Mars Network lander (MNL); http://www.meiga... RG3005 with capacitive sensors of Phoenix and MSL heritage. Dust observations... from the lander to minimize thermal contamination from the lander itself of... Mars Climate Sounder (MRO) Mars Exploration Rover M Meteorological package (PHX) Meteorological Network: Mars lander... Institute Mars Express Mars Global Surveyor Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MER) Mars Network lander; see also MetNet Mars Observer Camera (MGS) Mars Odyssey 2001 Mars Orbiter...) Phobos and Mars mission launched by Soviet Union Phoenix specific humidity atmospheric... Imaging Subsystem (VO) Viking Lander 1 Viking Lander 2 Viking lander Viking Meteorology Instrument System... climate evolution of Mars but could also place future lander missions at... and related data from the Phoenix MET station and their use... Polar region of Mars: A study of the 2007 Phoenix Mars lander sites, Geophys. Res... and dust devils at the Phoenix Mars mission landing site, J. Geophys. Res...), Telltale wind indicator for the Mars Phoenix lander, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A04, doi...), A boundary layer model for Mars: Comparison with Viking lander and entry data... (1972), Meteorology experiments: The Viking Mars lander, Icarus, 16, 196–204. Hess...), Preliminary meteorological results on Mars from the Viking 1 lander, Science, 193, 788... al. (2010), Winds at the Phoenix landing site, J. Geophys. Res., 115... Mars limited area model and simulations of atmospheric circulations for the Phoenix... science experiments: The Viking Mars orbiter and lander, Icarus, 16, 57–73. Michaels, T. I. (2006), Numerical modeling of Mars... predictions for candidate 2007 Phoenix Mars lander sites using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling... (2010), Atmospheric dynamics at the Phoenix landing site as seen by... for liquid water at the Phoenix landing site, J. Geophys. Res., 114... (2003), Convective vortices on Mars: A reanalysis of Viking Lander 2 meteorological data, sols... atmospheric boundary layer in the Mars Pathfinder lander conditions, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125...), Boundary layer simulations for the Mars Phoenix lander site, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 136, 1497... and meteorology instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 4045..., and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113... seasonal pressure variations during the Phoenix mission, J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E15... Martian atmosphere in support of Phoenix, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A12, doi... (2008), Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A08.... (2009a), Phoenix lidar observations of dust, clouds, and precipitation on Mars, in... Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix, J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00A27, doi... Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) on Phoenix, J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E14, doi...



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...@nasa.gov Washington, D.C. Guy Webster Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena... and a schedule of programming for Phoenix Mars lander activities, visit http://www.nasa... The Phoenix Mars Lander will investigate a site in the far north of Mars. The... north and south hemispheres of Mars. Phoenix will dig down to the... observations from earlier Mars landers closer to the equator. Phoenix will use... or later. Science Instruments The Phoenix Mars Lander carries seven science instruments, three... not open until after Phoenix has landed on Mars. 10 The robotic... Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, though with an improved illumination system. For the Phoenix... 2001 Lander mission, which was canceled in 2000. The instrument for Phoenix... the lander. The Canadian Space Agency provided the Meteorological Station for Phoenix... operational life of the Phoenix Mars lander after it reaches Mars is 90 Martian... the Phoenix team less then three months to use the lander’s instruments... used. 17 Mission Overview NASA’s Mars Phoenix Lander mission is flying to a site.... Interplanetary Cruise and Approach to Mars Phoenix began the portion of its... three hours before Phoenix enters the atmosphere of Mars on May 25... and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. During the cruise phase, the Phoenix lander remains tucked... Mars. Before the first maneuver, Phoenix was flying a trajectory that would miss Mars.... In the months before Phoenix reaches Mars, the lander is not the only... system on Phoenix resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in 1999 but did not land successfully. Engineers for Phoenix have remedied all the vulnerabilities identified in reviews of Mars Polar Lander... it reaches the top of Mars’ atmosphere, Phoenix will jettison the cruise... following the lander too closely and draping it after touchdown, Phoenix will... in the northern hemisphere of Mars. When Phoenix sets its three legs... beginning its first night on Mars, Phoenix will have an opportunity to... a functional near-twin of the Phoenix lander installed for testing of commands... on Phoenix is compatible with relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express. Phoenix... of making sure Phoenix doesn’t transport Earth life to Mars is to... spores survive. 26 Spacecraft The Phoenix Mars lander has a science payload and systems... of the shove that propels Phoenix to Mars comes from the launch... the lander’s array will stay folded inside the aeroshell until Phoenix reaches Mars... arm camera Surface stereoscopic imager Phoenix lander Mars descent imager (below deck) Meteorological.... Telecommunications From the surface of Mars, Phoenix will use the ultrahigh frequency... the voyage from Earth to Mars, Phoenix is using a different set of... and Control Phoenix keeps oriented as it flies toward Mars by using... coatings. The deck of the Phoenix lander doubles as an insulation layer... Mars’ Disc A miniature digital videodisc attached to the deck of the Phoenix lander... fits into a broader history. The Phoenix lander will also investigate a site with... NASA’s Mars missions together constitute the agency’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander mission.... The other finalist was Phoenix, a stationary lander to dig into icy soil... landing sites for Phoenix, as well as for the Mars Exploration Rover... sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays via this... are planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003... of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will serve as a relay asset for Phoenix and later surface missions. q Mars Science Laboratory (2009...” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first. NASA..., Mars orbiter, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived..., lander burned up due to steep entry Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71, lander operated... days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/12/74, lander failed due to fast impact Mars 7: USSR, 8/9/73, Mars flyby module and lander, arrived 3/9/74, lander missed the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander..., lander 7/20/76-1982 45 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander... penetrators, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed... arrival 9/23/99 Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2: U.S., 1/3/99, lander and two penetrators... all previous Mars missions combined. 46 Program/Project Management Phoenix Mars Lander is a project... executive for Mars Scouts, Ramon DePaula is program executive for Phoenix and... David Beaty are Mars chief scientists, Barry Goldstein is Phoenix project manager...



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0.09/5
... Phoenix and an Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer to NASA for the Mars..., including the Mars Sample Return mission and the ESA Lunar Lander. CSA... (Thermal Plasma Analyzer) Launched Phoenix NASA Mars Lander to examine the waterice-rich... in NASA (Lidar sensor for Phoenix Mars lander and asteroid sample return Osirix... Phoenix Mars lander and Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return missions Exomars, Lunar and Mars... scientific instruments for exploration missions (Phoenix, MSL and the planned Osiris... Lander: Though Mars is the current focus of ESA robotic activities, a Lunar Lander... France) Lander’s heat shield and thermal aft system (Astrium France) Mars orbiter to 2003 Launched Mars Express & Beagle-2 lander ESA Euroconsult...-chargeable lithium-ion batteries Qinetiq Lander communication system Teldix Wheels Intespace... DLR Prime contractor for the Lander See Mars Express The objective of... as the Philae lander in Rosetta or the Mascot lander in Japanese... platform), in Mars Express (prime contractor of the Beagle-2 lander), in Exomars... probe ESA (Huygens) ESA Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub... the lander. Global architecture of the lander ground segment, Comet orbiter and lander... than any other mission to Mars Phobos Lander to collect soil samples... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale MicrOmega... of Martian samples) NASA Mars lander to study Mars inner composition IPGP VBB... Sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale MicrOmega... Mars orbiter to study the upper atmosphere ESA Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub-surface water Mars Express Rosetta ESA for the orbiter DLR for the lander Comet orbiter and lander to study the... Acoustic Monitoring Experiment) ROLIS (Rosetta Lander Imaging System) COSIMA (Cometary Secondary... Mars Lander to study Mars inner composition DLR Institute of Space Systems Mars lander and... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) BELA (BepiColombo Laser Altimeter... recently announced that the lunar lander for Chandrayaan-2 incorporated technologies that... European Commission – July 2012 Mars orbiter and lander to search for sub-surface water Comet orbiter and lander... studying the possibility of a Mars orbiter and lander, MELOS, which would be... MELOS JAXA Mars orbiter and lander to study the evolution of Mars climate... a joint mission involving a lunar orbiter, a lander and a rover. The configuration of... Mars surface. Russia will also provide a RTG for the 2016 European lander... Exploration missions 1999 Launched Mars Polar Lander NASA Mars lander IKI LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) 2001 Launched 2001 Mars... lander missions), the Vega program (comet rendez-vous), and more recently Mars... Mars orbiter to search for subsurface water from orbit and drop a lander... Lander 2008 Launched 2018 Planned Chandrayaan-1 ISRO Lunar orbiter Exomars ESA Lander... platform, Beagle-2 lander, Exomars rover, propulsion sub-systems for Mars Express, Venus... of the Robotic Lunar Lander program. Though this Lander will be developed... Mission cost Mars Climate Orbiter Orbiter 1998 $655 million Mars Polar Lander Lander 1998 $165 million 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter 2001... million Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbiter 2005 $720 million Phoenix Lander 2007 $386 million Mars... (Mars Color Imager) Lockheed Martin Prime contractor for the orbiter and lander flight system Malin Space Science Systems MARDI (Mars Descent... Failed during Mars orbit insertion Mars Polar Lander NASA Robotic spacecraft lander to study the soil and climate of Mars...) National Laboratory 2007 Launched Phoenix NASA Mars Lander to examine the water-ice... Mars missions (contributed to Spirit and Opportunity rovers development, and to Phoenix lander... report most Martian missions (Mars Climate Observer, Mars Polar Lander, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MSL... drilling systems in Mars missions developing a commercial Lunar lander high temperature materials (Shuttle, Orion) mini-cameras for Mars orbiters... technologies than the ill-fated Mars Lander. Euroconsult for the European Commission... Lander, 2018: achieve precise soft landing near the South Pole Moon Lander... living conditions assessment Chandrayaan-2, 2016: Lander which will release the Indian...: backup to Chang’e-5 Mars Orbiter Mars Lander MAVEN, 2013: explore Mars upper atmosphere and... the interior of Mars Exomars, 2016: European Demonstration Lander Mars Rover Exomars, 2018: European Rover for exobiology and geology research Mars... was responsible for developing a demonstration Lander, which is a capability currently not... ATV and Lunar lander to develop a Cargo Lunar Lander which would resupply...



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0.04/5
... Moon. 3 Radar data from ESA’s Mars Express orbiter indicated massive deposits of water ice under Mars’ south pole. Radar soundings down... 11 m deep. NASA’s Phoenix lander was launched to Mars to retrieve soil and... encountered on future trips to Mars by humans. The team also... volunteers for a simulated trip to Mars, in which six “astronauts” will... will face on a trip to Mars. Their “spaceship” will be a series... for transmissions between Earth and Mars, and food will be the... JAXA, consisting of a mother spacecraft, a lander, a sampling system, an instrument payload... missions to the Moon and Mars. The Group’s report notes that... the Moon (and later of Mars) is a valid and important objective...) released images taken by the MARS Reconnaissance Orbiter of the two... landers. NASA’s 10-year-old Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) experienced failure... 6 December 2006, recent images of Mars compared with images recorded during... from the now-silent Mars Global Surveyor’s Mars Orbital Camera. The two... Imaging System (HiRise) on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) began to...’s data capabilities. Observations from NASA’s Mars Odyssey during March revealed seven dark spots on Mars near the volcano Arisa Mons... who discovered them. An Earth-Mars Cave Detection Programme was subsequently... areas similar to those on Mars (e.g., the Mojave Desert in the... techniques for Themis using these “Mars analogues,” to get more information on the newly discovered Mars caves. According to a NASA announcement... July, both of the agency’s Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, successfully survived a major sandstorm on Mars, when 51 they were over... competing proposals under the agency’s Mars Scout programme to send an... University of Colorado proposed the Mars Atmosphere and Evolution Mission (Maven), to address key questions about Mars climate and habitability, and improve... others. Radar data from ESA’s Mars Express orbiter, released on 14... water ice under Mars’ south pole. The spacecraft’s Mars Advanced Radar for.... MARSIS was subsequently trained on Mars’ north pole, where prior observations... the radiation doses to which Mars had been exposed from both... damage due to the frigid Mars temperatures, limiting predicted cell lifetimes... X-ray spectrometer aboard NASA’s Spirit Mars rover indicate a very high concentration... in the same patch of Mars’ surface. During the first week... tool for use on NASA’s Mars Surface Laboratory (MSL) 2009 mission.../-30 Celsius in the harsh Mars radiation environment. As the active... MSL spacecraft. NASA’s 1500-kg Phoenix Mars lander was launched on 4 August from... soil and ice samples in Mars’ north polar region. The spacecraft... Spirit and Opportunity rovers, so Phoenix will use 12 hydrazine-powered... by Aerojet (USA), to set Phoenix down, following separation from the... at 570 m altitude. After landing, Phoenix will use its 2.4-m arm to... clouds after the spacecraft lands. Phoenix’s main objectives are to search... hold food sources for life. Phoenix carries eight ovens to bake... the journey to continue to Mars and 53 other destinations.” Scientists... Congress will include a 1,300-kg lander on the Moon in 2015... mission in 2020. The testbed lander, weighing 4 tonnes when launched by... engine would then lower the lander to a point 4 m above the surface... the four landing struts. The lander would be equipped with a rover...-scale drop test of the lander’s descent, which caused some structural... the 2007 Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge on 21 June. The... composition. Following a gravity assist from Mars in February 2009 and an... of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, Dawn will study.... Rosetta received a gravity assist from Mars on 25 February and another... July 2010. During the Mars swingby, the Philae lander’s Imaging System (CIVA... for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory Mission as the Mars Lander Engine (MLE... stage of NASA’s planned lunar lander. Goal of the tests was... craters on the Moon and Mars. The 74-kg rovers, developed... commands required by the current Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. Eurobot... and, eventually, human exploration of Mars. (2) International Institute of Space Law...: the example of the Moon, Mars and other Celestial Bodies” that... Environment,” and five sub-themes: Mars (robotic and human exploration), the... reached by humans. The planet Mars is recognised as the focus of this programme, with Mars Sample Return as its driving... actor in defining and driving Mars Sample Return missions. There is... is to send humans to Mars in the longer term, research... with neutrons on Mars’ surface as part of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory... a lunar orbital module and a lunar lander with a mobile scientific laboratory. The... of a lunar orbital module and a lander with the help of an...’s Phobos Explorer mission to the Mars moon in 2009. The agreement... after it begins to orbit Mars, before it proceeds to land... the space environment of 103 Mars. China and Russia had previously...’s 4-August launch of the Phoenix mission to Mars, and the Agency’s Dawn...



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0.17/5
... latter, such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group, having a more... Exploration Journey A human mission to Mars is surely a long-term objective...’s natural satellite, and spacecraft at Mars continued unabated on their course.... 2.2 Beyond LEO – The Moon and Mars 2.2.1 Moon Lunar scientific exploration will... information about where to send a lander to maximize the return on... locations for the Altair lunar lander (one of the elements of... generation crew and cargo vehicles). 2.2.2 Mars Mars is a key focus for space... evolution. The scientific exploration of Mars is motivated by the search... life ever exist on Mars? Will Mars be able to support human... are the questions that drive Mars exploration with, current investigations centered..., and geologic 8 landforms. Spacecraft at Mars map mineralogical and geomorpholigical features... are currently five spacecraft exploring Mars, three from orbit and two... are the U.S. Mars Odyssey (launched in 2001), ESA’s Mars Express (launched in 2003), and the U.S. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... U.S. Mars Phoenix lander, which performed superbly until the onset of the polar winter. Mars... of the near surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been successfully... maps of critical atmospheric properties. Mars Express has been exploring the interior, surface, and atmosphere of Mars. It as produced high-resolution... composition of the icecaps. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity... water activity on Mars. The complement of the Phoenix spacecraft (which completed... potential of the Martian arctic. Phoenix was the first mission to... and water ice to the lander platform for sophisticated scientific analysis... continue the scientific exploration of Mars. There are currently two U.S. missions in development. First is the Mars Science Laboratory, planned for launch is 2011. The Mars Science Laboratory will use a longduration... measurements, assessing the habitability of Mars for past or present life... Phobos-Grunt lander. Phobos-Grunt is expected to study Mars from orbit... the Phobos-Grunt mission. The Mars Express camera took high-resolution... study of Mars. 3.2 Joint Development for Robotic Exploration – Mars Sample Return A Mars Sample... many international priority lists for Mars science. In 1993, the international community established the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) to... a forum for the coordination of Mars exploration and develop an international... under the name iMARS – international Mars Architecture for the Return of... “Preliminary Planning for an International Mars Sample Return Mission: Report of... a sample-acquisition rover and the Mars ascent vehicle that launches the sample from Mars’ surface. The reference architecture also... vehicle and the Altair lunar lander. Together, these vehicles will all... to deliver the Altair lunar lander, four astronauts and cargo anywhere... missions. A variant of the lunar lander will serve as an autonomous... requirements for a human mission to Mars at its Exploration Conference in July, and NASA finalized its Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0. A brief review... the Mars radiation and solitary environment. A successful human mission to Mars will... knowledge derived from lunar and Mars missions (see paras 2.2.1 and 2.2.2) • Chandrayaan... mission • Several Mars orbiting and landed missions including Phoenix in 2008 (see... 3.1) Development of a reference architecture for Mars Sample Return mission by iMARS...-board the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA Mars Express missions. Last... for field testing for robotic Mars exploration technologies (rovers mobility/long... a GIS (Geographical Information System) for Mars called PAGIS (Planetary Geosciences Information... commit funds to the ESA Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme (currently... prototypes for future Moon and Mars exploration missions. 2008 Highlights: Significant... weather station on the NASA Phoenix Mars lander marked the first time that... instruments for the Moon and Mars, manipulators and tools, vision systems... control and a terrestrial breadboard of a Mars science rover. 23 o o o o The Canadian... space missions: ILN, Selene-2, Mars Sample Return, Mars Science Orbiter, Lunar mobility... terrestrial prototypes of Moon and Mars rovers and other space technologies... on the definition of a Lunar Lander. The ELIPS-Period 3 Programme (timeframe... Advanced Re-entry Vehicle, Lunar Lander activities and scenario studies analysing... framework of a long-term cooperation. A Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme with...-term technology goals leading to a Mars Sample Return mission, and system... lifetime extension and the lunar lander development activities. 28 JAXA-JSPEC... exploration programs – we landed on Mars, added to the International Space... Exploration: NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander safely reached a soft landing on Mars on May 25... continues. http://www.nasa.gov/phoenix. NASA has also partnered with... Ares V and the Altair lunar lander were capable of landing astronauts...



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0.18/5
... LEO – The Moon and Mars ……………………………………………….. 2.2.1 Moon ……………………………………………………………………………… 2.2.2 Mars ………………………………………………………………………………. 10 10 10 11 11... 3.2 Joint Development for Robotic Exploration – Mars Sample Return ………………………… 17 3.3 Collaborative Human... 3.4 An Eventual Human Mission to Mars ………………………………………………. 19 Part 4: Summary and Way... latter, such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group, having a more... Exploration Journey A human mission to Mars is surely a long-term objective...’s natural satellite, and spacecraft at Mars continued unabated on their course.... 2.2 Beyond LEO – The Moon and Mars 2.2.1 Moon Lunar scientific exploration will... information about where to send a lander to maximize the return on... locations for the Altair lunar lander (one of the elements of... generation crew and cargo vehicles). 2.2.2 Mars Mars is a key focus for space... evolution. The scientific exploration of Mars is motivated by the search... life ever exist on Mars? Will Mars be able to support human... are the questions that drive Mars exploration with current investigations centered.... 2 NCRSASL - 63 landforms. Spacecraft at Mars map mineralogical and geomorphological features... are the U.S. Mars Odyssey (launched in 2001), ESA’s Mars Express (launched in 2003), and the U.S. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... U.S. Mars Phoenix lander, which performed superbly until the onset of the polar winter. Mars... of the near surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been successfully... maps of critical atmospheric properties. Mars Express has been exploring the interior, surface, and atmosphere of Mars. It as produced high-resolution... composition of the icecaps. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity... water activity on Mars. The complement of the Phoenix spacecraft (which completed... potential of the Martian arctic. Phoenix was the first mission to... and water ice to the lander platform for sophisticated scientific analysis... continue the scientific exploration of Mars. There are currently two U.S. missions... measurements, assessing the habitability of Mars for past or present life... Phobos-Grunt lander. Phobos-Grunt is expected to study Mars from orbit... study of Mars. 3.2 Joint Development for Robotic Exploration – Mars Sample Return A Mars Sample... many international priority lists for Mars science. In 1993, the international community established the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) to... a forum for the coordination of Mars exploration and develop an international... “Preliminary Planning for an International Mars Sample Return Mission: Report of... that launches the sample from Mars’ surface. The reference architecture also... vehicle and the Altair lunar lander. Together, these vehicles will all... to deliver the Altair lunar lander, four astronauts and cargo anywhere... missions. A variant of the lunar lander will serve as an autonomous... requirements for a human mission to Mars at its Exploration Conference in July, and NASA finalized its Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0. A brief review... the Mars radiation and solitary environment. A successful human mission to Mars will... knowledge derived from lunar and Mars missions (see paras 2.2.1 and 2.2.2) • Chandrayaan... mission • Several Mars orbiting and landed missions including Phoenix in 2008 (see... 3.1) Development of a reference architecture for Mars Sample Return mission by iMARS...: Selected Documents 2009, vol. 2 PhobosGrunt Mars Science Lab NCRSASL - 72 ISECG...-board the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA Mars Express missions. Last... for field testing for robotic Mars exploration technologies (rovers mobility/long... a GIS (Geographical Information System) for Mars called PAGIS (Planetary Geosciences Information... commit funds to the ESA Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme (currently... prototypes for future Moon and Mars exploration missions. 2008 Highlights: Significant... weather station on the NASA Phoenix Mars lander marked the first time that... instruments for the Moon and Mars, manipulators and tools, vision systems... control and a terrestrial breadboard of a Mars science rover. Space Law: Selected... space missions: ILN, Selene-2, Mars Sample Return, Mars Science Orbiter, Lunar mobility... terrestrial prototypes of Moon and Mars rovers and other space technologies... on the definition of a Lunar Lander. The ELIPS-Period 3 P rogramme (timeframe... Advanced Re-entry Vehicle, Lunar Lander activities and scenario studies analysing... framework of a long-term cooperation. A Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme with...-term technology goals leading to a Mars Sample Return mission, and system... lifetime extension and the lunar lander development activities. Space Law: Selected... exploration programs – we landed on Mars, added to the International Space... Exploration: NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander safely reached a soft landing on Mars on May 25... continues. http://www.nasa.gov/phoenix. NASA has also partnered with... Ares V and the Altair lunar lander were capable of landing astronauts...



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0.17/5
... to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments...; published 15 October 2008. [1] Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on... the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars... to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments...: Scout Selection Process [2] Phoenix is the first Mars Scout mission: a Principal Investigator... Phoenix mission and serve as a guide during and after the mission. 2. Phoenix... of key instruments from the Mars Polar Lander. Smith, who had been... investigations are addressed by the Phoenix mission. The complete MEPAG document... the surface and interior of Mars.’’ A polar lander can contribute to this.... The Phoenix mission derives its heritage from the 2001 lander that was canceled in 2000 after the failure of the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) to return any... Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) projects. [23] Several instruments on the 2001 lander.... 2.2. First Scout Mission 2.2.1. Partners [25] Phoenix finds a balance between private industry... designed the lander on the basis of its series of Mars craft... MPL and Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) and finally the 2001 lander and... phase of the E00A18 Table 1. Phoenix Timeline Phase A B C/D E Date Activity 1 Jan.... 2.2.2. Timeline [29] Table 1 shows the Phoenix timeline. A long phase B allowed time... April 2007. 2.2.3. Science Team [31] Phoenix has a large science team garnered... Table 2. Instrument Suite on the Phoenix Mission Instrument (Lead Institution) Surface... was available. The subsystems on Phoenix bring heritage although some subsystems... biobarrier. heritage of the 2001 Mars lander, even though sister boards and... flown to Mars on the twin spacecraft Mars Polar Lander and Mars Climate Orbiter. Clearly, the landing systems on Mars Polar Lander... and pressures expected for the Phoenix lander. The team struggled for months... Objectives 3.1. Level 1 Requirements [43] The Phoenix mission first and foremost is... E00A18 Table 3. Level 1 Requirements for Phoenix Theme Present climate Digging and... are exploring a potentially habitable zone; Phoenix is rated category IVc, meaning... System in a timely fashion. The Phoenix archiving working group responsible for... Objectives 4.1. Science Investigations [54] The Phoenix instrument suite can be divided... nm. M. T. Lemmon et al. (The Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager Investigation, manuscript... Evolved Gas Analyzer on the Phoenix Mars Lander, manuscript in preparation, 2008) has.... 5. Mission 5.1. Mission Success [89] The Phoenix mission began with a Delta 2 launch... al., Mesoscale modeling of the phoenix landing locations, manuscript in preparation... to Earth time operations and Phoenix becomes a weather station monitoring conditions... environment during the Phoenix landed seasons. 6. Conclusions [106] Phoenix is targeted to an unexplored region of Mars where ice... both disciplines. [112] Acknowledgments. The Phoenix science team appreciates the immense... Phoenix can rise from the ashes. References Arvidson, R. E., et al. (2008), Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix landing site selection and.../2007JE003021. Bass, D., and K. Talley (2008), Phoenix surface mission operations processes, J. Geophys..., R. G., et al. (2008), NASA Mars 2007 Phoenix Lander Robotic Arm and Icy Soil... northern plains of Mars with special reference to Phoenix landing surfaces, J. Geophys... (2008), Mission design of the Phoenix Mars scout mission, J. Geophys. Res., doi... of Phoenix landing sites with 75-cm bistatic radar received by Mars...), Telltale wind indicator for the Mars Phoenix lander, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A04, doi... press. Keller, H. U., et al. (2008), Phoenix robotic arm camera, J. Geophys. Res... Mars with MRO HiRISE stereo images: Meter-scale slopes of candidate Phoenix... al. (2008), The 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory, J. Geophys... SSI calibration target onboard the Mars Phoenix 2007 lander: Design, calibration and science... at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, J. Geophys... predictions for candidate 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander sites using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling...), Mars 2007 Phoenix scout mission organic free blank (OFB): Method to distinguish Mars... (2008), Effects of the 2007 Phoenix lander descent thruster plum on the... the northern plains of Mars at the Phoenix Mission candidate landing sites... MVACS Surface Stereo Imager on Mars Polar Lander, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 17...), Atmospheric environment expected for the Phoenix landed season and location, J. Geophys..., and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113... (2008), Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A08... Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029...



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... life on Mars. ESA also announced a plan to launch a Lunar Lander mission... targets to send the Lunar Lander by the end of the... its plan to launch a Lunar Lander mission which will explore the... targets to send the Lunar Lander by the end of this...-Grunt unmanned lander to one of the moon of Mars, Phobos, was... soil samples. >> Russia will develop a lander that will ferry a rover to... in space. >> Data from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander suggest liquid water has interacted... to attempt to contact the lander, which may be hibernating while... 2011. >> >> Effort to contact NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander had also continued during the... of Phoenix showing the lander shrouded in dry-ice frost on Mars were...’s Mars Odyssey orbiter started to listen for possible radio transmissions from Phoenix. >> >> Mars... without hearing anything from the lander and attempts were made in... 2010, it was declared that Phoenix had ended operations after repeated... autonomous “drop” tests of a robotic lander test article - in a record 10... with Armadillo Aerospace, 2009 Lunar Lander Challenge award recipient (with winner... worth of data about robotic lander projects - doubling the potential impact... culminate the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander X PRIZE - 158 - Challenge. Masten Space... their 2009 Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge win. >> Boeing was named... lunar exploration programme. Chang’e 3, a soft lander and rover, and Chang’e 4, a sample... as an orbiter and soft lander (South pole) with small rover...-Globe mission as a similar soft lander (North pole) and an orbiter....3 Mars Exploration Recent missions MGS (Mars Global Surveyor), NASA’s mission in Mars orbit... interior. By studying Mars for several Martian years (a Mars year is about... with Earth on 2 November 2006. Phoenix, a lander mission, was the first chosen... spacecraft. Phoenix was launched in August 2007. It uses a lander that was intended for use by 2001’s Mars Surveyor lander prior... lost Mars Polar Lander. Phoenix landed on the icy northern pole of Mars between... the 150 Martian-day mission, Phoenix deployed its robotic arm and... collected by the robotic arm, Phoenix carried an ‘oven’ and a ‘portable.... In November 2008, signals from Phoenix ceased, as expected with the... from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed evidence of severe ice damage to Phoenix’s solar panels. Current missions Mars Odyssey, the NASA... haematite. Mars Odyssey supported landing site selection for the Phoenix Scout mission... and energetic atoms, MaRSMars Radio Science experiment, MARSIS – Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding), and a lander. The lander, Beagle.... The Beagle-2 lander, after a nominal separation from the Mars Express orbiter on... the lander. Since the start of science operations in early 2004, Mars... scientific collaboration between Mars Express, both rovers and Mars Odyssey is expected... discoveries. MER (Mars Exploration rovers), consisting of two identical lander rover missions... orbiter with eleven experiments and a lander with nine further experiments. The..., the orbiter will deploy the lander which will focus on determining... geological and climate history of Mars. ESA’s Mars Express orbiter continues its... Martian surface. In 20082009, the Phoenix lander successfully studied the northern polar... NASA and ESA (MSL, EXO-MARS, Mars Trace Gas Orbiter) will focus... Wet Chemistry Laboratory on the Phoenix Mars Lander performed aqueous chemical analyses of... biggest surprise found by the Phoenix mission because it was widely... three soil samples analysed by Phoenix’s wet chemistry laboratory. It could...’s Phoenix Mars lander (namely, that perchlorate was present in soil samples from Mars) suggest... perchlorate -- the surprise finding from Phoenix -- was added to desert soil...’s Phoenix mission, a Category IVc lander, landed on the north polar plains of Mars... sterile until the lander reached Mars. Orbital imaging of the lander throughout the... the collapse of the lander’s solar panels. The Phoenix mission confirmed that... as water ice by the Phoenix lander. The spacecraft also continues to... through Mars Odyssey, as well as a significant fraction of Phoenix data. ESA’s Mars... Mars Phoenix mission and are being used to similarly to support other Mars lander... III) and a lander that will not access any Mars special regions and... the latest NASA Mars Mission Phoenix and with the NASA Mars Rovers Spirit...’s comet mission Rosetta and its lander Philae, which currently carries a large... Mars under the ExoMars programme during this decade. A number of orbiter, lander... Itokawa. Several lunar orbiter or lander missions are planned for this... decade, such as China’s Chang’e-3 (lander) and Chang’e-4 (sample return) as...-1 (Russian lunar lander with Indian orbiter) and Luna Resource-2 (Russian lander, rover...) Lunar rover (China) Lunar soft lander and rover (China) Lunar sample... LWS LYRA LYRA MARCI MARIE MaRS MARS EXPRESS MARSIS MASTER Matroshka MAVEN... Spectrometer Mars Climate Sounder Marangoni Experiment in Space Mars Exploration Joint Initiative Mars...



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...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program 9:30-10 a.m. Planetary... 9:30-10 a.m. Titan Bumblebee: A 1kg Lander-Launched UAV Concept 10-10... p.m. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems... Development Room 236 8-8:30 a.m. The Phoenix Mars Landing: An Initial Look 8:30... Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads 9:30-10 a.m. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System 5:10... 222 • 8-8:30 a.m. The Phoenix Mission Lands on Mars • 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The... Probe Missions • 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model to...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program Doug McCuistion, NASA... Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter orbiters, twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and the Phoenix lander... an even deeper understanding of Mars. The Mars Science Laboratory is the... situ elements, a montgolfiere and a probe/lander, in addition to a Titan Orbiter... Saturn’s satellite in the future. Mars offers a major challenge for ballooning.... 9:30-10 a.m. Titan Bumblebee: A 1kg Lander-Launched UAV Concept A concept for... aerial vehicle (UAV) launched from a lander on Saturn’s moon Titan is... of square kilometers around the lander over a few hours, providing stereo... p.m. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems... Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s experience. The Mars program’s success has depended on... budget, consists of a combined orbiter/lander craft designed for a nominal nine... In-Orbit Capture Mechanism for a Mars Sample Return Mission - Terminal Rendezvous... Gibbings, Kingston University Any perceived Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is... system has to deliver the lander accurately to the supersonic parachute... atmospheric density is that the lander must maneuver in during the... sun photometer Atromos: Mars Companion Mission, Mid-Size Polar Lander Investigation K. Boronowsky... Thornton, Denis Lebleu 8-8:30 a.m. The Phoenix Mars Landing: An Initial Look Myron... Langley Research Center NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander landed on Mars on May 25, 2008. An initial look at the Phoenix... antenna is installed on the lander. For missions where the acquired... Ballute Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads Kristin Medlock, Alina Alexeenko...-assisted, low- to high-mass Mars aerocapture systems. Ballutes permit aerocapture...-Stokes equations apply. 9:30-10 a.m. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS... performance and design margins. The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and... scenario involves Altair lander descent operations, where the lander’s engine plume will... may be attracted to the lander or equipment and habitats already... to demonstrate critical technologies of a Mars surface mission, including the critical... GaN (gallium nitride) toward a Venus Lander. GaN electronics for high temperatures... for sample return missions e.g. from Mars. Therefore, an observation mission was... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS... a.m. The Phoenix Mission Lands on Mars Peter Smith, University of Arizona Phoenix landed on the arctic plains of Mars on May... of this unexplored region of Mars. 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next... Michael Meyer, NASA Headquarters The Mars Science Laboratory rover represents firsts... the Humboldt instruments on the lander, dedicated to environment and geophysics... analyzer on the Philae comet lander. 11:40 a.m.-12:10 p.m. A 100... is a Mars mission demonstrating aerobraking and rendezvous/ capture in Mars orbit and... mission phases, including launch, interplanetary, Mars orbit injection and orbiting, down... Center NASA’s Mars Sample Return project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere... Earth return from extraterrestrial bodies (e.g. Mars, comets or asteroids) involves a hyperbolic.... 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to..., Stanley Associates The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is... the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM’s conventional (General Circulation Model... model output (Southwest Research Institute’s Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS... of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory..., University of California-Irvine Future Mars missions requiring increased landing accuracy... envelope of trajectories of which a lander is capable of flying is... Landing System Design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite Ashley Korzun, Christine... Braun, Georgia Institute of Technology Mars Gravity Biosatellite is a novel program... engineering, and hardware development, the Mars Gravity Biosatellite program offers a unique... land the Mars 2 & 3 landers in 1971 through last month’s Phoenix landing, Manning will review the wild history of Mars landing attempts. 8:30-9 a.m. Why Mars Sample Return Will... technical and programmatic, that a successful Mars Sample Return mission will have...