Спутник связи. Quantum. [Редактировать]

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Все спутники связи

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-07-09. Airbus Defence and Space подписала первый контракт на полностью переконфигурируемый космический аппарат.
Airbus Defence and Space выиграла первый контракт на полностью переконфигурируемый космический аппарат (в настоящее время называется Quantum). Заказчиками проекта выступили Европейское космическое агентство и спутниковый оператор Eutelsat.
Особенностью аппарата является его возможность адаптироваться к изменению зоны покрытия, емкости и диапазону вещания. Также аппарат будет способен менять орбитальную позицию. Таким образом, компания Airbus возможно станет первой компанией которая создаст спутник связи который станет полностью серийным и не будет требовать доработок под конкретного заказчика. Новый спутник будет работать в Ku-диапазоне. САС аппарата планируется на уровне 15-и лет. Местом сборки спутника определена фабрика в Великобритании.
Также компания объявила о том, что, космический аппарат EutelSat 172B будет полностью электрическим.Тэги: QuantumAirbus GroupEutelsat Communications S.A.EutelSat 172B
22016-01-08. Компания Anaren выиграла $7 млн. контракт в рамках программы Eutelsat Quantum.
Компания Airbus Defence and Space заключила $7 млн. контракт с компанией Anaren в целях создания усовершенствованной системы формирования лучей космических аппаратов связи. В случае успешной разработки Airbus планирует устанавливать разработанную систему на свои перспективные полностью реконфигурируемые космические аппараты. Новый тип спутников связи разрабатывается в рамках программы Eutelsat Quantum которая финансируется как компанией Eutelsat, так и европейским космическим агентством.Согласно контракту срок поставки первого летного экземпляра системы составляет 2017 год. Тэги: Airbus GroupEutelsat Communications S.A.Европейское космическое агентствоQuantum
32017-05-24. Компания Eutelsat закажет дополнительные два КА серии Quantum.
Компания Eutelsat обнародовала данные о планах купить еще два космических аппарата серии Quantum. Первый аппарат серии был куплен оператором у Airbus в 2015 году за $198 млн. (запуск КА должен состояться в 2019 году) При этом, к настоящему времени компания уже успела предпродать порядка 50 процентов от емкости нового спутника.
К особенностям серии Quantum производитель относит:
1. Возможность полной перенастройки спутника путем изменения его программного обеспечения.
2. Использование фазированной антенны, которая позволит адаптировать спутник под требования рынка (поставщик компонентов Анарен). При этом, согласно заявлению Airbus использование данной технологии позволит создавать спутники без заранее определенной зоны покрытия.
3. Емкость КА должна будет составить восемь одно гигагерцовых луча на передачу данных. При этом, каждый луч будет способен изменять свою зону покрытия от одной трети Земли до 600 км.
4. Потребители аппарат будут иметь возможность разделять лучи на составляющие, которые будут способны следовать за передвигающимся объектом.
5. Текущее поколение аппаратов Quantum будет работать в Ku диапазоне, однако в дальнейшем будут созданы и Ка диапазонные аппараты.
6. Технологически спутник унаследовал многие свои свойства от военных КА геостационарной связи.
7. За счет использования фазированной антенны спутники Quantum будут способны определять источники радиопомех с точностью до 20 км. При этом, КА будет способен либо ограничивать вещание на регион с радиопомехами либо менять частоту передачи данных. Тэги: QuantumAirbus Group

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг.3500
2Масса (полезная нагрузка), кг.450
3Мощность (выделяемая для полезной нагрузки спутника), Вт5000
4Емкость, гбит в секунду6-7

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. евро180
2Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.2017-05-23198
3Оператор Европейское космическое агентство
4Оператор Eutelsat Communications S.A.
5Производитель Airbus Group

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Quantum». [Перейти к поиску]


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... of quantum mechanics; 3.2 Metrological applications; 3.3 Applications to the physics of quantum information... field involving quantum optics, quantum information, and the foundations of quantum mechanics Ð is...: quantum cryptography [11], quantum information theory [12], and the physics of quantum computing... proposals. 2.1 Quantum correlations As noted above, entanglement is simply a special, quantum form... entangled states and quantum correlations apply not only to quantum systems that... 2.1, quantum correlations are related to coherent superposition states of compound quantum systems... pure quantum states. 600 I V Bargatin, B A Grishanin, V N Zadkov A pure state of a compound quantum... part. So, pure quantum states can be either quantum-correlated (entangled) or... quantum fluctuations in the pure entangled state jci of the compound quantum... of the compound quantum system to any local quantum operations, namely, unitary or superoperator transformations [40] and quantum measurements... classical correlations from quantum, one introduces separable, i.e. classically correlated, quantum ”sep can... decoherence in quantum systems. Decoherence is the process in which quantum superpositions... different states. Quantum superpositions of different coherent states of a quantum oscillator present... coherent manipulation of quantum states. The situation with quantum-informational applications of... entirely new methods of quantum cryptography [92, 93]. Quantum cryptography protocols offer... in quantum cryptography protocols. Note that not all protocols of quantum cryptography... quantum cryptography is currently the maturest field of the physics of quantum information. After a series of papers reporting the experimental realization of quantum... of quantum information, where entangled states are of fundamental importance, is quantum... quantum case and, in particular, with the problem of capacities of quantum... quantum information Unlike the metrological uses, the applications of entanglement to quantum...-scale quantum computer capable of realizing the advantages of quantum algorithms over... perform quantum computations. Instead, as a genuine quantum computer executes almost any quantum algorithm... quantum computing. One can expect that this holds true for other quantum... to reliably transmit entire quantum states Ð the quantum information proper (see review... of the transmission of quantum states along the quantum channels as for... the so-called quantum teleportation. In its physical essence, quantum teleportation consists in the transfer of a quantum state from... reconstruct the original quantum state. Hence the analogy between quantum teleportation and... viewpoint of quantum information theory, quantum teleportation is just a noiseless quantum channel allowing perfect transmission of qubits (quantum information) from a one physical system to another. The connection between quantum teleportation and quantum information theory made it... quantum capacities of information channels by applying to gedanken experiments wherein quantum teleportation protocols are utilized [39]. Note also that quantum teleportation has a sort of antipode Ð dense quantum coding which... of a quantum strategy that employs entangled states [123]. Whether such quantum games... carried an elementary quantum memory register Ð a qubit. The twolevel quantum system of... of quantum information, one should cool these vibrations to their ground quantum... state, serves as a quantum computer bus, i.e. transmits quantum information between individual ions... quantum gate [134]. In the above scheme, the conditional dynamics and quantum... exchange of quantum information. Notice that by sequentially applying quantum logic gates... of quantum information. Almost immediately after the appearance of the quantum computer... for implementing quantum logic gates should allow one to realize quantum logic... parallel quantum computations [152], the present experimenters in the physics of quantum... a quantum computer based on these principles. Like the NMR-based quantum computing... the physics of quantum information, such as quantum cryptography, quantum computing, quantum information theory... in the transmission of quantum information along quantum networks in the future... storing quantum states, including their possible quantum correlations. The first proposal for a quantum... unexpected aspects of quantum physics. We can only wish quantum theory, a recent... O D, Khrustalev O A Kvantovaya Teleportatsiya Ð Obyknovennoe Chudo (Quantum Teleportation Ð An Ordinary Miracle) (Izhevsk...) The Physics of Quantum Information: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Computation (New York: Springer... Issue on Quantum Information: Phys. World 11 (3) (1998) Sudbery A Quantum Mechanics and... NASA Int. Conf. on Quantum Computing and Quantum Communications (Springer-Verlag Lecture...



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... earliest discoveries in quantum computation and quantum information was that quantum mechanics can... procedure is known as quantum cryptography or quantum key distribution (abbreviated QKD... in quantum computation and quantum information. In addition to key distribution, quantum techniques... cryptography. Quantum cryptography makes use of the subtle properties of quantum mechanics such as the quantum no-cloning theorem... applications of quantum cryptography include QKD, quantum bit commitment and quantum coin tossing... boom in quantum computation, it seems possible, even likely, that quantum states... secret quantum states as well as secret classical data. Such a quantum secret... for sharing quantum keys, such as those used in quantum key distribu‐ tion or in other quantum cryptographic protocols... been broken by quantum computer. Perhaps, after seeing quantum computers destroy RSA... propelled quantum cryptography into mainstream computer science and physics. Furthermore, quantum cryptography.... 2. Quantum cryptography fundamentals On a wider context, quantum cryptography is a branch of quantum information processing, which includes quantum computing, quantum measurements, and quantum teleportation. Quantum computation and quantum... can be accomplished using quantum mechanical systems. Quantum mechanics is a mathematical framework... the earliest antecedents of quantum computation and quantum information may be found... the study of quantum entanglement. Entanglement is a uniquely quantum mechanical resource that... interesting applica‐ tions of quantum computation and quantum information; entanglement is iron... of new applications in quantum computation and quantum information. As we known... quantum attack – quantum key distribution (QKD). Based on the fundamental principles in quantum... art quantum cryptography technologies. 2.1. Entanglement state The counterintuitive predictions of quantum mechanics... using non orthogonal quantum states. In quantum mechanics there is a quantum no-cloning... raw transmission data. 2.3. Quantum no-cloning theorem The quantum no-cloning theorem... quantum computing and related fields. Theorem (Quantum no-cloning theorem) An arbitrary quantum... more general quantum states. Apparently U cannot clone a general quantum state. Quantum no-cloning... of a quantum system, then in general the state of this quantum system... the information encoded quantum mechanically will disturb the quantum state and expose... prospects of quantum computing by independently devising the first quantum error correcting... of quantum cryptography by using the property of quantum from HUP. 3. Quantum key distribution The first attempt of using quantum... be used to quantum key distribution, or otherwise, quantum entanglement purification should... of quantum key distribution is given in Figure 1. Introduction to Quantum Cryptography... 1 (Security statement for quantum key distribution) If 1) quantum mechanics is correct, and... successful. 4.3.2. Communication complexity/quantum memory The communication complexity/quantum memory approach to... secret. Quantum secret sharing (abbreviated QSS) is the generalization of quantum key... messages and QSS of quantum informa‐ Introduction to Quantum Cryptography http://dx... role in quantum secret sharing and many application fields of quantum information theory such as quantum teleportation, QKD, quantum com‐ puting... are very useful multipartite quantum states in quantum information processing. Graph states..., which are useful multipartite quantum states in quantum information processing. 137 138... secret is quantum, the dealer shares either private or public quantum channels... protocols to the quantum case. 6. Post-quantum cryptography Post-quantum cryptography deals with... functions) is secure from quantum computers. The quantum Grover’s algorithm can speed... algorithms. Post-quantum cryptogra‐ phy is also unrelated to quantum cryptography, which refers to using quantum phenomena Introduction to Quantum Cryptography... the content of post-quantum cryptography clearly [7]. Post-quantum cryptography is, in general, a quite different topic from quantum cryptography: • Post-quantum.... [7] Bernstein, D. J. Introduction to post-quantum cryptography " Post-quantum cryptogra‐ phy, (2009). [8] Townsend..., M. Quantum: London : Icon books, (2009). [12] Horodecki, R, Horodecki, P, & Horodecki, M. et al., “Quantum..., N. The Case for Quantum Key Distribution," Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking, Lecture Notes... for Infinite-Dimensional Quantum Systems and Applications to Quantum Cryptography,” Physical Review...., “Detecting two-party quantum correla‐ tions in quantum-key-distribution protocols,” Physical... al., “Quantum Privacy Amplification and the Se‐ curity of Quantum Cryptography over...



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... III. Quantum Mechanics IV. Quantum Computation V. Noise and Errors VI. Quantum Communication VII... form of noise in quantum computers and quantum communication channels. Error-Correcting... be performed by a quantum computer using quantum logic. Quantum algorithms exploit the phenomena..., quantum simulation, the adiabatic algorithm, etc. Quantum Bit: A bit registered by a quantum-mechanical... in a quantum superposition of the states 0 and 1. Qubit: A quantum bit. Quantum Communication Channel: A communication channel that transmits quantum bits. The...). 3 Quantum Computer: A computer that operates on quantum bits to perform quantum algorithms. Quantum computers have the feature that they can preserve quantum superpositions and entanglement. Quantum Cryptography: A cryptographic technique that encodes information on quantum bits. Quantum cryptography uses the fact that measuring quantum systems.... Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a quantum cryptographic technique for distributing secret keys. Quantum... the effects of noise on quantum bits. Quantum error-correcting codes can... primary reason for studying quantum information, however. Quantum mechanics is weird: electrons... to the idea of quantum information. IV Quantum computers are defined and... quantum technologies and techniques for actually building quantum computers and quantum communication systems. Quantum... quantum information processing. 7 II. Introduction: History of Information and Quantum Mechanics Information Quantum... origin of quantum information coincides with the origin of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics... quantum systems, Feynman proposed a ‘universal quantum simulator’ that could efficiently simulate other quantum systems. Feynman’s device was not a quantum Turing machine, but a sort of quantum... at once, so in a quantum computer, a quantum bit can take on the... for quantum computers quickly resulted in small prototype quantum computers and quantum logic... method of transmitting quantum information is teleportation [46]. Quantum teleportation closely resembles... teleported. Quantum teleportation forms a integral part of quantum communication and of quantum computation. Experimental demonstrations of quantum teleportation... quantum technology. Quantum cryptography A particularly useful application of the counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics is quantum cryptography [49-51]. Above... the capacity of quantum communication channels remain unresolved. Quantum information processing is... states of a quantum system correspond to vectors. In a quantum bit, the quantum 1 logic... plays a key role in quantum computation and quantum communication. Before turning to... of quantum mechanics are correct. Quantum weirdness triumphs. 37 IV. Quantum computation Quantum mechanics... of quantum weirdness: quantum computation. The central counterintuitive feature of quantum mechanics is quantum... course, is that the quantum gates preserve quantum coherence, a concept 44 which... the efficacy of many quantum algorithms. The quantum Fourier transform is a potentially... to simulate any other quantum system. A universal quantum simulator has to possess.... Accordingly, one might also call quantum simulators, ‘quantum analog computers.’ In 1996... answer. Adiabatic quantum computation (also called ‘quantum annealing’) represents a purely quantum way to... complex dynamics, the adiabatic quantum computer goes through a quantum phase transition. The... quantum computation is neither more nor less powerful than quantum computation itself: a quantum... is unitary. By exploiting quantum coherence, quantum walks can be shown typically... open. The future of quantum algorithms The quantum algorithms described above are... of noise differ from quantum technology to quantum technology, however, the methods... corrected using quantum error-correcting codes. Quantum errorcorrecting codes are quantum analogs of... quantum computation to perform fault-tolerant quantum computation. Fault-tolerant quantum computation allows quantum... topelogical quantum computation are being actively sought out. 63 VI. Quantum Communication Quantum mechanics provides the fundamental limits to information processing. Above, quantum.... Sending quantum information Let’s begin with using quantum channels to send quantum information... using the laws of quantum mechanics. If quantum information theory can discover... apply the mathematical rules of quantum mechanics. Quantum cryptography A common problem in... transistor have their roots in quantum mechanics. Quantum coherence is relatively fragile... itself. References [1] M.A. Nielsen, I.L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, Cambridge University Press...



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... in the quantum context. The question is simple: what can quantum statistical mechanics reveal about the difficulty of solving hard quantum... is intrinsically quantum mechanical (Part I) and develop techniques to study quantum spin... topics related to quantum computation, was not working on quantum computation with... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii 1 Overview of thesis 1 I 4 Random quantum satisfiability 2 Complexity theory for physicists... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Classical: P and NP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.4 Quantum: BQP and QMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.5 NP... 2.10 Adiabatic quantum algorithm for classical k-SAT . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3 Random Quantum Satisfiability 3.1 36... 4.4 Relation to belief propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4.5 Quantum cavity method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.6 Population dynamics... work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 6 AKLT models with quantum spin glass ground states 117... correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 The quantum spherical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 8.3.1 Quantum phase transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 8.3.2 Correlations... in the quantum context. The question is simple: what can quantum statistical mechanics reveal about the difficulty of solving hard quantum... is intrinsically quantum mechanical (Part I) and develop techniques to study quantum spin... techniques to quantum mechanical models. In Chapter 5, we develop a quantum cavity analysis... quantum computer modifies the above reasoning only slightly. It appears that quantum... quantum verifiable (QMA). If we wish to study the hardest of quantum... classical computers cannot efficiently simulate quantum systems. Certainly, directly simulating Schr... of the quantum computer. This reasoning leads to the strong quantum Church-Turing hypothesis: that any reasonable quantum computer may... that P = NP.4 2.4 Quantum: BQP and QMA The most important quantum complexity class... a large scale quantum computer is ever built. The quantum analogue of NP is the class QMA, Quantum Merlin-Arthur... be efficiently checked by a quantum computer given a quantum state as a proof (or...: 1) the verifier is a quantum computer, 2) the proof is a quantum state, and, 3) the...: suppose we had a quantum verifier which took a quantum state |ψ and tried to... k-QSAT a bit more carefully: Input: A quantum Hamiltonian H = m Πm composed of M projectors, each... common: their quantum verification algorithm. We will take the quantum circuit representing... quantum verification circuit as in Fig. 2.3. This circuit takes as input a quantum... quantum satisfiability k-QSAT, let us first ask whether we could use a quantum... 2k configurations leads to its quantum generalization as a projector ΠIφ ≡ |φ φ|, which penalizes.... 59 k αhc 2 0.5 3 0.82 4 0.77 5 0.70 ∞ 0+ Quantum Classical − + + αps αc αcl αcl 0.5 0.5 1 1 0.92... classical graph property encode generic quantum satisfiability? Does a straightforward function compute... quantum mechanics. Thus, section 4.5 discusses the generalization of cavity techniques to quantum models through quantum-classical mappings. This technique... quantum models on trees [110, 73, 26, 94 80]. Any reasonable quantum... with quantum spin glass ground states 6.1 Introduction The study of quantum antiferromagnets... [2] is to use quantum singlets to construct correlated quantum-disordered wavefunctions, which... a collection of symmetry breaking degenerate quantum ground states whose correlations correspond... quantum states |Ψα such that | {ˆ ni }|Ψα |2 = Pα ({ˆ ni }) (6.29) and show that the quantum... of quantum Hamiltonians. To what extent do the features of the quantum... of view. 8.3 The quantum spherical model The quantum spherical model is given... quantum models are studied more extensively in the context of quantum complexity... O. Regev. Adiabatic quantum computation is equivalent to standard quantum computation. SIAM J. Comput.... [6] B. Altshuler, H. Krovi, and J. Roland. Adiabatic quantum optimization fails for random instances..., S. Gutmann, J. Lapan, A. Lundgren, and D. Preda. A quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to.... [61] M. B. Hastings. Quantum belief propagation: An algorithm for thermal quantum systems. Phys... V. N. Smelyanskiy. Statistical mechanics of the quantum ksatisfiability problem. Phys. Rev. E, 78...-integral representation for quantum spin models: Application to the quantum cavity method.... [112] V. Smelyanskiy, S. Knysh, and R. Morris. Quantum adiabatic optimization and combinatorial landscapes.... [118] T. Vojta. Quantum version of a spherical model: Crossover from quantum to classical... problems relevant for quantum information research. In Workshop on Quantum Statistical Mechanics...



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... aeromagnetometer аэромагнетометр helium ~ гелиевый аэромагнетометр quantum ~ квантовый аэромагне­ тометр aeronomy аэрономия... ~ алгоритм рас­ познавания образа quantum ~ квантовый алгоритм quantum search ~ квантовый алго­ ритм...­ ческий подход quantum ~ квантовый подход quantum-field ~ квантово-полевой подход quantum-mechanical ~ квантово...­ рии возмущений quantum ~ квантовый расчет quantum-chemistry ~s квантово-химические расчеты quantum-mechanical ~s квантовомеханические... ~ молекулярный хаос polarization ~ поляризационный хаос quantum ~ квантовый хаос spatiotemporal ~ пространственновременной хаос...) ~ атомный характер nondestructive ~ недеструктивный характер quantum ~ квантовая природа resonance ~ резонансный характер... интер­ валами между импульсами quantum ~ квантовая кодировка quantum dense ~ квантовая плотная кодировка... ~ фазовая когерентность phonon ~ когерентность фононов quantum ~ квантовая когерентность Raman ~ рамановская когерентность... Purcell ~ концепция Парселла quantum ~s квантовые представле­ ния 54 quantum-computational ~ концеп­ ция... photometric ~ фотометрическая кор­ рекция quantum ~ квантовая поправка quantum error ~ квантовая коррек­ ция... entanglement-based quantum ~ квантовая криптография, основан­ ная на перепутывании quantum ~ квантовая криптография... ~ квантово-невозмущающее детектирование quantum ~ квантовая регистрация; квантовые измерения quantum-limited ~ детектирование на уровне квантового предела detector quantum-nondemolition... ~ макет quantum ~ квантовый прибор diagram quantum-computing ~ устройство для квантовых вычислений quantum-dot ~ прибор на основе квантовых точек quantum-logic ~ устройство кван­ товой логики quantum-well ~ прибор... прибор superconducting ~ сверхпроводящее устройство superconducting quantum interfer­ ence ~ сверхпроводящий квантовый интерференционный... ~ бесстолкновительная диссипация energy ~ диссипация энергии quantum ~ квантовая диссипация dissociation диссоциация collisionless... импульсов quantum ~ квантовое распределение quantum-dot size ~ распределение квантовых точек по размерам quantum... люминофора quantum ~ квантовая точка self-assembled quantum ~s самоор­ ганизованные квантовые точки single (quantum... propagation ~ динамика распростра­ нения quantum ~ квантовая динамика quantum Zeno ~ квантовая динами­ ка... ~s эффекты квантования quantum ~ квантовый эффект quantum coherence ~s эффекты квантовой когерентности quantum-confined Stark ~ квантово-размерный эффект Штарка quantum confinement ~ эффект раз­ мерного квантования; квантово-размерный эффект quantum correlation ~ эффект кван­ товой корреляции quantum electrodynamic ~s эффек­ ты квантовой электродинамики quantum Hall ~ квантовый эффект Холла quantum interference ~ эффект кван­ товой интерференции quantum localization ~ эффект кван­ товой локализации quantum mechanical ~ квантово­ механический эффект quantum noise ~s эффекты кванто­ вых шумов quantum-nondemolition ~ эффект квантового невозмущающего воз­ действия effect quantum optical ~ эффекты кванто­ вой оптики quantum size ~ эффект размерного квантования; квантово-размерный эффект quantum Zeno... nonstationary ~ нестационарный ан­ самбль quantum ~ квантовый ансамбль quantum-dot ~ ансамбль квантовых точек...­ люция pulse ~ эволюция импульса quantum(-mechanical) ~ квантовая эволюция quantum-state ~ эволюция кванто...­ ждение pulsed ~ импульсное возбуждение quantum ~ квантовое возбуждение quantum-confined ~ размерно-огра­ ниченное... neutral ~ нейтральный экситон quantum-confined ~ экситон с раз­ мерным квантованием quantum-dot ~ экситон...­ тура multilayer ~ многослойная гетеро­ структура quantum-confined [quantum-dimen­ sional] ~ квантово-размерная... основных цветов pseudoscopic ~ псевдоскопическое изображение quantum ~ квантовое изображение Raman ~ рамановское изображение... поляризованных лучей quantum ~ квантовая интерферен­ ция quantum-mechanical ~ квантово-механическая интерференция quantum-state... добротности quantum cascade ~ квантово-каскадный лазер quantum-dot ~ лазер на квантовых точках quantum-well ~ лазер на квантовых ямах quantum... single quantum-dot ~ лазер на оди­ ночной квантовой точке single quantum-well... процедуры optical ~s оптические операции quantum ~ квантовая манипуляция quantum-state ~s манипуляции с квантовыми состояниями... planar - планарный микрорезонатор quantum-dot ~ микрорезонатор на квантовой точке quantum-well ~ микрорезонатор...



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..., 2012 Quantum Computation and Quantum Information Yazhen Wang Abstract. Quantum computation and quantum information... deeply rooted in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. Consequently quantum algorithms are random in nature, and quantum... quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. We introduce the basic concepts of quantum computation and quantum simulation and present quantum algorithms that... quantum algorithms and quantum simulation. Key words and phrases: Quantum algorithm, quantum bit (qubit), quantum Fourier transform, quantum information, quantum mechanics, quantum Monte Carlo, quantum probability, quantum simulation, quantum... and manipulation. It includes quantum computation, quantum communication and quantum cryptography. This revolutionary... deeply rooted in quantum computation and quantum information. As a result, quantum algorithms are... quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. On the other hand, quantum computation and quantum... concepts of quantum computation and introduce quantum algorithms and quantum simulation. The quantum algorithms... introduces quantum mechanics, quantum probability and quantum statistics. Section 3 reviews basic concepts of quantum... define quantum likelihood and Fisher quantum information and establish quantum point estimation and quantum... its counterpart, quantum bit, in quantum computation and quantum information. Quantum bit is called..., a quantum computer can be created from a quantum circuit with quantum gates to perform quantum computation and manipulate quantum information..., prim- 379 QUANTUM COMPUTATION AND QUANTUM INFORMATION itive solid-state quantum processors have... quantum computation and quantum information, and a quantum computer is often synonymous with the quantum circuit model. A quantum... entanglement effect in quantum mechanics. In fact, quantum experiments yield a quantum version of.... Uf |0 + |1 √ |0 2 = Uf 4. QUANTUM ALGORITHMS Quantum algorithms are described by quantum circuits that take... that utilize essential quantum features such as quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. While... in quantum algorithms include quantum Fourier transform, phase estimation and quantum walk. 4.1 Quantum Fourier Transform The quantum... the other. A quantum procedure known as quantum cryptography or quantum key distribution can... (1996, 1997) developed a quantum search QUANTUM COMPUTATION AND QUANTUM INFORMATION √ algorithm that needs... quantum search algorithm can also be viewed as a quantum simulation procedure. 5. QUANTUM SIMULATION Quantum... state |x . 5.3 Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation Quantum theory is intrinsically stochastic and quantum measurement... state of the quantum system obtained via quantum simulation. The quantum systems are.... Consider quantum error-correction for reliable quantum computation and quantum information processing. Quantum error-correction is employed in quantum computation and quantum communication to protect quantum information from loss due to quantum... quantum error-correction codes can protect quantum information against quantum noise, and thus quantum... umbrella of quantum information. This paper reviews quantum computation and quantum information from..., quantum gates and quantum circuits in quantum computation and discuss quantum entanglement, quantum parallelism and quantum error-correction in quantum computation and quantum information. We present major quantum... as experimental work in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. For example... between quantum estimation and quantum simulation. Since quantum computation is intrinsically random, and quantum... effects of decoherence in quantum computation and quantum information. Quantum computing has witnessed... , J. I. (2003). Simulation of quantum dynamics with quantum optical systems. Quantum Inf. Comput. 3 15...



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... so-called quantum wells, wires and dots. For quantum wells in the... quantum wires with enhanced confinement energies are realized by overgrowing InAlGaAs quantum wells with a GaAs quantum well. Finally, the growth of quantum dots... W. Langbein, “Optical properties of InAlGaAs quantum wells: Influence of segregation and..., “Linewidth statistics of single InGaAs quantum dot photoluminescence lines.”, phys. stat..., J. M. Hvam, and W. Langbein, “InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies... energy in strained asymmetric T-shaped quantum wires”, Journal of Crystal Growth...-assembled quantum dots”, abstract book, p. 62 of International Conference on Semiconductor Quantum... quantum wells 4.2.1 Composition profile of InAlGaAs quantum wells 4.2.2 Energy levels of InAlGaAs quantum... dislocations in InAlGaAs MQWs 4.3 InAlGaAs quantum wires 4.3.1 Background 4.3.2 Growth of T-wires... energy levels 4.4 Quantum dots 4.4.1 Growth conditions probed by InAs quantum dots 4.4.2 InGaAs QDs for single dot spectroscopy 4.4.3 Quaternary quantum dots... 5.2.3 Photonic cavities 5.2.4 Wedged photonic cavities 5.2.5 Quantum wells in photonic cavities 5.2.6 Layer...(1/t); m_n->m22_imag[i]=nratio*imag(1/t); break; // quantum well case 3: d0=iun*m->p2... 1999 Optical properties of InAlGaAs quantum wells: Influence of segregation and... characterization and modeling of InAlGaAs quantum wells with AlGaAs barriers, grown... with molecular beam epitaxy. The quantum wells are characterized with photoluminescence... a physically meaningful analysis of InAlGaAs quantum well transition energies and deduce... the effects of segregation and quantum confinement to be determined independently... important for low threshold multiple quantum well lasers at wavelengths shorter... exciton binding energy due to quantum confinement is overestimated here, partly... InAlGaAs quantum well. However, the good agreement obtained for all the quantum... in a Inx (Aly Ga1Ϫy ) 1Ϫx As quantum well: ⌬E x ϭ2 ͱ2 ln 2 ͱ x ͑ 1Ϫx ͒ ‫ ץ‬E gap . N ‫ץ‬x ͑7͒ The same... in growth-interrupted GaAsÕAlAs quantum wells K. Leosson, J. R. Jensen, W. Langbein,* and... electrical properties of quantum wells and, consequently, for quantum-well based devices. The observed photoluminescence ͑PL͒ spectrum of quantum wells... diffusion length of the quantum-well excitons. When quantum wells are grown... peaks’’ in growth-interrupted ͑GI͒ quantum wells revealed, however, that narrow...) spectroscopy to characterize GaAs/AlAs quantum wells fabricated with growth interruption... nanoroughness of quantum well interfaces. II. EXPERIMENT Single GaAs quantum wells, nominally... growth conditions ͑Wafer 5͒. The nominal quantum well thicknesses were 11, 8.5, 6.5, and... total scan distance corresponds to a quantum well thickness III. RESULTS Figure... follows: ͑i͒ The continuously grown single quantum wells exhibit a smooth increase in... exciton luminescence from growth-interrupted quantum wells. These models assume that... roughness in our quantum wells. ͑i͒ In the continuously grown quantum wells, the... of increased thickness and a smoother quantum well potential, consistent with a red...͒ Observation of interface nanoroughness in quantum wells does not imply nanoroughness...-interrupted quantum wells. ͑iii͒ Surface segregation changes the shape of the quantum... responsible for formation of nanorough quantum well interfaces. A bimodal interface roughness... resonantly excited excitons in semiconductor quantum wells ͑QW͒ receives continued interest... Second-harmonic imaging of semiconductor quantum dots John Erlanda) Research Center...-harmonic generation from the semiconductor quantum dots. © 2000 American Institute of... in thin polymer films.9 Semiconductor quantum dots ͑QDs͒, whose unique properties...͒. 10 D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures ͑Wiley, Chichester, 1998... Linewidth Statistics of Single InGaAs Quantum Dot Photoluminescence Lines K. Leosson1) (a), J. R. Jensen... width fluctuations in quantum wells [2] and in self-assembled quantum dots [3] demonstrated....5As quantum dots are a suitable gain material for low-threshold quantum-dot... Linewidth Statistics of Single InGaAs Quantum Dot Photoluminescence Lines 51 nant... of optical linewidths in single quantum dots predict a linear temperature dependence... V.M. Ustinov, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 3, 196 (1997). [8] P. Borri, W. Langbein...). Linewidth Statistics of Single InGaAs Quantum Dot Photoluminescence Lines 53 [9] H. Kamada....7As quantum wells at low temperatures,6 where the influence of quantum-well.../GaAs quantum well where the excitonic resonance is broadened by quantum-well... and T. B. Norris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 401 ͑1996͒. 5 R. P. Stanley, R. Houdre... of polariton resonances in semiconductor quantum-well microcavities has been the... microcavity ͑MC͒ containing three InGaAs quantum wells ͑QW’s͒. They observed that...-dimensional microscopic model of disordered quantum wells embedded in a microcavity where...



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... Holmdel, NJ07733-3030 USA 1 Introduction Quantum wells are thin layered semiconductor... their special properties from the quantum confinement of charge carriers (electrons... carefully tailor "coupled" quantum wells to show quantum mechanical beating phenomena that.... 2 Introduction to Quantum Wells First we will introduce quantum wells by discussing... and structures (e.g., laser diodes, photodetectors, quantum well and superlattice optical and... all of these. 2.2 QUANTUM WELL STRUCTURES AND GROWTH A quantum well is a particular... "quantum well". There are at least two techniques by which quantum well...-A-BOX QUANTUM WELL PHYSICS We can understand the basic properties of a quantum... V(z) is the structural potential (i.e., the "quantum well" potential) seen by the... of the quantum well. energy wavefunction n=3 n=2 n=1 Lz Fig. 1 "Infinite" quantum well and... temperature. “infinite” quantum well “particle in a box” finite quantum well particle in...” Fig. 2 Comparison of "infinite" quantum well, "finite" quantum well, and superlattice behavior... quantum well. Fig. 2 illustrates the differences between the idealized "infinite" quantum well... as a multiple quantum well. 3 Linear Optical Properties of Quantum Wells To understand the linear interband optical absorption in quantum... a quantum well is a series of steps, with one step for each quantum... this infinite quantum well). Thus, as we imagine increasing the quantum well... electric vector perpendicular to the quantum well layers (so-called "transverse... of a quantum well sample. We see from Fig. 4 that the quantum well... no longer clearly resolvable. The quantum well offers two important differences... in quantum well 100 Å Fig. 6. Comparison of bulk and quantum well exciton... in Quantum Wells There are many possible nonlinear optical effects in quantum...) . 5. Quantum Well Electroabsorption Physics When electric fields are applied to quantum wells... peculiar to quantum wells, and it is called the Quantum-Confined Stark... for parallel field electroabsorption in quantum wells. The broadening and disappearance... simple "rectangular" quantum wells, many other forms of quantum wells are also possible, such as coupled quantum wells, graded quantum wells, stepped quantum wells. These other... effects in coupled quantum wells are closely related. 5.3 QUANTUM WELL ELECTRO-OPTIC.... 13. A quantum well region, typically containing 50 to 100 quantum wells, is... "intrinsic" ("i") region in a p-i-n diode. This quantum well region will therefore have... the quantum well barriers. For the particular case of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum... VXEVWUDWH Q *D$V ERWWRP FRQWDFW Q $O*D$V Fig. 13. Quantum well modulator diode structure. A second... (e.g., 100 microns). As a result, waveguide quantum well modulators can operate with... an opportunity for efficient integration. Quantum well modulators driven directly by... switching architectures. field-effect transistor S G D n i (quantum wells) p (mirror) photodiode modulator Fig... are possible using combinations of quantum well diodes, without any transistors... Quantum Wells One area of current interest in optical physics of quantum wells is in measuring coherent quantum processes. A particular... of states, including setting the quantum mechanical phases in the superposition.... The terahertz signal is generated quantum mechanically, focussed optically and detected... and radio techniques, and between quantum mechanical and classical descriptions. It... many quantum mechanical effects that can be explored optically in quantum wells... in quantum wells, see Bastard (1988). For extended treatments of quantum well... in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. Vol. 20..., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Wells, in Optical Nonlinearities and... Miller D A B, 1993, Analog differential selflinearized quantum-well self-electro-optic-effect..., and differential modulator/detector, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. Vol. 25 1928. Lentine... C A, Gossard A C, and Wiegmann W, 1985b, The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device... of quantum well structures: waveguide electroabsorption and sum rules, IEEE J. Quantum Electron... of Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Physics and Applications, in...-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as...-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor, IEEE.... Miller D A B, 1990a, Optoelectronic applications of quantum wells, Optics and Photonics News.... 1, No. 2 (February 1990) 7. Miller D A B, 1990b, Quantum Well Optoelectronic Switching Devices, Int... D A B, 1990c, Quantum-well self-electrooptic effect devices, Optical and Quantum Electron. Vol... S L, 1994, Terahertz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells, Appl. Phys. B Vol. 58... excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductor quantum-well structures, Phys. Rev. B Vol... nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum wells, Advances in Physics Vol...



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Quantum Copy-Protection and Quantum Money Scott Aaronson∗ Abstract 1 Forty years ago, Wiesner proposed using quantum... of using quantum states in this way actually predates quantum information as... idea of quantum cryptography, Wiesner [23] also proposed a scheme for “quantum money... there exist quantum oracles relative to which publicly-verifiable quantum money is..., by quantum key distribution), then we cannot hope for either quantum copy-protection or publiclyverifiable quantum money. The reason... exists a quantum oracle U relative to which publicly-verifiable quantum money and quantum copy-protection of arbitrary5 software are possible.6 Here a “quantum...-theoretic evidence that quantum copy-protection and publiclyverifiable quantum money are indeed.../output behavior using a polynomial-time quantum computation. Learnable software is impossible... the existence of a quantum oracle U relative to which quantum copy-protection works... existence of a quantum oracle U relative to which a publicly-verifiable quantum money scheme exists. We (1 − ε) (|ψ ψ|) ψ ⊗t dψ ≤ px (|ϕx x ≤ (1 + ε) 7 Here by “quantum search,” we..., and also makes T queries to a quantum oracle Uϕ such that Uϕ |ϕ = − |ϕ and Uϕ |φ = |φ for... polynomial-time quantum adversaries, there can be no polynomial-time quantum algorithm... Wiesner’s scheme, a central bank distributes “quantum banknotes,” each consisting of a unique... classical descriptions of the associated quantum states. Whenever a banknote is returned... existence of a quantum oracle relative to which publicly-verifiable quantum money is... a pseudorandom function family secure against quantum adversaries. The following theorem helps... preliminaries from cryptography and quantum information. Section 3 considers quantum money schemes: our...-key quantum money scheme. We therefore have the following: Intuitively, a quantum money scheme is a scheme in which (1) quantum banknotes can... bank, (2) there exists a polynomial-time quantum algorithm for authenticating the banknotes... 6 A quantum money scheme with key size n consists of the following: • A quantum circuit... secure against quantum adversaries, then there exists a private-key quantum money scheme with perfect completeness and exponentially small soundness error. • A quantum... be computed in quantum polynomial time. Theorem 8 Any quantum money scheme satisfying... additional quantum programs for f directly, by some quantum operation on ρf . The quantum copy... possibility depends on quantum mechanics. We now define quantum copy-protection schemes... that public-key quantum money schemes exist relative to a quantum oracle. The situation is summarized in Table 2.1. 2.2 Quantum Copy-Protection What if we want to distribute unclonable quantum states... a quantum state ρf that 7 Money Scheme Wiesner BBBW Modified Wiesner Modified BBBW Quantum... with a unique “description” df ∈ {0, 1} . (Thus m |F | ≤ 2 .) A quantum copy-protection scheme for F consists... to construct a quantum oracle relative to which public-key quantum money schemes... computational power can break any quantum copyprotection scheme. • With ε probability, Eij... f (x) = g (x). Then letting ρf and ρg be the quantum programs for f and g respectively, the... distributes (|C1 , . . . , |Cℓ , E, sig (E)) as the quantum banknote. To authenticate such a banknote... There exists a quantum oracle U relative to which a public-key quantum money scheme.... 10 4 Quantum Copy-Protection Having summarized our results about quantum money, we... the related problem of copyprotecting quantum software. where σ1 , . . . , σk are permutations chosen... g (s), then reinterprets g (s) as a description of a quantum circuit Ug(s) over some universal... about quantum copy-protection is the following: Theorem 17 There exists a quantum... T queries to the quantum oracle U , and outputs k + r possibly-entangled quantum U programs σ1U... candidate for an oracle-free quantum program for f . k+r Pr (4) Let σ1 , . . . , σk+r be...-key quantum money schemes exist relative to a classical oracle, rather than a quantum... give constructions for unclonable quantum ID cards or quantum proofs? How do.... [9] C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Breidbart, and S. Wiesner. Quantum cryptography, or unforgeable subway tokens...–617, 2006. [1] S. Aaronson. Limitations of quantum advice and oneway communication. Theory..., D. Gosset, A. Hassidim, A. Lutomirski, and P. W. Shor. Quantum money using matrix product states.... [18] M. Nielsen and I. Chuang. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Cambridge University Press.... Classical Authenticated Key Exchange and Quantum Cryptography. PhD thesis, University of... especially Chapter 8. [5] A. Ambainis. Quantum lower bounds by quantum arguments. J. Comput. Sys. Sci... and J. Emerson. Quantum t-designs: twise independence in the quantum world. In Proc...



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..., information and entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 4 8 3 Open quantum walks 3.1 Open quantum walks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Basics: ergodicity, irreducibility... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 12 16 4 Continuous monitoring and quantum trajectories. 4.1 From repeated interactions and... properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Applications to quantum control and feedback . . . 4.4 Open quantum Brownian motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19... continuous monitoring 5.1 The quantum jump Markov chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 A finer structure: quantum spikes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Applications/illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 34 37 42 6 Quantum stochastic processes 6.1 Quantum noises and Fock spaces . . . . . . . 6.2 Quantum stochastic differential equations . . 6.3 From quantum SDE to quantum... 42 42 42 42 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 2 Quantum non-demolition measurements 2.1 Indirect measurement... dimensional) quantum system Hilbert space and let ρ denote quantum states – quantum density matrices – on H. A map Φ acting linearly on quantum states... (dissipative) transformations on quantum system and are alternatively call “quantum channels”. Given... intermediate system states (ρ0 , ρ1 , · · · , ρn ). Definition “(Discrete) Quantum Trajectories”: The random sequences of... defined above are called “quantum trajectories”. Quantum trajectories are specific to the... quantum trajectories are classical random trajectories but in the space of quantum... state is updated via the quantum channel Φ: ρ¯n → ρ¯n+1 = Φ(¯ ρn ) = Φn+1 (ρ0 ). 4 Convergence and asymptotic behaviors... the last step. Open quantum walks 3.1 Open quantum walks Repeated indirect measurements.... Indeed I(X|Y ) = −E log p(x)p(y) p(x, y) ≥ − log E p(x)p(y) p(x, y) 9 = − log p(x, y) x,y p(x)p(y) =0 p(x, y) monitored quantum system. The position of the... walker’s quantum gyroscope. Definition (Attal et al) “(Quantum trajectories of) Open quantum walk... the quantum system – which plays the role of the walker’s internal quantum... is the notion of quantum trajectories for a specific quantum process – which will be described below, see “dilation of open quantum... to the quantum ones, and in particular to open quantum walks. Of course such extensions of probability concepts to quantum... to open quantum walks? What are harmonic measures for quantum stochastic process... open quantum analogue can be made conformally invariant? Dilation and a simple quantum stochastic process We now use the example of open quantum walks on the line (on Z) to introduce the notion of quantum... probes we are back to quantum trajectories. Quantum stochastic processes with classical... essence of quantum stochastic processes. It offers a way to ‘observe quantum effects... walker quantum state is a superposition of different positions. Hence the quantum trajectories... quantum stochastic processes. That one is reduced to a classical stochastic process – quantum... as quantum trajectory SDEs: Proposition-Definition (Belavkin, Barchielli, Milburn-Wiseman,...) “Quantum Trajectories.... 22 The quantum trajectories were originally introduced in quantum optics via continuous... Quantum Mechanics (i.e. its only encoded into the rules for randomness in Quantum... thermal quantum jumps. This is the result quoted above. 4.3 Applications to quantum... feedback and quantum control. One can find many examples of quantum control... drive quantum system towards a given target state because, at late time, a quantum... from a quantum system back-act on it. For instance, the quantum Zeno... or drive a quantum system by coupling it to another quantum system, called... open quantum Brownian motion (OQBM) is obtained from a limit of open quantum... what is relation between quantum trajectories of quantum states under continuous monitoring... (Xt , ρt ) are the quantum trajectories of the open quantum Brownian motion. Hence... averaging over quantum trajectory samples. That is: starting from quantum trajectories (Xt...: – The quantum states are projected on the pointer states, the quantum trajectories... quantum jump Markov chains We here explain in which sense quantum trajectories reduce to quantum Markov chains on...