Спутник технологический. RAFT 1. [Редактировать]

Миссия RAFT-1 является проектом по созданию и тестированию технологии идентификации малых КА на орбите. По своей сути в ходе работы аппарата отрабатывается работа транспондера который должен помочь наземным системам слежения отслеживать микроспутники.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип орбиты - НОО
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг5

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата (сведения с орбиты)2007-05-30

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2006-055C

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2006-12-10 at 01:47:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xSTS 116
3Полезная нагрузка 1xMEPSI 2
4Полезная нагрузка 1xRAFT 1
5Полезная нагрузка 1xMARScom
6Ракета-носитель 1xСпейс Шатл

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «RAFT 1». [Перейти к поиску]


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.... My mind worked fast. I built a raft. The oars, if you remember... squared by the oars. My raft looked like a game of tic... the four corners of the raft. I tied each one shut. I found... round the raft —as yet another precaution against the raft breaking into... the various parts of the raft, jumped onto me and climbed... would go to improving the raft. I noticed in passing a smell. It... long rope to the raft. Lifeboat and raft were now tethered. Next... to each side of the raft, on its underside. Another life... there were sharks. I eased the raft off the lifeboat. If for... sank. As soon as the raft touched the water, the fish.... One swam directly beneath the raft. Richard Parker growled. I felt like... a plank by pirates. I brought the raft as close to the lifeboat...” in the floor of the raft—yawning crevasses would be more... Parker again. I flopped onto the raft on my stomach. I lay flat... not move a finger. I expected the raft to overturn at any moment... and oars. Neither happened. The raft sank lower and pitched and... touch. I felt a gentle tug. The raft swung round. I raised my head. The lifeboat and the raft had already separated as far... I wanted to get back. This raft business was far too precarious... be lost. Compared to the raft, the lifeboat now seemed a haven... no more. This toy raft, mini-raft, micro-raft, might do for a pond... long minutes. I stayed on the raft. I didn’t see what else I could... the lifeboat and to the raft. I let the rope out until... electrically. I fell back onto the raft, and I believe it was terror... that widened the distance between raft and lifeboat so swiftly. I let... when I fell back onto the raft. I wrapped myself with it nonetheless... for my eyes, buffeted the raft. Fingers of water reached up... cold. I worried constantly that the raft would come apart, that the..., and the rocking of the raft became more pronounced and erratic..., the other clinging to the raft, I continued to wait. Sometime later... stomach. I fell back, winded. This raft was a joke. It was nothing... sat down heavily on the raft, out of breath and exhausted... canopy. I had to tie the raft to the lifeboat with a second... loose. I had to improve the raft. At present it was seaworthy... to store things on the raft. I had to stop hoping so... between the lifeboat and the raft increased. So the lifeboat drifted faster than the raft, pulling it along. I noted the... thinking. I noticed that with the raft next to it, the lifeboat... became clear to me: the raft, when let out, was acting...-to-side rolling. With the raft next to the boat, the... a second rope and tethered the raft to the lifeboat with it... and the other to the raft, which meant that not only... my attention to improving the raft. I examined every knot that held... of the corners of the raft, flat part, the masthead, rising... over fifty patrolling beneath the raft—showed off their bright gold... did not lift. I let the raft out. I attached a hook to a wire... that I could jump onto the raft before he could jump onto... a hatchet and made for the raft. I proceeded with great deliberation. The... fish that concentrated around the raft and lifeboat. It was when... to pull me off the raft. I braced myself. The line became... had vanished from around the raft and boat. No doubt they... me, pounding hard against the raft. It was giving me a ride... a hunter’s pride that I pulled the raft up to the lifeboat. I brought... survival. On a lifeboat, even on a raft, there’s always something that needs... Richard Parker general inspection of raft and lifeboat, with particular attention... Parker Sunset: general inspection of raft and lifeboat (knots and ropes... the most wear on the raft; that is, my backside. There... it with a rope to the raft—and I would clutch at the... lifeboat, or lines on the raft, to dry so many strips... 67 The underside of the raft became host to a multitude of... hitchhikers, though they weighed the raft down a little. They provided distraction... weirdly lit. Water around the raft, until a moment before opaquely black... to pull it onto the raft. The thing was thrashing violently... turtle’s blood. I fled to the raft. I watched sullenly as he loudly... for me. I swam for the raft in frantic strokes, precisely the... were no sharks. I reached the raft, let out all the rope... stopped completely. I stayed on the raft for the rest of that... shivering with fear on the raft. Eventually I learned to read the... body to get onto the raft and release it. The lifeboat... and hurried away to the raft. Shortly thereafter, I delivered to Richard... down them, nearly surfing. The raft was getting exceptionally rough treatment.... I noticed the loss of the raft at dawn. All that was... effect. The loss of the raft was perhaps not fatal to... weather-beaten. The lifeboat, the raft until it was lost, the... I had salvaged from the wrecked raft. It was so heavy. I felt... one who thought of building a raft to help with the fishing..., ‘Go!’ pushing me towards the raft. I jumped for it. I thought she... the water. I scrambled aboard the raft. They were fighting. I did nothing.... He could have cut the raft loose. But he didn’t. He...



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... of escape and effective life-raft equipment. Buoyancy needs to be... the relative safety of a life-raft. c) The risk that the individual... failure to successfully deploy a life-raft at step 2). A full risk analysis... the relative safety of a life-raft. Unfortunately, historical records on ditchings... for rotor run-down, life-raft deployment and egress of all... and wave spectrum shape. 2.3 life-raft Installation Following the successful ditching... life-rafts. The rear life-raft was successfully deployed and inflated... VOR aerial. The forward life-raft was subsequently deployed but was... fairing. The decals indicating life-raft stowages and instructions for manual... to deploy. Subsequently, one life-raft was quickly deployed using the... a passenger to release the life-raft. Difficulties were encountered and it... is unlikely that either life-raft would have been available. Following... the best method of life-raft carriage and release (Ref. 4). In... of a technical standard for life-raft installations taking into account these... the cabin doors. The life-raft lower chamber was however, punctured... to have punctured the life-raft. It is proposed that: a) FAR... to require design of life-raft installations incorporating the following principles... is necessary to prevent life-raft damage. 2.4 Post Ditching Capsize The... to require design of life-raft installation and methods of deployment... which may damage a deployed life-raft must be either moved or... prevented inflation. ii) Only 1 life-raft installed. It was not deployed... - not designated as 'pushouts' i) life-raft could not be extracted from... to allow retrieval of life-raft. iii) Upturned cabin difficult to... i) Slight problems keeping the life-raft close to aircraft during boarding... sea anchor difficult. ii) life-raft punctured by aircraft structure. Post.... i) Port rear Emergency Exit/life-raft difficult to release in rapidly... improved occupant survivability. ii) life-raft stowed in cabin inaccessible to... capsize and flooding. iii) life-raft damaged by aircraft structure. Post... been able to board a life-raft and have had difficulties finding... occupant safety. 3.3 life-raft Deployment Recommendation: life-raft should be externally deployable...



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... 19 444 146.00 3 X 1 jr y r a c rafT E T I Art 4 %0.lAt.9l 1 , nrt Vw..." LFnklv^rv tei Vfl-V 1 'UU.U W. raft 2 03 01 00 00 5 1 R F I AMJA... 2 05 2 05 01 OS 02 5 2 1 raft ^PmkA^rterVratfW •-raera£iStfra»+ vraate... masvarakat pesisir * ^k .raft ^ra ^g 1 " f t " t f - "ftra• I "ft _te^ • "ft •te- raft 2J5 2.05....OO fi A C fi AA O ifinfifi *- ..raft;>y^; - 20.000.(WO.0O •rara...) tn n n i Ift.lftV 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 00 2 5 7 0 0 nnn n n raft, 1 w u w n ,nunv "ftter"*pn£ra"rawrara....Z.fl 2 0 5 01 2D 7 4 ~L.d — 0 00 tf ~ raft, viftu . v u 1ft 'Iftft ^J.ra pra...-ra ra P * - J - • s. ' i ft , lrara_raSa.Fi ' 'raft'ra BelanjaModai — n 11 F" •. AM LW... .\^kmk-'r..~ 229 500.000.OC raft- F- -"{3,500 OOCOO(1,50) - :. - - • T g r ? . - ^ ' 1.02 1.02... ^z 50.000.000.00 ;ig---.raft^^:.--;./ 0,0£ " -4S0.DOa.0O0.OO 18...



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...(Bis(N,N-Propyl Acryl Amide))s by RAFT Shijiao Zhou 1 , Dongxin Zhang 1 , Libin...: hyperbranched; backbone; thermo-pH response; RAFT; poly(bis(N,N-propyl acrylamide)) 1. Introduction... addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT). Fortunately, the as-prepared hyperbranched... with the established mechanism of RAFT polymerization [21]. In the branching... reactivity of vinyl groups. Thus, RAFT has to be occupied for... amide)) (HPNBAM) were prepared by RAFT. The data are listed in... amide)) (HPNBAM) were prepared by RAFT. The data are listed in... the key reason. For the RAFT polymerization, increased with temperature, which... hand, numerous vinyl For the RAFT polymerization, reversible equilibrium constant higher... and brokethe the reversible equilibrium RAFT,the leading to the formation... broke the reversible equilibrium of RAFT, leading to the formation of... Polymerization an important factor for RAFT, was studied in detail and... consistent with the rule of RAFT. With an extension inTable the... w time, an important factor for RAFT, Reaction was studied in detail... consistent with the rule of RAFT. With an extension in the.... According to the rule of RAFT, the activity of free radicals.... According to the rule of RAFT, the activity of free radicals... to higher DB. As the RAFT reaction mechanism points out, the... amide)) was obtained by using RAFT polymerization a method. correctness of HPNPAM... poly(bis(N,N-ethyl acrylamide))s by RAFT. Macromol. Res. 2014, 22, 1196–1202. [CrossRef] Albertin, L.; Cameron, N.R. RAFT polymerization of methyl 6-O-Methacryloyl-α-D-glucoside...



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...ăţarea cu apă 7 9 Suportul pentru raft, detaşabil 10 Plăcu... Poziţii rafturi Accesoriile cuptorului • Raft sarma Pentru veselă, forme pentru... [min] Observaţii Nivel raft Temp [°C] Nivel raft Temp [°C] Reţete cu... [min] Observaţii Nivel raft Temp [°C] Nivel raft Temp [°C] Pandişpan 2 170...ălzire de sus + jos) Nivel raft Temp [°C] 1 170 Sandviş Victoria Gătire cu aer cald Nivel raft 2 (stânga şi dreapta) Temp [°C] 160... [min] Observaţii Nivel raft Temp [°C] Nivel raft Temp [°C] Pâine albă 1 190... [min] Observaţii Nivel raft Temp [°C] Nivel raft Temp [°C] Tarte cu paste... [min] Observaţii Nivel raft Temp [°C] Nivel raft Temp [°C] Vită 2 200 2 190... cu aer cald Nivel raft Temp [°C] Nivel raft Temp [°C] Păstrăv/Doradă 2 190...ă de gătire [min] Bucăţi [g] Nivel raft Temp [°C] Pe o parte Pe cealalt... 27 TIP DE MÂNCARE Nivel raft Temperatură [°C] Timp [ore] 1/4 60 - 70...ă FRUCT TIP DE MÂNCARE Nivel raft 1 nivel 2 niveluri Prune 3 1/4 60 - 70... spate a suportului faţă a suportului pentru raft pentru a grătarelor afară din...



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RAFT Radar Fence Transponder Phase III ... Assumption: Launch NET May 2006 RAFT RAFT RAFT RAFT RAFT RAFT RAFT RAFT RAFT RAFT Kickoff USNA SRR PDR Phase...-116) 19 16 10 23 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review Apr... than 10 cm Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 3 Mission... receive beams using signals from RAFT. This must be accomplished with... augmented radar cross-section. Additionally, RAFT will provide experimental communications transponders... Amateur Satellite Service. Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 4 NSSS Radar Fence Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 5 RAFT1 Mission Architecture Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 6 MARScom Mission Architecture Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 7 Military... back home home. Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 8 Yard... HF SSB downlink Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 9 RAFT1... Each Identical Mechanical Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 10 Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 11 Pass Geometry Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 12 Raft1 Block Diagram Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 13... Diagram Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 14 RAFT Lifetime Estimate 2.5 Mo 6.5 Months Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 15 RAFT Deployment Velocity of pair: 1.8 m/s Velocity of RAFT: 2.6 m/s Velocity of MARScom: 1.2 m/s Was 1.5, 1.3 & 1.8 Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III... Track Separation Test Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 17 Mechanical Design Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 18... “IDEAS” CAD Modeling Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 19 Assembly Plan Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 20... PCsat Flight Heritage Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 21... and Sep Switch Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 22... SW Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 23 RAFT Internal Diagram... and sep springs RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 24 RAFT SEP-Switch Corner Detail Antenna Sleeve Jan 2006 RAFT Ph... 25 Side Panel Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 26... Side .25” thick Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 27... and GSE Connector Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 28 Ballast for RAFT1 Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 29... PARTS LIST 2 F F 7 F 6 F 8 F 1 9 For SSPL5510 with RAFT: • PICOSAT mass m = 7 kg = 15.4 lbs... HIDDEN LINES credit: Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 30... Panel Buckling Analysis Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 31 Structure Displacements Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 32... 2:1 margin for depressurization Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 33... RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 34 RAFT Antenna Separation Mechanisms Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 35 RAFT Antenna Springs Jan 2006 RAFT... Antenna Buckling Analysis Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 37 Long-Wire Antenna Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 38... the PSK panel Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 39 Interface Board Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 40 Raft1 Electronics Systems Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 41...% efficient solar cell. Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 42... be available to the spacecraft. RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 43... Average 10% Depth of Discharge RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 44... 114.2857143 8.40 8.4 0.76 0.96 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 45 Power System Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 46... Series Duty cycle 4% Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 47...-out to OFF Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 48 Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 49... 20 overdesign factor Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 50... 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Volts Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 51... 216.98 MHz Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 52... 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 53 Questions? Jan 2006 RAFT Ph... 54 Backup Slides Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 55... Series Duty cycle 4% Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 56... Estimate 2 Mo 4.9 Months Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 57... in this view Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 1 58... future missions Will ballast for RAFT RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 59 VHF EZNEC Plots Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 60... Magnetic Attitude Control Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 61... Condition (No Leakage) Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 62... Adding Dry Ice Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 63... 50 Time (hrs) Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 64....00 Time (hr) Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 65... 200 Time (min) Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 66... 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Volts Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 67... Battery Charge Efficiency Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 68... Battery Recovery Test Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 69... Fastener integrity Structural model of RAFT Buckling Venting analysis Simple mechanisms... 1 amp Below 0.1v/m Yes Yes RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 70..., and charge retention Jan 2006 RAFT Ph-III Safety Review 71



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... line–spore settling, pond and raft culture methods. Gracilaria changii was... sample collected from the aquaculture raft in Nan'ao Island, South..., the nets were transferred to raft at sea. In late April... distances from the vessel to a raft by visual observation. Distance sampling... seaweeds following the floating bamboo raft and monoline methods. Commercial culture... the sea using the floating raft culture method which is wildly... the space of two floating raft is about 5 m. Laminaria culture laid... production, (c) intermediate culture, and (d) floating-raft cultivation. With these technologies, the... are also adopted using floating-raft culture method, similar to Laminaria... in cages pending from a floating raft in an IMTA farm presently... the hanging long lines, multiple raft and spider web in the... and monitored around the cultivation raft by diving and looking for... reef communities around the cultivation raft in order to monitor the... distances from the vessel to a raft by visual survey. Using these...



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... PCS PES PNS PSS PVC RAFT RCT RethinQ RHYTHM ICD RR... 2009 Pinter et al., 2009140 RAFT Tang et al., 2010;141... 2009 Pinter et al., 2009140 RAFT Tang et al., 2010;141... MADIT-CRT,132 Piccirillo,139 RAFT,141 RethinQ143 and RHYTM ICD... around 15% of participants in RAFT,141 8-12% in RethinQ143 and...,138 Piccirillo,139 Pinter,140 RAFT,141 RethinQ,143 Rhythm ICD...-CRT132 and 40 months in RAFT.141 4.4.1.2 Risk of bias The... data were not accounted for. RAFT,141 RHYTM ICD,145 Pinter140...,132 MIRACLE ICD II,138 RAFT,141 Pinter140 Piccirillo139 and RethinQ143... MIRACLE Piccirillo 137 138 Pinter RAFT 139 140 141 RethinQ 143...) 1/36 (2.8) (worsening congestive heart failure) RAFT 141 Not reported 96/904...-CRT132 and 40 months in RAFT.141 The trials were considered... strongly influenced by the large RAFT study141 with 40 months follow... 262 291 Subtotal (95% CI) RAFT MIRACLE ICD II MADIT CRT... strongly influenced by the large RAFT study,141 and when this... 132 164 Subtotal (95% CI) RAFT MIRACLE ICD II 1.2.1 Class II... the ICD group of the RAFT study;141 statistical significance was... all-cause hospitalisations (Appendix 7). The RAFT study141 found a statistically significant reduction... events 174 Subtotal (95% CI) RAFT 1.5.1 Class II Study or Subgroup... first 30 days. 227 The RAFT trial141 compared adverse events statistically... strongly influenced by the large RAFT trial, which included people with... 0.43 to 4.92, p=0.55). • The RAFT trial found a statistically significant reduction... between the trials. The large RAFT trial found that device or... Meta-analysis of REVERSE, MADITCRT, RAFT CARE-HF HF NYHA III... II, MADIT-CRT, MIRACLE ICD, RAFT, RethinQ, REVERSE and SCD-HeFT... CARE-HF, MADIT-CRT and RAFT trials. For the impact of... MADITCRT132 and 40 months in RAFT.141 Survival estimates from the trial with longest follow-up (RAFT) were used for the base... models obtained using data from RAFT and MADIT-CRT.132;141... Mean Lower limit Upper limit RAFT ICD-CRT arm (R2 = 0.9894... from CONTAK-CD128, Piccirillo139, and RAFT.141 The COMPANION trial118 reports... 174 (19.2) 186 (20.8) Source: RAFT trial.141 A summary of the... complications were sourced from the RAFT trial,141 a large RCT of... –related problems requiring replacement a b Source: RAFT trial.141 a Reported as device... the base case analysis from RAFT.141 Table 138 below summarises...-36 only. Where the large RAFT trial contributed data to meta... strongly influenced by it. The RAFT trial included people with mild... to device received. The large RAFT trial reported adverse events for... current review. Without the large RAFT trial, the meta-analysis by... for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT)." Heart rhythm 2012; Conference: 5-S296... for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT). Canadian Journal of Cardiology 2011... for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial (RAFT). Circulation 2010;122(21):2216... for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT). Canadian Journal of Cardiology 2011... for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT). Heart Rhythm 2011;Conference:5. Healey... for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT)." Heart rhythm 2012; Conference:5. 39.../defibrillation for ambulatory heart failure (RAFT) study. Heart Rhythm 2011;Conference... for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT). Heart Rhythm 2011;Conference:5. Talajic... for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT). Circulation 2011;Conference:21. Talajic... for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT). Canadian Journal of Cardiology 2011... People with both conditions The RAFT study13 reported that a similar proportion...’ or ‘unclear risk’ of bias RAFT Reference and design Tang et al., 2010;13 200989 RAFT (ResynchronizationDefibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure..., MADIT II, MADITCRT, MIRACLE ICD, RAFT, RethinQ, REVERSE AND SCD-HeFT... CARE-HF, MADIT-CRT and RAFT trials. For the impact of... Mean Lower limit Upper limit RAFT ICD-CRT arm (R2 = 0.9894... ICD-CRT arm of the RAFT trial. The γ value (1.24, 95... patients with CRT-D in the RAFT trial Table 5 reports a comparison of... mortality in the RAFT and MADIT-CRT trials RAFT Trial report a Year.... b Survival probabilities reported in the RAFT trial publication. c Survival probability with... all-cause mortality for the RAFT trial. The model used the... show a good fit against the RAFT RCT data. Figure 5 Overall survival...-D and ICD compared to the RAFT RCT data Survival 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0 1 2 3 4 5 Years CRT...



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... raft hydrodynamics are a function of raft orientation to current direction, mussel raft size, raft... ambient water velocity on mussel raft productivity have important implications for... currents and husbandry practices on raft hydrodynamics and chlorophyll a (chl a; a tracer... bivalve suspension culture systems. The raft hydrodynamics, which are a function of... 1. Parameters affecting mussel raft productivity. Site hydrodynamics Measure Raft hydrodynamics Measure MATERIALS... of 400 lines per raft (2.8 droppers/m2). Raft systems studied had either... surveys along transects through the raft areas, feeding studies, measurements of... studies Flow 3-dimensional depletion model Raft length, number of rafts, orientation... models of a suspended rope aquaculture raft. Regions where droppers were present... they varied throughout the raft. Once the mussel raft CFD model was... a consumption integrated throughout the entire raft could be estimated using the... middle of a mussel raft at mid depth). Modeling Raft Velocity Using FLOW.... The flow calculations began approximately 1.5 raft lengths upstream of the subject... 2. Sampling Locations for Measuring Mussel Raft Flow Rates and Particle Consumption... in the entire raft (or smallest error). Effects of Raft Culture Systems... Mussels in a Raft Total clearance rates of mussels in a raft were determined... through a mussel raft. Applying CoughlanÕs equation to a mussel raft results in the... current speed within the raft (U) multiplied by the raft crosssectional area normal... of suspension (equal to mussel raft volume, length3width3depth), t is time (time... the raft: Clearance and Chlorophyll a Consumption Rates of Mussels in a Raft Pro... different management strategies on mussel raft productivity. Because both the clearance... locations, and 1 location under the raft (station 6) 3 m below the mussel ropes... of mussels on the raft. (10) RESULTS Mussel Raft Hydrodynamics Biodeposition Studies....2 17 9.7 11 4.7 6 See Figure 5. MUSSEL RAFT HYDRODYNAMICS 263 Figure 6. Profile... within the raft. Mean current speed (±SE) inside the raft was 3.51... outside the raft. Modeled flow attenuation inside the raft was found to... of mussel raft VF in subsequent estimations of mussel raft filtration rate... through the raft system (Figs. 5, 6, and 7). From 9 locations within the raft (Fig... on food availability within the 2 raft systems were also investigated. Periods... locations in mussel raft for determination of mussel raft volume flux (see... +48 +17 –11 –11 MUSSEL RAFT HYDRODYNAMICS 265 TABLE 5. Consumption calculation..., 2002, was 418 g/h/raft, 390 g/h/raft, and 116 g/h/raft, respectively, and at Northport..., POC consumption was 326 g/h/raft. Mussel Raft Biomass and Density Mussel density... earlier). Figure 9. Chlorophyll a concentration in raft (colored by concentration; measured in...): À Á (15) b ¼ 0:004 d 2 þ 1:42ðd Þ þ 42:9: Mussel raft biomass was also estimated using...-m culture ropes on each raft, the total raft dry tissue weight biomass... Island conditions presented in Table 2. Raft length ðLÞ: V ðcentimeters=secondÞ ¼ 0:0837 LÀ0:3963... N þ 2:05 (16) (17) Orientation ðsquare raftÞ; front: V ¼ 2:55; 45 deg: V ¼ 4:95... diameter (x, measured in centimeters: MUSSEL RAFT HYDRODYNAMICS Figure 11. (A, B) Particulate carbon... capacity of a mussel raft is a function of the raft geometry, mussel biomass... quality, and upstream mussel density. Raft geometry affects the productive capacity... passing through the raft, which is a function of the raftÕs cross-sectional... within the raft resulting from drag should result in raft velocity being... same effects occur within mussel raft structures themselves (Fig. 9). Particle consumption... of the culture unit (i.e., a mussel raft), provide a novel 3-dimensional application of... consumption of 2,866 g/h/raft for mussels in a Spanish raft, which is 4 times... 140 4.5 4.36 6.68 Time (h) MUSSEL RAFT HYDRODYNAMICS 269 TABLE 8. Mussel density... values of 3,941 kg/raft and 7,240 kg/raft, mussel filtration rates... the rafts that exceeds the raftÕs filtration capacity (i.e., 10–203106 L/h), recommended... AND RICHARDSON 270 TABLE 9. Mussel raft volume flux, clearance rate, chlorophyll... (L/h 3 106) Consumption rate of chl a (g/h) Raft surface area (m2) Cr (L/h m–2) Spain... raft hydrodynamics are a function of raft orientation to current direction, mussel raft size, raft... the entire mussel raft. (A) Vertical section of mussel raft (colored by velocity... velocity versus gap distance. MUSSEL RAFT HYDRODYNAMICS Field measurements demonstrate a signi... integrated and mean culture unit (raft) scale hydrodynamics and particle consumption... through the raft structure, resulting from an increase in raft cross-sectional... also be accomplished using multiple raft systems 3. Nonuniform spacing (e.g., gaps) between... velocity remains constant for a given raft configuration. 8. The circulation of waters through the raft structures is sensitive to raft size. Rafts should..., J., V. Gregorio, R. Giraldez & J. Morales. 2000. Within-raft variability of the growth rate... mariculture in the Beneguela system: raft culture of Mytilus galloprovincialis and...



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...β type II receptor regulates membrane raft partitioning Valbona LUGA*, Sarah MCLEAN...) that is necessary for membrane raft/caveolar targeting. Using subcellular fractionation... TβRII mediates receptor partitioning into raft and caveolin-positive membrane domains...-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V] activity interfered with the raft partitioning of TβRII. However, this... is clathrin-independent and membrane-raft-dependent (reviewed in [1]). Entrance into... density on sucrose gradients [3]. Membrane raft/caveolar internalization of receptors occurs... reside in both membrane raft and non-raft membrane domains [11–13... of glycosylation perturbed receptor membrane raft partitioning. However, this was not... of caveolae/membrane-raft-enriched membrane fractions The caveolin/raft-rich membrane... of TGFβ receptors between raft and non-raft membrane domains is dependent... present in both the raft and non-raft fractions in the absence... was also observed in raft and non-raft fractions (Figure 2B). In... the raft and non-raft fractions, we pooled raft fractions (4–6) or non-raft fractions... side. TβRII glycosylation and membrane raft targeting Cells lacking proper glycosylation... the membrane raft fractions and increased in the non-raft fractions (Figure...- Cyt receptor from the raft into non-raft fractions was quite striking... fulllength receptors in pooled raft and non-raft fractions (Figure 3B). We... in the raft fractions and a concomitant increase in non-raft fractions in... domain is sufficient for membrane raft partitioning (A) Subcellular fractionation of HEK... cells. Schematic representation of membrane raft isolation protocol (left-hand panel... is a membrane-raft-resident protein (right-hand panel). (B) Membrane raft partitioning of... to separate cellular membrane raft (R) and non-raft (NR) components. All fractions... membrane raft (R) and non-raft (NR) fractions. Membrane raft (fractions 4–6) or non-raft (fractions...) or mutants] in membrane raft and non-raft fractions were quantified using... further, we assessed the membrane raft partitioning of endogenous TGFβ receptors...β followed by fractionation of raft and non-raft components (Figure 3D, top... ITGFβ-labelled receptors in raft and non-raft fractions revealed that approx... the membrane raft compartment and 20 % in the non-raft compartments of...-surface proteins regulate the membrane raft partitioning of receptors. To distinguish... Perturbation of glycosylation alters membrane raft partitioning of TβRII (A) HEK-293T... anti-HA (α-HA) antibodies. R, raft; NR, non-raft. Molecular masses are indicated... on receptor partitioning. Membrane raft (fractions 4–6) or non-raft (fractions 8–12) fractions... of TβRII in membrane raft (R) and non-raft (NR) fractions were quantified... (IP) from the membrane raft (R) and non-raft (NR) fractions using anti...-3ND– HA in membrane raft and non-raft fractions. We found that...-fractionated with both membrane raft and non-raft fractions in a similar fashion... 4C). Quantification of pooled raft and non-raft fractions revealed that, in... Biochemical Society raft fractions and 40 % in the non-raft fractions (Figure... to separate cellular membrane raft (R) and non-raft components. The fractions were...; top panel). The membrane raft and non-raft fractions were pooled, immunoprecipitated... autoradiography (Autorad.). The membrane raft (R) and non-raft (NR) fractions were pooled... present in both the raft and non-raft fractions (Figure 4D). Together... is not a determinant for membrane raft partitioning, and suggest that partitioning... not a factor in raft compared with non-raft partitioning, we next tested... TβRII partition in membrane raft and non-raft fractions similarly to the... fractionated to separate membrane raft (R) from non-raft (NR) components and processed...–TβRII- Cyt accesses caveolin-1-positive raft membrane domains. The TβRII extracellular... receptors partition predominantly in non-raft fractions (A) Schematic comparison of TβRII... fractionation to separate membrane raft (R) and non-raft (NR) components. Fractions were... in (B) were pooled into raft (R) and non-raft (NR) fractions and adjusted... same volume. Pooled membrane raft and non-raft fractions were then immunoblotted... shown to partition into membrane raft domains via their extracellular, intracellular... complex associates with caveolin-1, a membrane-raft-resident protein [13,23]. To... other functions within the membrane raft compartment after receptor partitioning. Indeed... caveolin-1 association with receptors postmembrane-raft targeting. The partitioning of receptors... increased stability of receptors, as raft-dependent trafficking is important for... the extracellular domain would influence raft partitioning. We therefore turned our... GMCSF–TβRII hybrid receptor membrane raft partitioning. Interestingly, the reduction of... and -independent mechanisms, inhibiting membrane raft internalization decreased TGFβ signal transduction... have observed that membrane raft and non-raft fractions contain altered TβRI... through the clathrin-independent/lipid raft pathway regulates TGF-β signaling and...