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Дата загрузки: 2017-11-08
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0.08/5
... THE CROWDED UNIVERSE Mission (SIM). The SIM Science Working Group would have... of the desired larger telescope. SIM would string together seven small... forth, thus indicating unseen planets. SIM would use the indirect planet... even larger space inteferometer than SIM, one 10 times longer, a boom... operate at longer wavelengths than SIM, at so-called infrared wavelengths... ExNPS road map envisioned that SIM would get under way immediately... the Mars Sample Return Mission, SIM, and Elachi’s Planet Finder. April... Space Telescope. The jump in SIM’s cost estimates, which delayed the... Earths? February 11, 1999—The SIM Science Working Group held a meeting... the Hubble telescope. However, because SIM was an interferometer, not, like... telescope with a single primary mirror, SIM would have to be able... to find planets astrometrically, all SIM needed was the two mirrors... the ultimate show-stopper. The SIM Science Working Group debate about... provide a convenient “descope” option when SIM inevitably ran into trouble at... headquarters concurred. By planning for SIM to have this capability, the... favored child, in spite of SIM’s ability to perform brilliantly on... 2000 Survey therefore assumed that SIM would fly and simply reaffirmed... Kinney, who was responsible for SIM and TPF, optimistically said, “I’m delighted... following up rather than searching. SIM would do the astrometric planet... a result of the $3 billion cut, SIM’s funding was decreased by half.... The cost estimate for completing SIM was $1.9 billion, in addition to... unprecedented technology needed to make SIM work as originally envisioned by... a stripped-down version of SIM, called SIM Planet Hunter (SIM-PH), which would... and shrinking everything, to shoehorn SIM-PH into the $600 million... other astronomical goals that drove SIM’s creation would have to be... being the cosmic distance scale. SIM’s astrometric agility enables it not... objects with unmatched precision. With SIM’s measurements of parallaxes, astronomers would... a new trial by fire. JPL’s SIM project manager, Jim Marr, presented... vastly different costs. The original SIM concept had been purged of... $1.9 billion. The planets-only version, SIM-PH, was a bargain in comparison.... The intermediate option was dubbed SIM-Lite, using the spelling that appeals.... SIM-Lite would cost about $1 billion, considerably less than full-up SIM, as a result of having been shrunk by a further 33%: SIM-Lite...) instead of 30 feet (9 meters). SIM-Lite was compact enough to fit... that saved money too. SIM-Lite was SIM cut down to the bare.... SIM-Lite could still do much of the science planned for SIM, although it would take SIM-Lite appreciably longer to... targets that could be studied. SIM-Lite would spend half of its... were orbiting every nearby star, SIM-Lite could expect to find about... were 10 times less common, SIM-Lite would find 6 Earths, and if... 10 times less common still, SIM-Lite might not find any Earths... could provide. Michael Shao’s creation, SIM, was fighting to stay alive... the same fervor for bringing SIM through this prolonged gestation period... their presentations, seeking approval from SIM’s ultimate guru. One of the dangers facing SIM was a competing space astrometry mission.... GAIA was a formidable opponent for SIM, but the two missions were... approximate distances of a billion stars, SIM was a “pointed mission” that studied... their distances to extraordinary accuracy. SIM would also be able to... Jupiters. The SIM Science Team agreed to support the SIM-Lite concept as... leader, made the case for SIM-Lite to Jon Morse when Morse... find interesting targets for which SIM could then perform more detailed... support indefinitely. The implications for SIM were ominous. December 17, 2007... was $60 million for SIM. $60 million for SIM? The joint report... begin the development phase of SIM. December 20, 2007—Jean Schneider... appropriations bill: the one for SIM. Griffin acknowledged that he would... previously approved (exactly the position SIM was in) and to include... a disturbing speech. January 9, 2008—The SIM Project held a special evening session... the Austin meeting about what SIM Lite could accomplish for astron- 0465009367... Hubble and Webb, bluntly attacked SIM for a lack of community involvement. Others complained that SIM had started out as an... appropriation language in support of SIM: Congressman Adam Schiff, representing Pasadena... decline. February 25, 2008—Another SIM Science Team meeting was held... needed to start development. The SIM Project realized that the full... of SIM, with a cost of $1.9 billion, was a non-starter. Even SIM-Lite at $1 billion might cause the Decadal Survey to rank SIM low... was a $600 million mission, perhaps SIM-Lite, perhaps something else. As a sign... sound the death knell for SIM. February 2–5, 2009—The CoRoT Mission... NORAD NP OGLE OSI PLANET SIM SIM-PH SM SMD SOFIA SST... SIM-Lite, 175–176, 177, 182–183 cost of, 188–189 SIM-PH (SIM...–161 Space Interferometry Mission. See SIM Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, 73...



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0.29/5
... a = 6. For the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM Lite), a space astrometer currently under study... would be just detectable by SIM Lite, because the required σmission = 0.21... the Universe: Precision Astrometry with SIM PlanetQuest,” PASP, 120, 38. 4 Catanzarite... zones of nearby stars with SIM PlanetQuest,” PASP, 118, 1319–1339... Ck 24.6 in Τ 1 year with SIM Lite 0.5 Wobble 0.2 0.21 Μas 117 stars...) around the 7322 stars in a SIM Lite project star list.7 Colored stars... µas, the sensitivity limit of SIM Lite (search completeness C = 0.5 and false-alarm... stars (33): targets in the SIM Lite program that maximize ET discoveries... 1 shows the 7332 stars in a SIM Lite project star list for planet...-m telescope have ETs detectable by SIM Lite according to the sole criterion... a function of exposure time on SIM Lite (100% duty cycle). First, τk = τmax... the domain of ETs for SIM Lite.10 Preliminary indications are that..., for typical ETs observed by SIM Lite. The biased estimation of orbital..., 553. –6– Fig. 2.— Auction results. Red: SIM Lite total search completeness ΣCk stars... stars with ETs detectable by SIM Lite are in play, and the... it remains the Sim Lite mission’s primary justification. If SIM Lite finds ETs, it...: 12 years of SIM Lite exposure time, or 12 SIM Lites each exposing... all the ETs available to SIM Lite in this star sample. Final... Telescope, and designs for the SIM Lite and the coronagraphic Terrestrial Planet...



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0.23/5
...-arcsecond astrometry from the proposed SIM-Lite mission (Unwin et al. 2008... DEBs within 1.5 kpc or so, SIM-Lite can measure distances to better... (Perryman et al. 2002) and SIM-Lite astrometric data sets of unprecedented... targets would be known before SIM-Lite flies based on Pan-STARRS... & EXPECTED RESULTS STARS & MILKY WAY: SIM-Lite is absolutely essential for the... in [14.6, 15.1]) for which SIM-Lite will get errors of ~½%. This... need to be improved somewhat. SIM-Lite data, ground-based spectroscopy, and... the unique abilities of a pointed SIM-Lite mission as compared to ESA... individual stars. For such stars, SIM-Lite is far superior to GAIA.... (2009) for other examples of SIM-Lite's superior abilities in the field...]. For example, the highly accurate SIM-lite distances and ages of halo... of their life. Armed with SIM-Lite ages and proper motions supplemented... a kpc from the Sun, while SIM-Lite supplements this data set for... difficult. One major task of SIM-Lite (and GAIA) is to ensure... committees in endorsing a mission like SIM-Lite that has substantial “wideangle” capabilities... nearby cousins. Specifically, we need: 1) SIM-Lite distances for thousands of rare... to 1,000s of stars, and 4) a SIM-Lite rotational parallax distance for M31...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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0.24/5
... Sun. 3.5. Space-based Astrometric Observatory: SIM Lite The Space Interferometry Mission is... al. 2008). SIM Lite is an alternative concept for SIM, and it is the current proposed implementation for SIM for NASA program on Search...-like planets and life. The SIM Lite instrument is an optical interferometer... stars. The primary objective for SIM Lite is to search 65 nearby... mass, in the habitable zone. SIM Lite is designed to deliver Blue... maintenance of the fringe visibility. SIM Lite has planned for three planetary... the capability of Gaia and SIM Lite to detect and characterize planetary... potential of both Gaia and SIM Lite for detecting and measuring planetary... work is also underway for SIM Lite (see Traub et al. in... most sensitive instruments, Gaia and SIM Lite (Eriksson & Lindegren 2007; Desort et... detection, then the sensitivity of SIM Lite to Earth-like planets in... the M-type mission class and SIM Lite in the L-type mission class...



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0.32/5
... by the Space Interferometry Mission (“SIM Lite”), will lead to breakthroughs in... Space Interferometry Mission (SIM Lite). We predict that SIM Lite will be capable of... would be good targets for SIM Lite. For these LMXBs, only 8 are... motion in 40 hours of SIM Lite mission time (from Tomsick et... the precision or faintness that SIM Lite is expected to provide. Gaia... and neutron stars that SIM Lite will reach. SIM Lite’s expected microarcsecond accuracy is... magnitude. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM Lite) meets these requirements, and it..., 1355 Tomsick, J.A., Shaklan, S.B., & Pan, X., in SIM Book 2008, “Black Holes and...



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0.09/5
How Well Can SIM-Lite Measure Parameters of Neutron Star and Black Hole Binaries? PI: John A. Tomsick (Previous SIM work as a Co-I on Mission Scientist project “Masses and Luminosities of X-ray Binaries”) Co-I: Matthew Muterspaugh (Previous SIM work as PI of planet-finding analysis team “Characterizing Exoplanet Systems with Astrometric and Radial Velocity Measurements”) UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory 9/26/08 Tomsick: UCB/SSL 1 Motivation: What Parameters? Masses, Binary Inclinations, and More • Measurement of even a single NS with a high mass can rule out soft EOSs and Strange Quark Matter EOSs MX,VelaX-1 = 1.86 ± 0.16 Msun MX,4U1700-377 = 2.44 ± 0.27 Msun • Black Holes Mass-Radius Relationships for different Neutron Star Equations of State (Lattimer & Prakash 2007) 9/26/08 Tomsick: – Masses interesting for stellar evolution and BH formation. – Binary inclinations are important for interpreting the X-ray emission that comes from the accretion UCB/SSL disk. 2 Predicted Astrometric Signatures for Neutron Star and Black Hole Binaries X-ray Pulsars 9/26/08 Black Holes, BH and NS Candidates Tomsick: UCB/SSL 3 Measuring Masses of Neutron Stars in High-Mass X-ray Binaries HMX B Optical companion • For X-ray pulsars with orbital time delay measurements (i.e., axsin(i) measured), SIM Lite will be able to obtain a direct neutron star mass measurement (MNS) according to: MNS = (4π/GPorb) [d tan(aopt)/sin2i] [axsin(i) + d tan(aopt) sin(i)]2 aopt Center of Mass ax Neutron Star 9/26/08 where Porb = Binary orbital period (previously known) axsin(i) = Projected size of NS orbit (previously known) d = source distance (measured by SIM Lite – Wide Angle) aopt = angular size of optical companion’s orbit (measured by SIM Lite – Narrow Angle) i = binary inclination (measured by SIM Lite – Narrow Angle) Tomsick: UCB/SSL 4 Orbital Parameters for HMXBs Primary Goal of the Project: Use simulations to determine how well SIM Lite will measure the compact object masses for these 10 systems. Source Name Porb (days) axsin(i) Ecc. Mopt/Msun MNS/Msun Vela X-1 8.964368(40) 113.89(13) 0.0898(12) 24 1.86(16) V725 Tau 110.3(3) 267(13) 0.47(2) 15 ? GX 301-2 41.498(2) 368.3(37) 0.462(14) 55 ? X Per 250.3(6) 454(4) 0.111(18) 15 ? PSR B1259-63 1236.724(1) 1296.3(1) 0.86989(1) 10 ? Cyg X-1 (BH) 5.599829(16) - <0.05 20 10 4U 1700-377 (NSC) 3.411581(27) - 0.22(4) 58 2.44(27) LS I +61 303 (NSC) 26.4960(28) - 0.72(15) 10 ? LS 5039 (NSC) 3.90603(17) - 0.35(4) 23 3.7+1.3-1.0 SS 433 (BHC) 13.08211 - <0.05 12 4.3(8) 9/26/08 Tomsick: UCB/SSL 5 Approach to Simulations: Observing Scenario and Data Stream • • • Tomsick et al. 2005, AAS presentation 9/26/08 • Calculate actual positions of the target (with orbital, parallax, and proper motion) and Nref reference stars (with parallax and proper motion) vs. time, t. Randomly choose a SIM Lite baseline angle (θ) for each of the Nobs visits to the target. Simulate 1-d differential measurements between the target and each of the Nref reference stars. (The “noise” estimates come from tables or websites provided by the SIM project.) A data set consists of: Nobs timestamps, Nobs θs, and Nref x Nobs measurements of target/reference star angles. Tomsick: UCB/SSL 6 Approach to Simulations: Fitting and Results for Vela X-1 • χ2 fitting with the same functional form that was used in simulating the data stream • Vela X-1 work done with Nref = 4. The function has 24 free parameters: – 4x5 non-orbital parameters: x0kx0T, y0k-y0T, uxk-uxT, uyk-uyT, and πk-πT, k = 1-4 – 4 orbital parameters: aopt, i, tref, and Ω (position angle of the line of nodes) • Result: 4% measurement of MNS in 40 hours of mission time. 9/26/08 Tomsick: UCB/SSL 7 Plan for this Study • Compare simulation results for my code and the code developed for the planet studies (Muterspaugh “orbit-fitting” code) • Improvements to my code: – two more orbital parameters: e and ω – optimize observing strategy (e.g., Nobs vs. Tobs, more observations at periastron, Nref) – more realistic (e.g., non-random baselines, reference star wobble, SIM-Lite rather than SIM numbers) • Optimize and check simulation code and obtain results for the 10 systems (5 X-ray pulsars, 1 BH, 3 NSCs, 1 BHC) 9/26/08 Tomsick: UCB/SSL 8 Summary • Science: – MNS and constraining Neutron Star EOSs – MBH and i: Stellar evolution, BH creation, accretion physics – BHC/NSC: Masses can constrain BH/NS nature • Targets: – HMXBs are best: Large orbits and the optical light is dominated by the one component (companion) – X-ray pulsars give the most direct mass measurement • This Study: – Cross-check and improvement of simulation code – Detailed paper on simulation results for 10 HMXBs 9/26/08 Tomsick: UCB/SSL 9



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0.08/5
Rotational Parallax for Distance, Internal Dynamics, and Luminosity Calibration of Nearby Galaxies Ed Shaya & Rob Olling / U. of Maryland Why Measure 1% Distances? Rotational Parallax Method The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM-Lite) can provide astrometric data of such high quality that it will be possible to determine geometric (luminosity-independent) distances to the nearest spiral galaxies. The method for this is the “Rotational Parallax Method” [RP; Peterson & Shao (1997); Olling & Peterson (2000) and Olling (2007)]. 1 Percent-level distances for M31 and M33 are within reach of SIM-Lite with modest ground-based RV program. SIM Lite ASTROMETRIC OBSERVATORY Working with Real Galaxies The RP method employs the fact that velocity (V), distance (D) and proper motion (µ) are related via: m = V/(κD), where κ is a constant related to the choice of units. Along major and minor axes and circular motion, the formulae are simple, but the distance can also be recovered from a star at an arbitrary location since everywhere there are three unknowns (D, VC and inclination) and three observables (the radial velocity and the two proper motions), assuming motion is circular. • Reduce zero-point error in distances indicators: o Simultaneous zero-points on Cepheid, RR Lyrae, Red Clump, etc. • Double check on determinations of Ho from CMB data sets and luminosity dependent methods. • Obtain 5D phase-space coordinates of stars in galaxies for (spiral density wave) galaxy dynamics. • Provide 2% absolute luminosities of all stellar types for accurate ages and stellar evolution constraints. Accuracies and Observing Time on SIM Lite • In M 31, with 363 (232) stars (V < 16.3 (15.9) mag) at 8 μas/yr per star, SIM-Lite achieves distance errors of: 0.43% (0.53%) in 32 (16) days of observing time. • In M 33, with 155 stars (V < 16.5 mag) at 8 μas/yr per star, SIM-Lite achieves distance error of 0.9% in 16 d. • Gaia's accuracy could be about the same as a SIM-Lite program. o However, the Gaia-based project would employ 10,000 stars as faint as V=19.1. An RP project also needs ground-based radial velocities with accuracies of 1-2 km/s, for all program stars. µx = VC / κD Real galaxies have complicated potentials, therefore orbits, even of Population I stars, are not circles. One expect warps, arms and bars to cause perturbations to circular motions. With enough stars one can map out these complex potentials. The potential of the galaxy can be approximated by the potential derived from rotation profile plus spherical harmonics up to some maximum l and m determined by the number of stars. These perturbations to the potential are derived by assuming, on average, young stars’ positions and velocities reside on the locally defined center of plane . Then the individual velocities can be used to follow the orbits back in time. One can calculate the kick received by passing density waves. 18 Parameters to Solve for, 5 observed vpeculiar, x, y, z per star, σv per group of stars, and vsys, x0, y0, z0, position angle, inclination, Vc, and distance for galaxy. Observe only 5 per star: VR, μX, μY, right ascension, and declination. Works z′ because can assume z′=0 and v peculiar= 0. For Circular Orbits: Estimate pm along Minor Axis: o M 31 (Andromeda): i ~ 77 , D ~ 0.84 Mpc, VC ~ 270 km/s ⇒x ~ 68 as/yr M 33 (Triangulum): i ~ 55 , D ~ 0.86 Mpc, VC ~ 103 km/s  µY ' = VC cos(i ) / κD VR = VC sin(i ) Fig. 1 ___ A DSS image of M31 showing the relationship between proper motions and radial velocity for objects on the major and minor axes. Also shown are the bright AB supergiants already identified in M31 (courtesy: D. Peterson). => x ~ 25 as/yr Minor axis: µ X = Vc /(κD)) Major axis: µ Y' = Vc cos(i) / (κD)) Major axis: VR = Vc sin(i)) Three measurables per star: µ X , µ Y' , VR Can determine three unknowns per star: D, i, Vc At any point: y' / µ y' VR D= κ − xµ x + y ' µ y ' Fig. 2 ___ Fractional error in distance resulting from SIM-Lite observations with 8 μas/yr proper motion of all stars brighter than given V-band magnitude.



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0.28/5
... on a  detectable with a mission having SIM Lite’s capabilities.  sound physical  Formation and... when looking at young stars. SIM Lite sensitiv‐ orbiting 1 AU away from... level inaccessible for a given  system. SIM Lite would provide mass measurements (< 5 AU... motion would be detectable by  SIMLite and would constrain the masses... in the time allocated for a SIM Lite  Key Project (Table 1; Beichman et... mission with the characteristics of  SIMLite and capable of few μ‐arcsec... SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory,  http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/SIM...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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0.07/5
... Fsica, Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio SIM, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200...-Martins Systems, Instrumentation and Modeling (SIM), Faculdade de Ciências da... is a process derived from the SIM studies. These effects have in... working with many astrometry concepts (SIM [13], SIM-Lite [4], corono-astrometry [5]). The concept... has been qualified by the SIM-Lite laboratory demonstrators. Reference frame. By... the pixels of each CCD (SIM-Lite technology), Fig. 6 Principle of the..., than what was proposed for SIM-Lite with 5 years of operation, but... to the one developed for SIM [2], the metrology fiber launchers 4 Such... 2010–2020 ranked down the SIM-Lite proposal, but placed as number.... Astrophys. J. 720, 1073 (2010) 4. Goullioud, R.: SIM lite instrument description, operation, and performance... the universe: precision astrometry with SIM PlanetQuest. PASP 120, 38–88...



Дата загрузки: 2017-01-10
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0.24/5
... Planetary Architecture and Diversity with SIM Lite S. R. Kulkarni1, H. E. Schlichting1, B. M. S. Hansen2, & J. Catanzarite3 1 2 Department... Planetary Diversity and Architecture with SIM Lite The first wave of these...-star survey undertaken with SIM systems? Lite will uniquely probe planets around... are planets formed? precision of SIM Lite allows us to gain unique... of SIM Habitable Zone planet search and the GAIA planet search. SIM Lite... be observed intensively by the SIM Lite HZ importance of a comprehensive search... μarcsec (Cameron et al. 2009). SIM habitable zone search is shown... SIM Lite can easily achieve 5 μarcsec single-epoch precision. With 10% of SIM Lite...) find that the planet ocSIM Lite is designed for both wide.... searches have been envisaged with SIM Lite: SIM Lite is well positioned to undertake... Sun- A and B stars. For example, SIM Lite will like stars (PI: Shao... 100pc. 3 Fig. 2.— Phase space of SIM Lite Broad Survey with High Precision... found orbiting metal-poor stars. A SIM Lite survey (discussed in the previous... project, Muterspaugh et al. (2008)). A SIM Lite + VLTI program targeting suitable binaries...fficiently 2 Two hundred visits with SIM Lite over a five year fast, and...); see Figure 3 5 9. Insight through Precision A SIM Lite white dwarf planet search will... the tidal disruption of a planSIM Lite is particularly well suited to... dotted line in Figure 3). The SIM so). In addition, determining the...