Спутник ФКИ. Soil Moisture Active and Passive. [Редактировать]

U.S. Agriculture Department’s Foreign Agricultural Service выпускает частые прогнозы о здоровье зерновых культур во всем мире, чтобы помочь отдельным фермерам, компаниям и правительственным учреждениям спрогнозировать спрос и предложения. Точную информацию о состоянии посевов получить при помощи наземных измерений бывает сложно. С целью устранения данного недостатка 29 января 2015 года планируется запустить космический аппарат SMAP. Его целью будет являться сбор информации о влажности почвы. По габаритам аппарат сопоставим с размером маленького школьного автобуса. Оборудован складывающимся коническим отражателем, радиометром L-группы и радаром с синтетической апертурой. Радар и радиометр спутника будут работать синхронизированно, чтобы предоставить информацию о влажности почвы, которая будет более точной, чем что-либо в настоящее время доступное. После запуска ученые НАСА планируют провести летно-конструкторские испытания системы (в течении 90 дней).

Инструменты

Радар
  • Частота: 1.26 ГГц
  • Поляризация: VV, HH, HV 
  • Относительная точность (3 км сетка): 1 dB (HH и VV), 1.5 dB (HV)
  • Получаемые данные:
    • Высокодетальная съемка (SAR) 
    • Поддержка глобальной съемки с низким разрешением
Радиометер
  • Частота: 1.41 ГГц
  • Поляризация: H и V
  • Относительная точность (40 км сетка): 1.3 K
Антена (производитель антены Northrop Grumman, мотора для вращения Boeing)
  • Конически сканирующее устройства разделенное между радаром и радиометром
  • Диаметер: 6 метров
  • Скорость вращения: 14.6 оборотов в минуту
  • Эффективность: ~90%
  • Разрешение:
    • Радиометер (IFOV): 39 км x 47 км
    • SAR: 1-3 км (на протяжении 70% от полосы захвата)
  • Ширина полосы захвата: 1000 км        

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1SMAPНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип орбиты - НОО
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Страна оператор(владелец) - США
4Страна производитель - США

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-05-20. Космический аппарат начал сбор научных данных.
Космический аппарат Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) начал выполнять задачи по сбору радиометрической и радарной информации об окружающей среде Земли. Основным целевым предназначением собираемых данных является улучшение возможностей климатологов по предсказанию погодных явлений и изменения площади поверхности ледовых покровов.Тэги: Soil Moisture Active and Passive
22015-08-12. На космическом аппарате произошел сбой.
Один из двух главных инструментов космического корабля остается неактивным уже больше целого месяца. В настоящее время специалисты НАСА не смогли определить причину резкого выключения прибора, но и не знают когда им удастся его включить.
В качестве основной причины отказа в НАСА называют проблемы с низковольтным источником питания усилителя радара. Данный прибор служит для того, чтобы передавать на радар больше мощности, за счет чего он становится способным оценивать влажность почвы. Тэги: Soil Moisture Active and Passive
32015-09-26. НАСА пытается реанимировать аппарат.
После того как в июле у космического аппарата отказал радар, ученые из НАСА решили, что им необходимо скоординировать съемку с космического аппарата SMAP и других радарных спутников. При этом НАСА признало что высокодетальный радар космического аппарата скорее всего будет признан утерянным, однако, по мнению агенства остальные научные приборы на аппарате работают штатно, а следовательно его еще можно некоторое время эксплуатировать. В целом же в агентстве отмечают, что полноценной замене аппарату у них нет, но они попытаются скомпенсировать недостаток данных путем компьютерного совмещения информации с пассивного радара SMAP и данных других аппаратов.Тэги: Soil Moisture Active and Passive
42015-11-28. НАСА пытается найти замену радару космического аппарата SMAP.
Ученые из НАСА приступили к анализу возможности замены информации которую они планировали получать со своего космического аппарата SMAP при помощи данных орбитальной группировки Copernicus. При этом, из всего перечня космических аппаратов группировки исследователей наиболее заинтересовали возможности радара космического аппарата Sentinel 1A. При этом, с точки зрения НАСА данный космический аппарат наиболее пригоден для замены вышедшего из строя радара космического аппарата SMAP поскольку его орбита и возможности наиболее близки к желаемой. Вместе с тем, пока что НАСА так и не обнародовала данные о причинах выхода из строя своего аппарата. Тэги: Серия CopernicusSoil Moisture Active and PassiveSentinel 1A
52016-08-17. Продолжаются работы над радиолокационным спутников.
Компания Astro Aerospace, которая принадлежит Northrop Grumman Corporation, закончила предварительную экспертизу рефлектора радара, который будет установлен на космический аппарат NISAR. Данный проект финансируется за счет средств НАСА и ISRO, в рамках которого агентства создают L/S-диапазонный радиолокационный спутник с синтезированной апертурой. Сроком запуска нового космического аппарата объявлен 2021 год. Целевой задачей миссии будет являться сбор информации об окружающей среде, включая и состояние ледяного покрова Земли. Диаметр L-диапазонного рефлектора составит 12 метров.
Компания Astro Aerospace достаточно широко известна своей деятельностью в области создания рефлекторов, в частности ранее она уже создала шести метровый вращающийся рефлектор для космического аппарат SMAP. Тэги: NISARNorthrup GrummanSoil Moisture Active and Passive

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (инструментов), кг356
2Масса (платформа), кг686
3Масса (топливо), кг80
4Мощность (инструментов), Вт448
5Мощность (платформа), Вт903

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый )

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Ракетаноситель 1xДельта 2
2Дата (пуска)март 2015

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Заказчик Космическое агентство США
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-01780 - 900
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01388.2
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-01485.7
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-0142.6
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01916.5
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01872 - 926
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2013-02-01916.5
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2013-02-01388.2
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2013-02-01485.7
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2013-02-0142.6
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2014-04-01388.2
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2014-04-01490.0
14Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2014-04-0138.4
15Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2014-04-01914.6
16Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24914.6
17Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24388.2
18Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2015-03-24479.0
19Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2015-03-2447.4

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром База Ванденберг
2Дата пуска2015-01-31
3Полезная нагрузка 1xSoil Moisture Active and Passive
4Полезная нагрузка 1xFIREBIRD C
5Полезная нагрузка 1xFIREBIRD D
6Полезная нагрузка 1xGRIFEX
7Полезная нагрузка 1xExoCube
8Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7320

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... carry passive microwave instruments on-board that can measure surface soil moisture. Three currently operational missions are the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity... quality of surface soil moisture anomalies derived from these passive microwave instruments was... People’s Republic of China. Keywords: soil moisture; passive microwaves; evaluation Remote Sens. 2017... based on a component from both active and passive microwave sensors. In this study... further integration of surface soil moisture retrievals from various passive microwave instruments into the existing ECV-SM framework. Another soil moisture... widely used for surface soil moisture retrievals from passive microwave observations is the... on the comparison of soil moisture products from different passive microwave instruments over the entire mainland. These surface soil moisture products... 2.1. Passive Microwave Sensors The main focus of this study is on soil moisture anomalies from three different passive microwave sensors, MWRI (Section 2.1.1), AMSR2 (Section 2.1.2) and... descending and ascending paths, respectively. Of specific relevance for soil moisture retrievals and their... Table 1. 2.2. Passive Microwave Retrieval Algorithms Two different soil moisture retrieval algorithms for passive microwave... low microwave frequencies and the complementarity with soil moisture data from active microwave observations... vegetation optical depth and soil moisture from low frequency microwave observations and is based... evaluate passive microwave surface soil moisture through this technique is using an additional active... the estimation of soil moisture conditions. In line with the passive microwave sensors.... ASCAT soil moisture data was projected on a global 0.25◦ grid and soil moisture data from the ascending and descending grids were... based soil moisture and isby caused by the attenuation the soil (moisture) for microwave based soil moisture and is caused the attenuation of the soilof(moisture... independency the soil moisture which are determined through the same passive same passive microwavethat observations beenmoisture used forretrieval. soil moisture NDVI microwave... temperatures to soil moisture. In particular, [34] demonstrated this for passive microwave products... large-scale surface soil moisture evaluation studies is soil moisture from an active and passive microwave source... passive microwave products were swapped and evaluated. Finally, since the true soil moisture conditions are unknown, ASCAT soil moisture... in soil moisture. al.al. [37] precipitation and thethe subsequent changes in in soil moisture... combinations and presented in Figure 3. RMSE from the six passive microwave soil moisture also... data and presented in Figure 3. RMSE from the six passive microwave soil moisture products... and presented in Figure 3. RMSE from the six passive microwave soil moisture combinations and presented in Figure 3. RMSERepublic from the six passive microwave soil for moisture... the Triple Collocation and RRMSE value techniques for the passive soil moisture and presented. Results... product MSE from the six passive microwave soil moisture s for these specific product... [43] and uses the 5. A direct Tripleand Collocation and R techniques for the soil moisture product... using soil and presented in Figure 3.these RMSE from sixsimilar passive microwave soil moisture densely... soil moisture retrievals (for LPRMv06 and L-MEB) over our study moisture anomalies from the C- and... as soil moisture and it was demonstrated that soil moisture retrieval from the MWRI and AMSR2... of these passive microwave products against each other. The daytime soil moisture products..., as well as soil moisture from the recent and dedicated Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission once this..., H. A method for estimating soil moisture from ERS scatterometer and soil data. Remote Sens. Environ... monitoring of soil moisture using passive microwave-based techniques—Theoretical basis and overview of..., J. Developing an improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite-based retrievals..., V. Error characterization of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci... comparison of passive (SMOS) and active (ASCAT) satellite based microwave soil moisture retrievals with soil moisture simulations... land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations. Hydrol..., J.; Llorens, P. Soil moisture estimation through ASCAT and AMSR-E sensors: An intercomparison and validation study...



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..., Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) and Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat)-2, by CY 2016 and... into the movement and distribution of fresh surface water, and Active Sensing of Carbon dioxide Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons... integration and testing of the observatory and the observatory Pre-Ship Review; - Soil Moisture Active and Passive... (SWOT) and Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS... Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and their... 2.1.4.2: ES-12-9 Successfully complete the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) Critical Design Review. Earth... distribution and cycling of carbon among the Earth's active land, ocean, and atmospheric reservoirs. Global Modeling and Assimilation Office....6 Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) 70.0 - 135.2 172.3 31.1 29.6 14.5 Other Missions and Data... and infrared multi-spectral global imagery, atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, total ozone and stratospheric ozone profiles, and measurements of... Formulation section of this document. Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) The SMAP mission, a Tier... provide new global measurements of soil moisture and land its freeze/thaw state... in hydrospheric science and applications. Direct measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state are needed to improve understanding of regional and..., and the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Soil moisture and freeze... and initial instrument refurbishment. Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and... the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. ASCENDS is an active system... measurements from the active ASCENDS instruments will continue and complement the OCO... Systematic Missions Other Missions and Data Analysis (continued) Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance... Earth Science Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) Archival and distribution of... Same CrIS ITT Aerospace Temperature and moisture profiles at 3.9-15.4 microns. Same... ATMS NG Electronic Systems Temperature and moisture profiles at 22 channels / 23... space through combined use of active and passive remote-sensing techniques. These advanced... be used to calibrate dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors, with the... surface water fluxes, soil moisture storage, cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent heat release... Observatory will leverage passive microwave measurements from other operating and planned "satellites..., but given the prevalence of passive microwave instruments on operational satellite...'s two scientific instruments will provide active and passive microwave measurements of precipitation. The...). When calibrated with existing and planned passive microwave measurements from other satellites... Earth Science Earth Systematic Missions Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) FY 2012 Budget Request... provide unique information on global soil moisture and its freeze/thaw states to... Earth science and applications decadal survey. Direct measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states are needed to improve understanding of regional and... the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Obtaining global soil moisture measurements every three..., ecosystem, weather, and climate). SMAP is based on the soil moisture and freeze/thaw... of soil emission and backscatter to sense the top five centimeters of soil... analyzed to yield estimates of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Data will... assess random errors and regional biases in the soil moisture and freeze/thaw estimates... Earth Science Earth Systematic Missions Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Estimated Project Deliverables SMAP... prime mission. SMAP will make soil moisture measurements around the entire Earth... Radiometer provides soil moisture measurements in the top 5 Same cm of soil through... SAR provides soil moisture measurements in the top 5 cm of soil through moderate... Earth Science Earth Systematic Missions Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Project Management JPL has... and services. NASA Earth science information is archived at eight Distributed Active... valuable for maintaining active involvement of the research and modeling communities involved..., using algorithms and software developed by EOS investigators; - Active archive of all... efficiency and effectiveness of EOSDIS while reducing the cost, and the Distributed Active Archive Centers, which collect, disseminate, and archive Earth... techniques for validating space-borne soil moisture measurements that will be used...-10 and focused on such areas as space-qualified laser transmitters, passive optical technologies, and microwave and calibration technologies. During FY 2010 there were 16 active projects...



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... ...................................................................................... 24 7.1 PASSIVE ECV PRODUCT ................................................................................................................................. 24 iii ECV Production, Fusion of Soil Moisture Products... products to the final blended active & passive microwave soil moisture product. (Figure taken from... soil moisture product in this study. (a, b, c) CDF curves of AMSR-E, Noah and ASCAT soil moisture... passive and active microwave product against the GLDAS-1Noah simulation. (a) GLDAS-1-Noah soil moisture; (b) merged passive microwave product and one rescaled against GLDAS... and temporal coverage of soil moisture products from different sensors in the “blended passive & and active... (area covered by passive, active and both are 29.1%, 69.2%, and 1.7%, respectively), (b) January 1998... of passive and active microwave instruments and model product. 7 vi ECV Production, Fusion of Soil Moisture... Scatterometer SMAP Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean... the original active microwave soil moisture products into an ECV based on active observations (period 1991-now), (2) merging the original passive microwave soil moisture products into a passive ECV (1978-now), and (3) blending the... surface model soil moisture estimates serve as a reference for scaling the active and passive ECVs... retrieval and error characterisation of the ECV_SM blended soil moisture products from active and passive microwave..., E. Haas, M. Ertl (2012) Fusion of active and passive microwave observations to create an... improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite-based retrievals. Hydrology and Earth...). Trend-preserving blending of passive and active microwave soil moisture retrievals, Remote Sensing of Environment...) soil moisture data set involves three steps (Figure 1): (1) merging the original passive microwave soil moisture products into one product, (2) merging the original active microwave soil moisture products into one product, and (3) blending the... and validating the merged soil moisture product are: • Scatterometer-based soil moisture products o Sensors: ERS-1/2 and... products to the final blended active & passive microwave soil moisture product. (Figure taken from... The level 2 surface soil moisture products derived from the active and passive remotely sensed data... rescaled passive and active time series into passive and active data sets, respectively 5. Rescaling merged passive and passive data sets into common climatology 6. Combining rescaled merged passive and active data sets into single product 5 ECV Production, Fusion of Soil Moisture... the modelled soil moisture datasets no resampling is required. The LPRM (passive) soil moisture estimates... active microwave data. 5.2 Rescaling Used in: Step 2 and 4 8 ECV Production, Fusion of Soil Moisture...: 1) Rescaling of all the passive microwave soil moisture observations to the climatology of AMSR-E. 2) Rescaling of all the active microwave soil moisture observations to the climatology of ASCAT 3) Rescaling of the merged active and passive...-E soil moisture retrievals were identified as are more accurate than the other passive... active microwave products An example of a soil moisture time series from ERS SCAT and... passive and active microwave products obtained in the previous sections represent volumetric soil moisture (m3m-3) and... passive and active microwave product against the GLDAS-1-Noah simulation. (a) GLDAS-1-Noah soil moisture; (b) merged passive microwave product and one rescaled against GLDAS... and temporal coverage of soil moisture products from different sensors in the “blended passive & and active... than 0.65 (“transitional regions”) both active and passive microwave products are used. This... (area covered by passive, active and both are 29.1%, 69.2%, and 1.7%, respectively), (b) January 1998... the ECV_SM workflow merging individual passive soil moisture products into a merged climatology is... density and availability For the current product version combining the active and passive ECVs into a merged active/passive ECV is based...). Trend-preserving blending of passive and active microwave soil moisture retrievals. Remote Sensing of Environment... improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite-based retrievals. Hydrology and Earth...



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.... Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets W. A. Dorigo1 , K. Scipal2 , R. M. Parinussa3 , Y. Y. Liu3,4,5 , W. Wagner1 , R. A. M. de Jeu3 , and... several globally available soil moisture products from active (ASCAT) and passive (AMSR-E and SSM/I) microwave sensors... the active and passive satellite-based datasets, we used the ERA-Interim and GLDAS... of global soil moisture products have become available from past and present passive and active coarse... al.: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil Table 1. Operational products in... field of global monitoring of soil moisture using active and passive satellite microwave instruments (sorted... (VUA) and NASA 1979–present 2008 Owe et al. (2008) Soil Moisture and Ocean... collocation technique to soil moisture data products extracted from passive microwave remote www... characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil sensing, land surface modelling and high density... uncertainty of various recent passive (radiometer) and active (scatterometer) microwave soil moisture products. Herein, the... and vertical polarized observations at C-, X, or Ku-band to solve for soil moisture and....: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil the Tiled ECMWF Scheme for... Assimilation System (GLDAS) provides soil moisture and other atmospheric and land surface variables at..., soil moisture values rarely drop below 0.05 m3 m−3 or exceed 0.45 m3 m−3 . Soil moisture and... estimates SCAT (scatterometer-derived soil moisture), RAD (radiometer-derived soil moisture) and Hydrol. Earth Syst... al.: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil datasets considered. This is... al.: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil a) 90°N 60°N 30°N 0° 30... characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil However, a quantitative interpretation and a direct comparison of... al.: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil a) 90°N 60°N 30°N 0° 30....: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil as the trends in error... soil moisture variability and in areas where the signal-to-noise ratio of soil moisture..., radiometer and reanalysis soil moisture datasets and shows the improvements of ASCAT and AMSR-E compared... for active and passive datasets can be ascribed to the observation principle (active versus passive) and how much depends on the retrieval method itself. Including soil moisture... out the limited soil moisture retrieval capability of Cband passive microwave observations over... al.: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil a) 90°N 60°N 30°N e* [m3m... global active and passive microwave soil the soil moisture deviations, particularly in areas with high soil moisture dynamics and areas with a low signal-to-noise ratio of soil moisture... met for the combination with active soil moisture datasets and other sources need to... identify systematic differences and agreements between active and passive microwave-derived soil moisture products, and between different... active and passive observations for the generation of superior multi-mission long-term soil moisture..., W., De Jeu, R., Hasenauer, S., and Su, Z.: Merging active and passive microwave soil moisture data to contruct long... soil moisture: Data assimilation experiments with ECMWF’s integrated forecast system and the TMI soil moisture..., E., Njoku, E., Timouk, F., Wagner, W., and Zribi, M.: Soil moisture active and passive microwave products: intercomparison and evaluation over a Sahelian..., 2010. Jackson, T. J., Schmugge, T. J., and Wang, J. R.: Passive microwave sensing of soil moisture under vegetation canopies.... Jackson, T. J.: III. Measuring surface soil moisture using passive microwave remote sensing, Hydrol. Process... of global active and passive microwave soil by space borne microwave radiometers and scatterometers, Surv... Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Algorithm of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Water Content, Annual Journal..., T. J., Njoku, E. G., R¨udiger, C., Calvet, J. C., and Bindlish, R.: WindSat global soil moisture retrieval and validation, IEEE T. Geosci..., A. I. J. M., McCabe, M. F., and Evans, J. P.: Developing an improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite..., Z., Hasenauer, S., and Wagner, W.: An Improved Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm for ERS and METOP Scatterometer..., V., Chan, T. K., and Nghiem, S. V.: Soil moisture retrieval from AMSR-E, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote.... Owe, M., De Jeu, R., and Walker, J.: A methodology for surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth..., M. K., and Fung, A. K.: Microwave Remote Sensing, Active and Passive: Radar Remote Sensing and Surface Scattering and Emission..., W., Lemoine, G., and Rott, H.: A method for estimating soil moisture from ERS scatterometer and soil data, Remote...



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National Aeronautics and Space Administration SMAP Handbook Soil Moisture Active Passive Mapping Soil Moisture and Freeze/Thaw from Space On the cover — The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide global measurements of soil moisture and its freeze... of weather and climate prediction models. SMAP Handbook Soil Moisture Active Passive Mapping Soil Moisture and Freeze/Thaw... 7. Science Data Calibration and Validation 115 8. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Program 147 9. SMAP Project Bibliography 163 Abbreviations and..., the active radar–based, and the synergistic active-passive soil moisture products. Each of these soil moisture products... resources management, and agricultural applications. To meet these needs, NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission uses an L-band radar and an L-band... strengths of active and passive microwave remote sensing for soil moisture mapping. The radar and radiometer... the active and passive datasets provides greater accuracy and spatial resolution in measuring moisture in... is a combination active and passive (radar and radiometer) product that produces soil moisture estimates at 9 km..., L. Miles, and M. Wong, “Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP... of active and passive measurements to soil moisture. Factors such as vegetation water content and canopy... relative advantages of active and passive microwave remote sensing, more robust soil moisture mapping is..., J. C. Shi, M. W. Spencer, S. W. Thurman, L. Tsang, and J. V. Zyl, “The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission,” Proceedings of..., and M. Hosseini, “The Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12): Pre-Launch Calibration and Validation... estimates in preparation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission,” Journal of Climate, 24..., W. T. Cros, W. N. Edelstein, et al., “The soil moisture active passive (SMAP) mission,” Proceedings of the... estimates in preparation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission,” J. Climate, vol. 24, pp... National Snow and Ice Data Center (nsidc.org) SMAPVEX08 Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment... (pages. usherbrooke.ca/canexsm10) SMAPVEX11 Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2011 2011 Oklahoma... National Snow and Ice Data Center (nsidc.org) SMAPEx Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiments....smapex.monash.edu.au SMAPVEX12 Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 2012 Manitoba... Passive (Julbara) SAOCOM Active (?) and Passive (PLMR) Active CREST Passive University of Florida Active and Passive Kuwait University Active and Passive 132... input from all validation sources. 3) Soil Moisture Active/Passive (L2/3_SM_AP) The baseline validation..., R. de Jeu, and V. Naeimi, “Error Characterisation of Global Active and Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Datasets,” Hydrol..., and M. Hosseini, “The Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12): Pre-Launch Calibration and Validation..., X. Wu, Y. Gao, and J. Hacker, “ The Soil Moisture Active Passive Experiments (SMAPEx): Towards Soil Moisture Retrieval from the.... SMAP HANDBOOK 147 8. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Program The purpose... Soil Moisture Active Passive. The SMAP Project is the entity formed to develop, launch, and...-REAL-TIME MONITORING OF SOIL MOISTURE Operational monitoring of active and passive data gives information..., M. S. Moran, R. Reichle, J. Shi, M. Spencer, and S. Thurman, S., “The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission,” Proceedings of.... Escobar, V., M. Brown, and M. S. Moran, “The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Program and the 2011 SMAP..., E. G. Njoku, and K. H. Kellogg, “Fostering applications opportunities for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission,” Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and..., P. O’Neill, E. Njoku, B. Doorn, and J. Entin, “NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and opportunities for applications..., S., D. Entekhabi, and E. Njoku, “Impact of multi-resolution active and passive measurements on soil moisture estimation using..., M. S. Moran, R. Reichle, J. C. Shi, M. W. Spencer, and S. W. Thurman, “The soil moisture active and passive (SMAP) mission,” Proceedings of..., X. Wu, Y. Gao, and J. Hacker, “The Soil Moisture Active Passive Experiments (SMAPEx): Towards soil moisture retrieval from the..., L. Miles, and M. Wong, “Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP... estimates in preparation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission,” Journal of Climate, vol... Radar RF Radio Frequency SMAP Soil Moisture Active Passive RFE Radiometer Front-End SMAPEx... RFN Request for Nomination SMAPVEX Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment RHS Right-Hand...



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... European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite with a passive L-band microwave... space missions such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive, SMAP. Knowing the current caveats... kommende rumbaserede missioner såsom NASAs Soil Moisture Active and Passive. Et kendskab til de aktuelle... Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Soil moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1. Relevance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2. Definition and important terms . . . . . 2.2.3. Spatial variability of soil moisture across 2.2.4. Soil moisture measurements... and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1. Calibration and soil texture checks (0-5 cm) . . . . . 6.5.2. Profile soil moisture and temperature (all depths) . 6.5.3. Surface soil moisture and... Synthetic Aperture Radar Soil Moisture Active and Passive Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity... angle Volumetric soil moisture Gravimetric soil moisture Part I. Objectives, Background and Methods 1 1. Motivation and Objectives The... Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite SMOS (Kerr et al., 2001, 2010) with a passive... (1) the design and establishment of a soil moisture and temperature network, and (2) the planning and realization of... and temporal variability of soil moisture and its influencing factors and processes is given. Afterwards, soil moisture... frequency for soil moisture assessment from space. In case of passive sensors, the... H and V polarization measured across a range of incidence angles for different soil moisture contents. Active radar systems (SAR and scatterometers) measure the... the passive measurements, soil moisture can be estimated therefrom. The backscatter of active radar... as soil moisture. Thus, passive radiometers are currently considered most effective for soil moisture retrieval...-borne passive microwave radiometer operating at the preferred frequency for soil moisture retrieval... for soil moisture studies. Another project dedicated to spaceborne soil moisture assessment is the Soil Moisture Active and Passive... The recently launched passive L-band microwave radiometer of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity... of the major uncertainties is soil moisture. The passive L-band microwave radiometer SMOS... means of a spaceborne passive L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometer the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission... mission dedicated to soil moisture measurements. A multi-angle, fully polarimetric passive L-band microwave... and Remote Sensing, October 2011 AbstractThe Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite with a passive L-band radiometer is dedicated to surface soil moisture monitoring. In addition to soil moisture.... From an initial soil moisture guess and other auxiliary input, soil moisture and vegetation optical thickness... respective 2x2 km patches. 7.2.2. Soil moisture and temperature network A soil moisture and temperature network with 30... and Perspectives 111 8. Discussion and Conclusions The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite with a passive L-band microwave radiometer is dedicated to global surface soil moisture monitoring... (1) the design and establishment of a soil moisture and temperature network, and (2) the planning and realization of... 8.1.1. Soil moisture and temperature network As soil moisture is highly variable across spatial scales and soil moisture networks... supportive for upcoming soil moisture space missions such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive SMAP, scheduled..., H. McNairn, and R. de Jeu (2010), Evaluation of soil moisture derived from passive microwave remote..., and F. Schiebe (1995), Large area mapping of soil moisture using the ESTAR passive microwave..., J.-M. Martinuzzi, J. Font, and M. Berger (2001), Soil moisture retrieval from space: The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity... Kim, G., and A. Barros (2002), Space-time characterization of soil moisture from passive microwave remotely sensed imagery and ancillary data..., and T. Tsegaye (2001), Groundbased passive microwave remote sensing observations of soil moisture at S-band and... of soil surface roughness parameterization for L-band passive microwave soil moisture retrieval, IEEE Geoscience and..., K. Saleh, and J.-P. Wigneron (2009b), Evaluation of the SMOS L-MEB passive microwave soil moisture retrieval..., and A. K. Fung (1981), Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and passive. Volume I: Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and..., and A. K. Fung (1982), Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and passive. Volume II: Radar Remote Sensing and Surface Scattering and Emission Theory.... Ulaby, F. T., R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung (1986), Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and passive. Volume III: From..., and N. Bruguier (1995), A simple algorithm to retrieve soil moisture and vegetation biomass using passive microwave...



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... 3.0 License. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Soil moisture active and passive microwave products: intercomparison and evaluation over... and an evaluation of five soil moisture products based on satellite-based passive and active microwave... et al. (2007) and Taylor (2008) showed that soil moisture and land surface processes influence meso-scale convective systems dynamics. Quantitative soil moisture...). Various active and passive microwave sensors have been measuring Earth emissions and reflection for....: Evaluation of microwave soil moisture products been performing continuous active microwave measurements at... consistent and continuous global scale soil moisture data set since 1992. SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean... Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) satellite of NASA which, by combining active and passive approaches, will provide soil moisture....gov/). Soil moisture retrieval is based on the relationship between soil moisture and soil dielectric constant which influences brightness temperatures and scatterometer coefficient from passive and active... between soil moisture and vegetation dynamics is however crucial for soil moisture retrieval accuracy and it might impact differently passive and active microwaves performances. Good knowledge of soil moisture... five soil moisture products, obtained from current active and passive microwave sensors, are intercompared and evaluated... of soil and vegetation, and its relatively limited vegetation cover is suitable for soil moisture... been instrumented with soil moisture and meteorological station networks, water and CO2 flux stations... the validation and evaluation of satellite products, including soil moisture, vegetation parameters, and albedo... in using passive microwaves is that the effects of soil moisture and vegetation water... soil moisture products 145 Table 2. Radiometric characteristics and spatio-temporal resolutions of each soil moisture... of microwave soil moisture products and dry difference normalisation from descending and ascending orbits... to observed soil moisture at the Agoufou station, saturated and residual soil moisture are set... soil moisture are stable at the meso-scale site. Both volumetric and normalized soil moisture... surface soil moisture products Figure 3 gives general information on surface soil moisture range (minimum and maximum values) and indicates soil moisture variability (standard... between the different soil moisture products in terms of soil moisture range and soil moisture temporal variability. Ground measurements indicate very low values of soil moisture... both the pixel and the meso-scales (between 0% and 1.6%). Lowest soil moisture values from... of soil moisture variations and the driest conditions. Over the ZAK pixel, all soil moisture products overestimate soil moisture... between active (ERS/CETP, ERS/TUW) and passive (AMSR-E/NSIDC, AMSR-E/VUA and TMI... contrast underestimates soil moisture seasonal dynamics. ERS/CETP and ERS/TUW overestimate soil moisture values... soil moisture variations, shown in Fig. 10a and in Fig. 11 for low soil moisture... and evaluation of five products derived from three different satellite sensors (active and passive microwaves): four surface soil moisture and one soil moisture index which is... terms of value and spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture. This results show...-E/NSIDC soil moisture data strongly under-estimate the range of soil moisture variations and do not capture low soil moisture values during...-comparison of active and passive microwave soil moisture products over Sahel shows that both active and passive low frequency remote sensing approaches are sensitive to surface soil moisture variations. The soil moisture product (ERS/CETP) and the soil moisture index (ERS... of microwave soil moisture products Kerr, Y. H., Waldteufel, P., Wigneron, J.-P., Martinuzzi, J.M., Font, J., and Berger, M.: Soil moisture retrieval from Space: The soil moisture and ocean salinity (SMOS..., D., Vasic, R., Xue, Y., and Yamada, T.: Regions of Strong Coupling Between Soil Moisture and Precipitation, Sciences....020, 2009. Magagi, R. and Kerr, Y.: Retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation characteristics by use..., 2004. Njoku, E. and Entekhabi, D.: Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, J. Hydrol., 184, 101..., W., Lemoine, G., and Rott, H.: A Method for Estimating Soil Moisture from ERS Scatterometer and Soil Data, Remote...



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....net/publication/278244923 Bayesian combined active/passive (B-CAP) soil moisture retrieval algorithm: A rigorous retrieval... you access and read them immediately. BAYESIAN COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE (B-CAP) SOIL MOISTURE RETRIEVAL ALGORITHM..., irrigation strategies and crop yield forecasting. NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) [1] and Argentinean SAOCOM (www... specifically designed to develop surface soil moisture products. These missions will exploit... cover over soil’s surface and to be more accurate on retrieving soil moisture than... make them unique to develop soil moisture products over agricultural lands. However..., the impact of soil heterogeneity on retrieving soil moisture from SAR should be... soil moisture. Microwave emissions are more strongly correlated to soil dielectric properties than active... coarser resolution (40 km). Soil emissivity (passive microwave) and soil reflectivity (active microwave) are correlated... soil moisture) from the land surface, respectively. However, joint models in which soil... both the active and passive microwaves, should respond to simplicity and ease of use... data and model parameters suited for remotely-sensed observations). b. A large-scale soil moisture guess from passive microwaves can be used to constrain the active... passive forward model, the guess soil moisture is an average of the actual soil moisture.... The lower the heterogeneity in soil moisture of the fields encompassing the... high heterogeneity in soil moisture should be carefully evaluated and they are out... Combined Active/Passive (B-CAP) retrieval algorithm yields the smaller errors when active and passive information... here a Bayesian active/passive methodology in which soil moisture estimations from passive microwave data are... active radar ones through a preliminary soil moisture guess (through a Single Channel Algorithm), provided active and passive... soils and can be regarded as a benchmark to test SMAP active/passive soil moisture product in bare soils over agricultural lands. The capability of passive microwave measurements to improve radar soil moisture predictions is demonstrated in this paper with in-situ and airborne observations from Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012... into account (Fig. 1). If passive microwave-based soil moisture guess is not available... to 0.20µs . Passive microwave observations enable the use of soil moisture estimations from the brightness temperature of the soil. The... as above mentioned, and then converted into soil moisture using an empirical relationship from [11]. 3. RESULTS The active dataset... in June and July 2012 in the context of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEx) field campaign. The passive microwave data... campaign. Retrieved estimates for volumetric soil moisture mv against measured ground-truth... black markers indicate that passive microwave-based soil moisture guess is available. Error... from instrumental (probe) error and ground-based soil moisture variability following [13]. On the bottom of Fig. 2, the combined active/passive... (only active) to 0.068cm3 /cm3 (combined). 4. CONCLUSION When remotely-sensed active and passive microwave... soil moisture estimations constrained by a preliminary soil moisture guess from passive microwave observations. In addition, soil moisture on an field basis minimize errors due to uncertainties in soil...-based soil moisture is achieved by including information from passive microwaves. Thus, active/passive synergy is expected to produce an enhanced soil moisture... global surface soil moisture estimates over selected agricultural lands prior to –and throughout..., R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, and W. T. Crow, “Performance Metrics for Soil Moisture Retrievals and Application Requirements,” Journal... ] 0.4 0.45 0.5 v (b) Combined active/passive Fig. 2. Retrieved estimates for volumetric soil moisture mv against measured ground-truth data for bare or sparselyvegetated soil.... 5. REFERENCES [1] D. Entekhabi et al., “The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission,” Proceedings of the..., M. S. Moran, and F. Mattia, “On the Soil Roughness Parameterization Problem in Soil Moisture View publication stats [6] M. Barber, M. Maas, P. Perna, F. Grings, and H. Karszenbaum.... 1994. [9] T. Jackson, T. Schmugge, and J. Wang, “Passive microwave sensing of soil moisture under vegetation canopies...] T. Jackson, “III. measuring surface soil moisture using passive microwave remote sensing,” Hydrological Processes... suitability of soil moisture retrieval algorithms for sar data,” Geoscience and Remote Sensing...



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... 2012, Melbourne, Australia FUSION OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS TO CREATE AN..., complete and consistent as possible, and in the case of soil moisture this means..., including but not limited to active (scatterometer) and passive (radiometer) microwave observations acquired... creation and validation of long-term satellite based soil moisture records. 1. INTRODUCTION Soil moisture is the water contained in the weathered and fragmented outer soil layer... soil moisture data sets, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and...). The first mission is the Soil Moisture and Ocean * Corresponding author. 315 ISPRS...). The second one is NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission that is planned..., several global and continental-scale soil-moisture datasets have been published and shared openly... (Owe et al., 2008), and the WindSat soil moisture dataset produced by the... soil moisture data retrieved from the different active and passive microwave instruments are physically consistent. Soil moisture is preferably expressed in volumetric soil moisture... system for generating one global and longterm soil moisture data record. This ECV... of suitable active and passive microwave measurements is minimal. Because the surface soil moisture content... Level 1 backscatter- and brightness temperature observations of all different active and passive microwave remote sensing instruments into one Level 2 soil moisture retrieval... of the passive Level 2 data sets Fusion of the merged active and passive data sets from steps 2 and 3 Level 1 D a ta S e ts... of the diverse active and passive microwave sensors suitable to soil moisture retrieval (ASCAT, AMSR... performance of the active and passive retrieval algorithms, the combined active (scatterometer) and passive (multi-frequency...+ years soil moisture data set by merging active (ERS SCAT and METOP ASCAT) and passive (SMMR, SSM/I, TMI, and AMSR-E) soil moisture retrievals... variable error field of active (ASCAT) and passive (AMSR-E and SSM/I) soil moisture retrievals. The knowledge.... (2011) who merged AMSR-E and ASCAT soil moisture retrievals for the year 2007... of individual passive and active sensors into a common climatology, AMSR-E and ASCATbased soil moisture products, respectively... is needed to scale merged active and passive datasets into globally consistent climatology..., N.C. and Friesen, J., 2008. Global soil moisture patterns observed by space borne microwave radiometers and... project, also soil moisture data derived from nadir-looking active microwave sensors (radar..., R.A.M. and Naeimi, V., 2010. Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets. Hydrology and Earth... Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements. Hydrology and..., J.C., Spencer, M.W., Thurman, S.W., Tsang, L. and Van Zyl, J., 2010a. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Proceedings..., S., Isaksen, L., Kerr, Y. and W., W., 2012. Evaluation of remotely sensed and modelled soil moisture products using..., D., Reichle, R.H., Koster, R.D. and Crow, W.T., 2010b. Performance metrices for soil moisture retrievals and application requirements... southwestern France using in situ and airborne soil moisture estimates: The CAROLS airborne..., S.E., Liu, S. and Namkhai, A., 2000. Temporal and spatial scales of observed soil moisture variations in..., W. and Naeimi, V., 2010. Accuracy and stability requirements of ERS and METOP scatterometer soil moisture for..., W. and Zribi, M., 2010. Soil moisture active and passive microwave products: intercomparison and evaluation over a Sahelian site. Hydrology and..., C. and Bittelli, M., 2011. Soil moisture estimation through ASCAT and AMSR-E sensors: An intercomparison and validation..., J.-C. and Bindlish, R., 2010. WindSat global soil moisture retrieval and validation. IEEE Transaction on Geoscience and..., A., McCabe, F.M. and Evans, J.P., 2011. Developing an improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite-based retrievals. Hydrology and Earth..., W., Naeimi, V., Scipal, K., de Jeu, R. and MartinezFernandez, J., 2007. Soil moisture from operational meteorological satellites..., T.K. and Nghiem, S.V., 2003. Soil moisture retrieval from AMSR-E. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote..., J. and Berg, A.A., 2004. Global Soil Moisture from Satellite Observation, Land Surface Models, and Ground... Jeu, R. and Wagner, W., 2009. An intercomparision of ERS-Scat and AMSR-E soil moisture observations..., M., Jaeger, E.B., Lehner, I., Orlowsky, B. and Teuling, A.J., 2010. Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing...



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... spatial distributed soil moisture information................................... 1 1.2 Methods to retrieve soil moisture ........................................................................... 2 1.3 Vegetation influence on passive L-band data ......................................................... 7 1.4 Research objectives and thesis... Senescence Reflectance Index SMAP Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission TERENO... two categories: active and passive. Both, the radar backscattering coefficient and the brightness temperature... products to soil moisture is hampered by surface roughness and vegetation. Active sensors make... than C-band and X-band. Consequently passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture at L-band... a function of soil moisture and other soil parameters such as soil texture, soil salinity and bulk density... 3 days and a spatial resolution of ~ 40 km. The NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP... combines L-band radar and L-band radiometer, allowing simultaneous active and passive microwave observations of... influence on passive L-band data The retrieval of soil moisture and biomass are the fundamental applications of passive microwave remote... before and after viewing angle normalization. To obtain surface soil moisture estimates from passive microwave observations, knowledge about the soil effective... of soil moisture from passive Lband microwave data. Since vegetation absorbs, emits and scatters... analysing passive L-band data for soil moisture retrieval under such extreme conditions and narrow... temperature and the roughness parameterization play a crucial role in soil moisture retrieval from passive... top soil temperature is a common assumption in soil moisture retrieval studies using passive microwave... measured soil moisture and LPRM retrieved soil moisture increases for winter barley. The best soil moisture estimates... and dry soil moisture range (< 15 Vol. %) at the day of the L-band passive... and dry soil moisture range (< 15 Vol. %) at the day of the L-band passive... heterogeneity on the retrieval of soil moisture from passive microwave radiometry. International Journal..., W. T., Bindlish, R. and Jackson, T. J., 2005, The added value of spaceborne passive microwave soil moisture retrievals..., M. J. and Gurney, R. J., 2008, The effects of scene heterogeneity on soil moisture retrieval from passive.... Du, Y., Ulaby, F. T. and Dobson, M. C., 2000, Sensitivity to soil moisture by active and passive microwave sensors. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing..., J. C., Spencer, M. W., Thurman, S. W., Tsang, L. and Van Zyl, J., 2010, The soil moisture active passive (SMAP) mission. Proceedings.... Jackson, T. J., 1993, Measuring surface soil-moisture using passive microwave remote sensing. Hydrological Processes..., 475. Jackson, T. J., Hawley, M. E. and O'neill, P. E., 1987a, Preplanting soil-moisture using passive microwave sensors. Water...-19. Jackson, T. J., Hawley, M. E. and Oneill, P. E., 1987, Preplanting soil-moisture using passive microwave sensors. Water Resources Bulletin, 23, 11-19. Jackson, T. J. and Le Vine, D. E., 1996, Mapping surface soil moisture using an aircraftbased passive microwave instrument: Algorithm and example. Journal..., T. J. and Schiebe, F. R., 1995, Large area mapping of soil moisture using the ESTAR passive microwave.... Jackson, T. J., Schmugge, T. J. and O'Neill, P., 1984, Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture from an.... Loew, A. and Mauser, W., 2008, On the disaggregation of passive microwave soil moisture data using a priori knowledge of temporally persistent soil moisture fields..., F. K., Jackson, T. J., Lakshmi, V. and Bolten, J., 2002, Observations of soil moisture using a passive and active low-frequency microwave..., E. J., Saleh, K. and Wigneron, J.-P., 2009, Evaluation of the SMOS L-MEB passive microwave soil moisture retrieval..., W. P. And Wang, J. R., 1992, Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture: results from HAPEX, FIFE, and... soil moisture. Journal of Hydrology. Ulaby, F. T., Moore, R. K., Fung, A. K., 1986, Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive... soil moisture model and field application. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2, 356-373. Wang, J. R., 1983, Passive microwave sensing of soil-moisture content - the effects of soil bulk-density and surface..., J.-C. and Bruguier, N., 1995, A simple algorithm to retrieve soil moisture and vegetation biomass using passive microwave..., J. C. and Kerr, Y., 1998, Use of passive microwave remote sensing to monitor soil moisture. Agronomie...