Спутник ФКИ. Soil Moisture Active and Passive. [Редактировать]

U.S. Agriculture Department’s Foreign Agricultural Service выпускает частые прогнозы о здоровье зерновых культур во всем мире, чтобы помочь отдельным фермерам, компаниям и правительственным учреждениям спрогнозировать спрос и предложения. Точную информацию о состоянии посевов получить при помощи наземных измерений бывает сложно. С целью устранения данного недостатка 29 января 2015 года планируется запустить космический аппарат SMAP. Его целью будет являться сбор информации о влажности почвы. По габаритам аппарат сопоставим с размером маленького школьного автобуса. Оборудован складывающимся коническим отражателем, радиометром L-группы и радаром с синтетической апертурой. Радар и радиометр спутника будут работать синхронизированно, чтобы предоставить информацию о влажности почвы, которая будет более точной, чем что-либо в настоящее время доступное. После запуска ученые НАСА планируют провести летно-конструкторские испытания системы (в течении 90 дней).

Инструменты

Радар
  • Частота: 1.26 ГГц
  • Поляризация: VV, HH, HV 
  • Относительная точность (3 км сетка): 1 dB (HH и VV), 1.5 dB (HV)
  • Получаемые данные:
    • Высокодетальная съемка (SAR) 
    • Поддержка глобальной съемки с низким разрешением
Радиометер
  • Частота: 1.41 ГГц
  • Поляризация: H и V
  • Относительная точность (40 км сетка): 1.3 K
Антена (производитель антены Northrop Grumman, мотора для вращения Boeing)
  • Конически сканирующее устройства разделенное между радаром и радиометром
  • Диаметер: 6 метров
  • Скорость вращения: 14.6 оборотов в минуту
  • Эффективность: ~90%
  • Разрешение:
    • Радиометер (IFOV): 39 км x 47 км
    • SAR: 1-3 км (на протяжении 70% от полосы захвата)
  • Ширина полосы захвата: 1000 км        

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1SMAPНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип орбиты - НОО
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Страна оператор(владелец) - США
4Страна производитель - США

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-05-20. Космический аппарат начал сбор научных данных.
Космический аппарат Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) начал выполнять задачи по сбору радиометрической и радарной информации об окружающей среде Земли. Основным целевым предназначением собираемых данных является улучшение возможностей климатологов по предсказанию погодных явлений и изменения площади поверхности ледовых покровов.Тэги: Soil Moisture Active and Passive
22015-08-12. На космическом аппарате произошел сбой.
Один из двух главных инструментов космического корабля остается неактивным уже больше целого месяца. В настоящее время специалисты НАСА не смогли определить причину резкого выключения прибора, но и не знают когда им удастся его включить.
В качестве основной причины отказа в НАСА называют проблемы с низковольтным источником питания усилителя радара. Данный прибор служит для того, чтобы передавать на радар больше мощности, за счет чего он становится способным оценивать влажность почвы. Тэги: Soil Moisture Active and Passive
32015-09-26. НАСА пытается реанимировать аппарат.
После того как в июле у космического аппарата отказал радар, ученые из НАСА решили, что им необходимо скоординировать съемку с космического аппарата SMAP и других радарных спутников. При этом НАСА признало что высокодетальный радар космического аппарата скорее всего будет признан утерянным, однако, по мнению агенства остальные научные приборы на аппарате работают штатно, а следовательно его еще можно некоторое время эксплуатировать. В целом же в агентстве отмечают, что полноценной замене аппарату у них нет, но они попытаются скомпенсировать недостаток данных путем компьютерного совмещения информации с пассивного радара SMAP и данных других аппаратов.Тэги: Soil Moisture Active and Passive
42015-11-28. НАСА пытается найти замену радару космического аппарата SMAP.
Ученые из НАСА приступили к анализу возможности замены информации которую они планировали получать со своего космического аппарата SMAP при помощи данных орбитальной группировки Copernicus. При этом, из всего перечня космических аппаратов группировки исследователей наиболее заинтересовали возможности радара космического аппарата Sentinel 1A. При этом, с точки зрения НАСА данный космический аппарат наиболее пригоден для замены вышедшего из строя радара космического аппарата SMAP поскольку его орбита и возможности наиболее близки к желаемой. Вместе с тем, пока что НАСА так и не обнародовала данные о причинах выхода из строя своего аппарата. Тэги: Серия CopernicusSoil Moisture Active and PassiveSentinel 1A
52016-08-17. Продолжаются работы над радиолокационным спутников.
Компания Astro Aerospace, которая принадлежит Northrop Grumman Corporation, закончила предварительную экспертизу рефлектора радара, который будет установлен на космический аппарат NISAR. Данный проект финансируется за счет средств НАСА и ISRO, в рамках которого агентства создают L/S-диапазонный радиолокационный спутник с синтезированной апертурой. Сроком запуска нового космического аппарата объявлен 2021 год. Целевой задачей миссии будет являться сбор информации об окружающей среде, включая и состояние ледяного покрова Земли. Диаметр L-диапазонного рефлектора составит 12 метров.
Компания Astro Aerospace достаточно широко известна своей деятельностью в области создания рефлекторов, в частности ранее она уже создала шести метровый вращающийся рефлектор для космического аппарат SMAP. Тэги: NISARNorthrup GrummanSoil Moisture Active and Passive

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (инструментов), кг356
2Масса (платформа), кг686
3Масса (топливо), кг80
4Мощность (инструментов), Вт448
5Мощность (платформа), Вт903

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый )

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Ракетаноситель 1xДельта 2
2Дата (пуска)март 2015

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Заказчик Космическое агентство США
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-01780 - 900
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01388.2
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-01485.7
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-0142.6
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01916.5
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01872 - 926
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2013-02-01916.5
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2013-02-01388.2
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2013-02-01485.7
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2013-02-0142.6
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2014-04-01388.2
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2014-04-01490.0
14Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2014-04-0138.4
15Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2014-04-01914.6
16Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24914.6
17Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24388.2
18Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2015-03-24479.0
19Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2015-03-2447.4

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром База Ванденберг
2Дата пуска2015-01-31
3Полезная нагрузка 1xSoil Moisture Active and Passive
4Полезная нагрузка 1xFIREBIRD C
5Полезная нагрузка 1xFIREBIRD D
6Полезная нагрузка 1xGRIFEX
7Полезная нагрузка 1xExoCube
8Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7320

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... carry passive microwave instruments on-board that can measure surface soil moisture. Three currently operational missions are the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity... quality of surface soil moisture anomalies derived from these passive microwave instruments was... People’s Republic of China. Keywords: soil moisture; passive microwaves; evaluation Remote Sens. 2017... based on a component from both active and passive microwave sensors. In this study... further integration of surface soil moisture retrievals from various passive microwave instruments into the existing ECV-SM framework. Another soil moisture... widely used for surface soil moisture retrievals from passive microwave observations is the... on the comparison of soil moisture products from different passive microwave instruments over the entire mainland. These surface soil moisture products... 2.1. Passive Microwave Sensors The main focus of this study is on soil moisture anomalies from three different passive microwave sensors, MWRI (Section 2.1.1), AMSR2 (Section 2.1.2) and... descending and ascending paths, respectively. Of specific relevance for soil moisture retrievals and their... Table 1. 2.2. Passive Microwave Retrieval Algorithms Two different soil moisture retrieval algorithms for passive microwave... low microwave frequencies and the complementarity with soil moisture data from active microwave observations... vegetation optical depth and soil moisture from low frequency microwave observations and is based... evaluate passive microwave surface soil moisture through this technique is using an additional active... the estimation of soil moisture conditions. In line with the passive microwave sensors.... ASCAT soil moisture data was projected on a global 0.25◦ grid and soil moisture data from the ascending and descending grids were... based soil moisture and isby caused by the attenuation the soil (moisture) for microwave based soil moisture and is caused the attenuation of the soilof(moisture... independency the soil moisture which are determined through the same passive same passive microwavethat observations beenmoisture used forretrieval. soil moisture NDVI microwave... temperatures to soil moisture. In particular, [34] demonstrated this for passive microwave products... large-scale surface soil moisture evaluation studies is soil moisture from an active and passive microwave source... passive microwave products were swapped and evaluated. Finally, since the true soil moisture conditions are unknown, ASCAT soil moisture... in soil moisture. al.al. [37] precipitation and thethe subsequent changes in in soil moisture... combinations and presented in Figure 3. RMSE from the six passive microwave soil moisture also... data and presented in Figure 3. RMSE from the six passive microwave soil moisture products... and presented in Figure 3. RMSE from the six passive microwave soil moisture combinations and presented in Figure 3. RMSERepublic from the six passive microwave soil for moisture... the Triple Collocation and RRMSE value techniques for the passive soil moisture and presented. Results... product MSE from the six passive microwave soil moisture s for these specific product... [43] and uses the 5. A direct Tripleand Collocation and R techniques for the soil moisture product... using soil and presented in Figure 3.these RMSE from sixsimilar passive microwave soil moisture densely... soil moisture retrievals (for LPRMv06 and L-MEB) over our study moisture anomalies from the C- and... as soil moisture and it was demonstrated that soil moisture retrieval from the MWRI and AMSR2... of these passive microwave products against each other. The daytime soil moisture products..., as well as soil moisture from the recent and dedicated Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission once this..., H. A method for estimating soil moisture from ERS scatterometer and soil data. Remote Sens. Environ... monitoring of soil moisture using passive microwave-based techniques—Theoretical basis and overview of..., J. Developing an improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite-based retrievals..., V. Error characterization of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci... comparison of passive (SMOS) and active (ASCAT) satellite based microwave soil moisture retrievals with soil moisture simulations... land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations. Hydrol..., J.; Llorens, P. Soil moisture estimation through ASCAT and AMSR-E sensors: An intercomparison and validation study...



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..., Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) and Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat)-2, by CY 2016 and... into the movement and distribution of fresh surface water, and Active Sensing of Carbon dioxide Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons... integration and testing of the observatory and the observatory Pre-Ship Review; - Soil Moisture Active and Passive... (SWOT) and Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS... Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and their... 2.1.4.2: ES-12-9 Successfully complete the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) Critical Design Review. Earth... distribution and cycling of carbon among the Earth's active land, ocean, and atmospheric reservoirs. Global Modeling and Assimilation Office....6 Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) 70.0 - 135.2 172.3 31.1 29.6 14.5 Other Missions and Data... and infrared multi-spectral global imagery, atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, total ozone and stratospheric ozone profiles, and measurements of... Formulation section of this document. Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) The SMAP mission, a Tier... provide new global measurements of soil moisture and land its freeze/thaw state... in hydrospheric science and applications. Direct measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state are needed to improve understanding of regional and..., and the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Soil moisture and freeze... and initial instrument refurbishment. Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and... the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. ASCENDS is an active system... measurements from the active ASCENDS instruments will continue and complement the OCO... Systematic Missions Other Missions and Data Analysis (continued) Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance... Earth Science Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) Archival and distribution of... Same CrIS ITT Aerospace Temperature and moisture profiles at 3.9-15.4 microns. Same... ATMS NG Electronic Systems Temperature and moisture profiles at 22 channels / 23... space through combined use of active and passive remote-sensing techniques. These advanced... be used to calibrate dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors, with the... surface water fluxes, soil moisture storage, cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent heat release... Observatory will leverage passive microwave measurements from other operating and planned "satellites..., but given the prevalence of passive microwave instruments on operational satellite...'s two scientific instruments will provide active and passive microwave measurements of precipitation. The...). When calibrated with existing and planned passive microwave measurements from other satellites... Earth Science Earth Systematic Missions Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) FY 2012 Budget Request... provide unique information on global soil moisture and its freeze/thaw states to... Earth science and applications decadal survey. Direct measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states are needed to improve understanding of regional and... the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Obtaining global soil moisture measurements every three..., ecosystem, weather, and climate). SMAP is based on the soil moisture and freeze/thaw... of soil emission and backscatter to sense the top five centimeters of soil... analyzed to yield estimates of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Data will... assess random errors and regional biases in the soil moisture and freeze/thaw estimates... Earth Science Earth Systematic Missions Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Estimated Project Deliverables SMAP... prime mission. SMAP will make soil moisture measurements around the entire Earth... Radiometer provides soil moisture measurements in the top 5 Same cm of soil through... SAR provides soil moisture measurements in the top 5 cm of soil through moderate... Earth Science Earth Systematic Missions Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Project Management JPL has... and services. NASA Earth science information is archived at eight Distributed Active... valuable for maintaining active involvement of the research and modeling communities involved..., using algorithms and software developed by EOS investigators; - Active archive of all... efficiency and effectiveness of EOSDIS while reducing the cost, and the Distributed Active Archive Centers, which collect, disseminate, and archive Earth... techniques for validating space-borne soil moisture measurements that will be used...-10 and focused on such areas as space-qualified laser transmitters, passive optical technologies, and microwave and calibration technologies. During FY 2010 there were 16 active projects...



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... monthly project status reports; and interviewed NASA and contractor officials. GAO also...) Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Solar Probe Plus (SPP... Integration Review Space Launch System Soil Moisture Active and Passive Solar Probe Plus Stratospheric Observatory... the 15 projects’ cost and schedule and characterized growth as significant if... to take corrective action, and place needed and justifiable projects in a better... successfully completed within cost and schedule estimates and deliver anticipated system performance... cost, schedule, and quality targets and have demonstrated its reliability, and the design... estimates are complete, accurate and updated regularly, and holding suppliers accountable through... by two phases— formulation 7 and implementation 8—and several key decision points. These... ensure performance to approved plans and requirements and continued alignment with the... projects develop and define requirements and the cost/schedule basis and design for..., test, and launch activities. Phases E and F consist of operations and sustainment and project closeout..., and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Soil Moisture Active and Passive... to monitor and assess the stability of programs and projects and is working... standards for technology maturity and design stability and have experienced challenges in... it, and what critical materials and processes are required to fabricate and test... inadequate communication between NASA and its contractors and the absence of a project... boards and command and data handling units, which affected the integration and test... officials with management, cost and schedule estimating, and maintenance of adequate levels... of impending schedule delays and cost overruns, and can identify specific development... year cost and schedule estimates and the January 2012 cost and schedule data... to monitor residual instrument and spacecraft risks and their potential impact on... that may be signatures of active biological and/ or geographical processes. EMTGO... by Ball Aerospace and the Power System Electronics and Command and Data Handling... produce the Power System Electronics and Command and Data Handling units, according... galaxies, origins of stars and planetary systems, and origins of the elements... environment for fiscal years 2011 and 2012 and unconstrained budgets after that... its development within cost and on schedule and launched successfully on the... to address the test and integration issues, and a second systems integration review... staff from the Juno and Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory projects that... software for entry, descent, and landing (EDL) and software for surface operations... instruments and will measure ozone, atmospheric and sea surface temperatures, land and ocean biological productivity, Earth radiation, and cloud and... Center Partner: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and U.S. Air Force Launch Date... ascent, in‐space operations and entry, descent, and landing mission phases. MPCV... particles, magnetic and electric fields, and waves that fill geospace and provide new...: TBD Launch Vehicle: TBD NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) is one of four... Earth Science missions and is based on the soil moisture and freeze/thaw mission... soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state enabling new advances in hydrospheric science and..., improve weather forecasts, flood and drought forecasts, and climate changes. Mission Duration.../15 Launch readiness date Implementation Soil Moisture Active and Passive common name: 05/12 Critical... of Selected Large-Scale Projects Soil Moisture Active and Passive common name: SMAP project update... with the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity project as well... potential budget shortfalls in 2014 and beyond and has investigated options to... user satellites and orbiting vehicles. TDRS K and L are the 11th and 12th satellites... contractor has experienced subcontractor delivery and integration and test delays, the TDRS... acquisition management processes and performance and will continue to identify and address the... overview; key cost, contract, and schedule data; and a discussion of the challenges..., e.g., relationship between cost growth and schedule slippage and knowledge maturity attained both...’s scope and technologies between KDP-B and KDP-C, estimates of project cost and schedule... include Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), Soil Moisture Active and Passive, and Solar Probe Plus... the project, its cost and schedule performance, and its summary. Project essentials... with related contract values and award fees, and project partnerships. We also... workforce, the supplier base, and technical and corporate experience. We assessed a project... studies and analysis). None. 3. Analytical and experimental Active research and development is critical function and...; evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses, recommendations, and other assistance to...



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...-resolution (9 km) soil moisture estimates from data of the NASA Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission... airborne Passive and Active L-band System (PALS) instrument dataset from Soil Moisture Experiments, 2002 (SMEX02) and... energy between the atmosphere and the land surface. Soil moisture and its freeze/thaw... near-surface soil moisture, with frequent revisit, and independent of clouds and solar illumination... at C-band (~6 GHz) and higher frequencies, and their soil moisture retrievals are significantly affected... vegetation cover. The recently launched Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission of...-swath L-band soil moisture mission, and has the potential for retrieving soil moisture over a much... demonstrated the influence of accurate soil moisture initialization and boundary condition on the... on Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission, with the objective to produce soil moisture data... structure, and vegetation water content (VWC) in addition to soil moisture. Roughness and vegetation... merging the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) measurements to derive a 9 km soil moisture product (L2_SM_A... L-band radar backscatter and volumetric soil moisture for both bare and vegetated surfaces. The... radar co-polarized backscatter (L1C_S0_HiRes) and volumetric soil moisture (L2_SM_P) data. The feasibility... radar backscatter at L-band and C-band and volumetric soil moisture have been discussed in... and 7 volumetric soil moisture was also reported for airborne observations in the Soil Moisture Experiment... the hypothesis that the volumetric soil moisture and co-polarized backscatter are linearly... backscatter at spatial scale M, and θ(C,t) is volumetric soil moisture at spatial scale C. In... hypothesized linear relationship between volumetric soil moisture and co-polarized radar backscatter at...) and β(Mn) are empirical parameters at spatial scale of M, and θ(Mn,t) is a soil moisture value at a spatial scale of M and at time... is the availability wet and dry soil moisture status, and range of vegetation conditions... domain and simulation period incorporate a diverse range of land cover classes and soil moisture... correlated better with and . Therefore soil moisture retrieved from is . Soil moisture (θ at 4 km) is... derived β was used in the Active/Passive soil moisture disaggregation algorithm (7) for all the... resolution soil moisture estimates. Results from this study establish the applicability of Active/Passive... (Std. Dev.) and mean of the retrieved soil moisture field, and the retrieval RMSE... ~2.8 – 3.3% Vol. soil moisture for a corresponding range of ~7 – 12% and ~16 – 32% Vol. soil moisture in regional standard deviation and mean, respectively... high-resolution soil moisture fields at 9 km derived from the active/passive algorithm (L2_SM_A... and Fig. 7b shows an obvious improvement in soil moisture estimates when the active/passive.... Figure 8 plots retrieved soil moisture RMSE and minimum performance soil moisture RMSE stratified by the... on the radar sensitivity to soil moisture and a positive bias in the retrieval...) soil moisture from SMAP coarse scale (36 km) radiometer-based soil moisture estimates and fine... relationship between volumetric soil moisture and radar backscatter cross-section, and the capability of..., J. C. Shi, M. W. Spencer, S. W. Thurman, L. Tsang, and J. V. Zyl, “The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission,” Proceedings of..., 2010. [5] E. G. Njoku, and D. Entekhabi, “Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture,” J. Hydrol., vol. 184..., V. Lakshmi, and T. J. Jackson, “High resoluiton estimation of soil moisture using L-band radiometer and radar.... [10] Y. Du., F. T. Ulbay, and M. C. Dobson, “Sensitivity to soil moisture by active and passive microwave sensors,” IEEE..., F.K. Li, and Y. RahmatSamii, “Passive Active L- and S-band (PALS) microwave sensor for ocean salinity and soil moisture measurements... L2_SM_P Radiometer Soil Moisture 36 km L2_SM_A Radar Soil Moisture 3 km L2_SM_A/P Active/Passive Soil Moisture 9 km L3_F... Soil Moisture Daily Global Composite Active/Passive Soil Moisture 36 km 9 km L4_SM Surface & Root Zone Soil Moisture... July, Retrieved soil moisture estimates from 2002, and d) Disaggregated soil moisture estimates from Active/Passive algorithm for 5th July, 2002. Figure 4: Plots of averaged soil moisture from field measurements and retrieved soil moisture estimate from PALS data for 4 days. a) Active/Passive algorithm, and b) Minimum performance. 27 Figure 5: Surface soil moisture fields of..., and f) Derived slope (β ) between radiometer-based Soil moisture estimate (L2_SM_P) at 36 km and...



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... Cover The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission provides global measurements of soil moisture and its freeze... its first global maps of soil moisture on April 21. The SMAP... versions of Level 2 through Level 4 soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Validated versions.... Near Earth Design and Performance Summary Series Article 1 Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Telecommunications Jim... Article 1—“Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Telecommunications” Jim Taylor, William Blume, Dennis Lee, and Ryan... Near Earth and Deep Space Missions This article on Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) telecommunications... the January 31, 2015 launch, Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP 1) satellite has been in...-polar, Sunsynchronous Earth orbit and to collect a 3-year soil-moisture data set. The... to determine the moisture content of the upper soil and its freeze/thaw... and Applications from Space [2]. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements are invaluable across many science and applications... and an L-band radiometer, processing and combining the data from both the active radar and the passive radiometer during simultaneous observation. The active radar... of soil moisture through moderate vegetation cover, independent of cloud cover, and night or day. Multiple polarizations enable accurate soil moisture estimates to..., Faraday rotation, and other perturbing factors. The radiometer provides passive measurements of the microwave emission from the upper soil with... radiometer measures moisture in the upper 5 centimeters (cm) of soil, with a ground... to provide global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state (the hydrosphere... measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with the accuracy, resolution, and coverage...-based measurement approach and analysis concept for future systematic soil moisture monitoring missions... [4]. The Equator crossing times allow soil moisture measurements with the ground at... would have allowed the mission's soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements to be... Earth— about 5.6 miles (9 km) for soil moisture and 1.9 miles (3 km) for freeze-thaw... 25 miles (40 km) for soil moisture and freeze-thaw. With the radiometer... its requirements for soil moisture accuracy and will produce global soil moisture maps every 2 to... measure and manage the temperatures of the spacecraft bus components. Passive thermal... provide estimates of soil moisture in the top 5 cm of soil with an... collect space-based measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state for at... years to allow seasonal and interannual variations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw to... only the radar electronics and the active radar RF components located in... the active component of the SMAP instrument, operating as both a scatterometer and... (EESS)5 active frequency band 1215–1300 MHz in two polarizations and makes... the Earth and its natural phenomena is obtained from active or passive sensors... antenna (LGAS), and a coaxial switch to select the active transponder. The X-band..., and a coaxial switch to select the active transmitter. Both the LGAS and the... S-band window can be active at one time, and commands to initiate a new S-band window when one is already active are rejected and an event record (EVR) generated9. The radio and... over any active communication window (including another contingency window) and overrides the... Sequencing Loads Tracking Data L2 Soil Moisture S/S L3 Daily Composite S/S L4 Modeling... background sequence went active. The background sequence autonomously manages and executes the... up on the weekend, and going active on Mondays became the norm... Svalbard (SG1). . 80 8. References [1] “NASA Soil Moisture Mission Begins Science Operations,” release... (accessed July 26, 2016) “NASA Soil Moisture Radar Ends Operations, Mission Science...=4710 (accessed July 26, 2016) [3] [4] Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), project website, Jet Propulsion.../ (accessed July 26, 2016) [5] SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) Project Mission Plan, William Blume... Data with a Golden Lasso: Getting Soil Moisture Data from SMAP to DAAC..., B. Weiss, R. West, SMAP Handbook, Soil Moisture Active Passive, Mapping Soil Moisture and Freeze/Thaw from Space, NASA... July 26, 2016) [17] D. Lee, Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Telecommunications Design Control...) between Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission and the Near Earth Network (NEN) and the Space... Effective Telemetry and Command Ground Systems Automation Strategy for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP... for Instrument Data Users,” SMAP Soil Moisture Active Passive, website, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California... DSMC DSN dwn distributed active archive center dynamic and control decibel decibel... signal (abbreviation) sub-miniature version A Soil Moisture Active Passive an automated web-based system...



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... Modeling and Assimilation Office GMAO Office Note No. 13 (Version 1.0) Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission... Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release) Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_C Data Product Assessment..., E. N. Stavros, N. Madani, R. H. Reichle, T. Jackson, and A. Colliander, 2016: Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_C Data Product... Level 1 calibrated and geolocated radiometric brightness temperatures, Level 2/3 surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw geophysical retrievals mapped to a fixed Earth grid, and model enhanced Level 4 data products for surface to root zone soil moisture and... SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and... (<10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw (FT) controls on GPP and respiration (Kimball... between terrestrial carbon fluxes and underlying FT and soil moisture constraints to these processes... Run (NRv4) soil moisture inputs for carbon model initialization and calibration, and 2) GEOS-5 surface...) because of reduced low temperature and moisture constraints to the L4_C respiration... in central Africa and associated larger uncertainty contributions of soil moisture and temperature inputs to the model respiration and GPP calculations... with the SMAP Level 4 daily soil moisture (L4_SM) inputs. The primary daily... minimum air temperatures, low soil moisture levels and frozen soil conditions (Kimball et al... include heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and underlying soil moisture (Wmult) and soil temperature (Tmult) EC metrics... southwest USA and African Sahel due to seasonal drought-induced soil moisture restrictions..., and December. The underlying cold temperature and low surface soil moisture EC constraints (Tmult and... over many areas by surface soil moisture drying, including semi-arid areas..., and December 2015, showing heterotrophic soil respiration (RH) and RH-based environmental soil temperature (Tmult) and surface soil moisture (Wmult... areas, including croplands and forests. The L4_C surface soil organic carbon (SOC... three-pool soil decomposition model with cascading litter quality and associated soil decomposition rates encompassing variable turnover rates for labile, cellulosic and... forest productivity rates and cool, moist soils that promote soil carbon storage... 4 Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product; these data were also used for calibration and initialization... peak soil temperatures, which promote increased Rh (RH) in this moisture-abundant..., GPP and Reco is presented in Figure 7.9. These results represent active CVS sites with tower records that have been quality checked and... seasonal variations in carbon fluxes and underlying soil moisture conditions. The R correspondence was...; Global Soil Data Task Group 2000) and the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database... active radiation (APAR) and photosynthesis, the relationship between SIF (mW m-2 sr-1 nm-1) and... and standard deviations are rescaled to match CT mean and standard deviations. 7.4.3 Soil... production, and soil heterotrophic respiration losses from the decomposition of soil organic matter... upper soil (<10 cm depth) conditions determined from the surface soil moisture (Wmult) and... with characteristic soil carbon storage increases in colder boreal and tundra soils... L4_C results and IGBP inventory record both show generally lower soil carbon stocks in the temperate and tropical zones... are due to high estimated soil decomposition and Rh rates in warm..., with minimal constraints from low soil moisture conditions (e.g. Fig. 7.2). The apparent SOC... ESA GOME-2 and NASA OCO-2 satellite sensors, and surface soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates from global soil inventory... SOC and BPLUT calibration using SMAP L4_SM Nature Run (NRv4) soil moisture inputs..., P.E. O’Neill, et al., 2010. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission. Proceedings of the..., R.H. Reichle, J.V. Ardizzone, G-K. Kim, R.A. Lucchesi, and B.H. Weiss, 2015. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon... of Selected Soil Characteristics (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme - Data and Information System... distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecol..., Thomas Jackson, and Andreas Colliander, 2015. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Calibration and Validation for..., A. Colliander, A. Conaty, T. Jackson, J. Kimball, and R.D. Koster, 2015. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Assessment Report... estimates in preparation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission. Journal of Climate 24...



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... water and wet soil surfaces is controlled by energy and water availability and near... and oceans. Surface water may also infiltrate into the soil, moistening the soil layers and accumulating as groundwater... change in water vapour and consequently evaporation and precipitation, a more extreme distribution... aspects of the energy and water cycle, and how this coupling may... water cycle (e.g. precipitation, soil moisture, water vapor, evaporation and transpiration, water levels, gravityderived... support to water governance, management and planning, and it is a priority in... soil moisture, ocean salinity, water surface elevation, precipitation, water vapour, clouds and aerosols, snow, and land surface temperature – will be given. Soil moisture: the Soil Moisture and Ocean... 2 November 2009, aims to provide soil moisture information with accuracies of 4 % in... will be complemented by NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission (SMAP) planned for launch... radar and radiometer is expected to provide accurate estimation of soil moisture at hydrometeorological (10 km) and hydroclimatological (40 km... complement existing datasets derived from passive and active microwave information, opening new opportunities... data record on soil moisture. Sea surface salinity: besides soil moisture information, SMOS provides... a Passive Salinity Sensor LBand Radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz supported by an Active... the modelling of snow and ice processes and to advance the prediction...) is strongly coupled to the moisture and vegetation conditions. Geostationary meteorological satellite... ground observations and provide a way of validating and upscaling to water and energy fluxes produced by microwave and other...., 2008) as a combination of soil and water evaporation and vegetation transpiration. Where evaporation... with a crop model for biomass and evaporation and transpiration estimation on a field... in this special issue is soil moisture. In the last few years..., coarse-resolution (25–50 km) soil moisture time series, but their use... soil moisture dataset was presented by Liu et al. (2011) by blending passive and active... global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets that is important for model validation and data assimilation. For soil moisture... has posed a challenge for accurate soil moisture retrieval. In this context, Lievens...). With respect to mapping surface soil moisture by SAR systems, Baup et... of optical and radar satellite data for monitoring irrigation and soil moisture of wheat... of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture product. The use of remotely... surface soil wetness at the Met Office by showing improvements in soil moisture analysis when assimilating ASCAT surface soil wetness. Some... observatory of plateau scale soil moisture and soil temperature (Tibet-Obs) and its use for... the EO and the earth system science, hydrology and climate communities, and a more holistic approach to observe and characterise the... hydrological and biophysical processes measured in-situ and the final observations and data... the models characterising biophysical and hydrological processes and the geo-information retrieved... the required frequencies, accuracies and coverage, key parameters, e.g. soil moisture, land surface temperature..., P., Frappart, F., Frison, P. L., Zribi, M., and Viarre, J.: Mapping surface soil moisture over the Gourma mesoscale..., Z., and Hasenauer, S.: Improving runoff prediction through the assimilation of the ASCAT soil moisture..., I., Bovis, K. J., Macpherson, B., and Jones, C. P.: Operational assimilation of ASCAT surface soil wetness at..., W., de Jeu, R. A. M., and Naeimi, V.: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets, Hydrol..., J. C., Spencer, M. W., Thurman, S. W., Tsang, L., and and Van Zyl, J.: The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, Proc. IEEE... optical and radar satellite data for the monitoring of irrigation and soil moisture of..., J. P., Martinuzzi, J. M., Font, J., and Berger, M.: Soil moisture retrieval from space: The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS..., J., and De Baets, B.: Effective roughness modelling as a tool for soil moisture retrieval from C- and..., A. I. J. M., McCabe, M. F., and Evans, J. P.: Developing an improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite... evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass, P. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 193.... Su, Z., Troch, P. A., and De Troch, F. P.: Remote sensing of soil moisture using EMAC/ESAR..., Y., Yang, K., and Hu, Z.: The Tibetan Plateau observatory of plateau scale soil moisture and soil temperature (Tibet-Obs) for quantifying uncertainties in coarse resolution satellite and...



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....au/modsim2015 Towards LPRM-based soil moisture retrievals with multi-angular microwave....au Abstract: Passive microwave remote sensing by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite enables observations of surface soil moisture at... geophysical variables such as soil dielectric constant and soil moisture. The L-MEB (L-band Microwave... a wide range of X- and C-band sensors to retrieve soil moisture from single-angle... roughness and scattering albedo, and they may be retrieved simultaneously with soil moisture in... demonstrate the advantages of LPRM soil moisture retrieval with multi-angular TB... data and soil moisture retrieval at continental scale. Keywords: Microwave remote sensing, soil moisture retrieval, Soil Moisture and...-surface soil moisture minimally interrupted by clouds and vegetation cover. These satellite-retrieved soil moisture products have shown potential in improving (hydrologic, land-surface and... sensitivity to cloud and vegetation contamination, and high sensitivity to soil moisture fluctuations at deeper depths. These have led to the ESA’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, as well as the NASA’s Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP... between surface roughness and soil moisture, and soil temperature difference between surface and subsurface sampling depth... are part of the passive and active-passive ESA CCI soil moisture product (e.g. Wagner et al... angles (45, 52.5 and 60°) separately to yield soil moisture estimates that are... parameter values and retrieved values, although the amount of soil moisture information diminishes... can be estimated simultaneously with soil moisture through inversion of radiative transfer... parameters (including soil moisture), allowing unbiased estimation of their dependencies and uncertainties. The... scattering effect and reducing the sensitivity of emissivity to soil moisture variations. Accordingly.../clay fractions) and soil temperature, enable inference of volumetric soil moisture from the κ estimate.... (2009) parameterized h as a function of soil moisture and incidence angles for L-band retrieval... retrieval model to estimate soil dielectric constant κ and soil moisture, amongst other model parameters... parameter(s) for simultaneous estimation with soil moisture. 2.3. Scenario Definition Our synthetic experiments... in Table 1), distinguished by different soil moisture and vegetation canopy conditions. The roughness... RETRIEVAL SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS The known soil moisture and auxiliary parameter values are used... model, with varying two parameters (soil moisture and one of auxiliary parameters) within... and 1 represents the upper limit). For accurate single-parameter retrieval of soil moisture... susceptibility to retrieval errors. Increasing soil moisture appears to have the same... h and ω axes compared to τ and Ts axes, showing lower sensitivity to h and ω when soil moisture is retrieved. Specifically for ω under bare soil scenarios, the... the retrieved soil moisture. The directions of the biases between θ and h are the... in τ and Ts result in large errors in retrieved soil moisture. Therefore, τ and Ts... with soil moisture. In particular, this was exploited in LPRM to estimate θ and... and vegetated-wet in Table 1). The posterior distribution of the retrieved soil moisture and the two identified auxiliary parameters (τ and Ts) are.... Figure 2 plots the RMSE in soil moisture and the ranges of retrieved parameters... impact on soil moisture retrieval under wet conditions, since the retrieved soil moisture RMSE... been converted to soil moisture using the dielectric mixing model and the y-axis... two parameters contribute to the soil moisture uncertainty. Given that the instrumental... with h and ω, demonstrating the need for retrieving Ts and τ simultaneously with soil moisture or... soil moisture retrievals with multi-angular microwave observations from SMOS angular TB soil moisture... can be retrieved simultaneously with soil moisture in a 3-parameter retrieval setup. Further... of LPRM against ground soil moisture measurement data and testing three-parameter retrievals... Australia, where the dense soil moisture monitoring stations and various land cover types... surface-and root-zone ASCAT soil moisture products into rainfall–runoff modeling. Geoscience and... of the SMOS L-MEB passive microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithm. Remote Sensing of...). Soil moisture retrievals from the WindSat spaceborne polarimetric microwave radiometer. Geoscience and Remote...). Inter-comparison of microwave satellite soil moisture retrievals over the Murrumbidgee Basin..., A., Su, C.-H., & de Jeu, R. (2015a). SMOS soil moisture retrievals using the land parameter..., D., Benveniste, J., Haas, E., & Ertl, M. Fusion of active and passive microwave observations to create an... record on soil moisture. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial...



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..., Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESatSoil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Other Missions and Data Analysis... timelines and budgets to accommodate increasing launch vehicle costs (for Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP... Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite [Formulation] ES-28 Soil Moisture Active and Passive [Formulation] ES-33 Other Missions and Data Analysis [Operations... distribution and cycling of carbon among the Earth’s active land, ocean, and atmospheric reservoirs. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office....2 145.4 89.7 92.7 14.1 Soil M oisture Active and Passive (SM AP) 92.5 176.3 237... space through combined use of active and passive remote-sensing techniques. These advanced... be used to calibrate dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors with the... surface water fluxes, soil moisture storage, cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent heat release... Observatory spacecraft and a GMI. The Core Observatory will leverage passive microwave measurements from other operating and planned “satellites... scientific instruments which will provide active and passive microwave measurements of precipitation. The.../atmosphere exchanges of energy, mass, and moisture; and Measure vegetation canopy height as...: EARTH SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEMATIC MISSIONS SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE (SMAP) Formulation Development Operations FY... epidemiology where direct observations of soil moisture can provide valuable information on... and high applications value. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements are unprecedented and will... mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage...: EARTH SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEMATIC MISSIONS SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE (SMAP) Formulation • • • • • Development Operations Understand... analyzed to yield estimates of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. The measurement... assess random errors and regional biases in the soil moisture and freeze/thaw estimates...: EARTH SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEMATIC MISSIONS SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE (SMAP) Formulation Development Operations KEY... SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE (SMAP) Formulation Development Operations Formulation Estimated Life Cycle Cost Range and..., Same provides soil moisture measurements in the top 5 cm of soil through moderate vegetation cover Combined with SAR provides Same soil moisture measurements in the top 5 cm of soil through moderate...: EARTH SCIENCE: EARTH SYSTEMATIC MISSIONS SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE (SMAP) Formulation Development Operations Project... and infrared multi-spectral global imagery, atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, total ozone and stratospheric ozone profiles, and measurements of... WARNINGS  An array of passive microwave and active radar sensors on the TRMM... and Subsurface (AirMOSS) addresses the uncertainties in existing estimates by measuring soil moisture... space-qualified laser transmitters, passive optical technologies, and microwave and calibration technologies. Other... nature and source of its remarkably active cryovolcanic activity, and the internal structure and..., fabrication and testing. Same Same Aperture stop, active shield module and mechanical enclosures... of sunspots, active regions, coronal holes and other solar features and phenomena. ESA... the active Robotic Refueling mission on ISS, and formulates the architecture options and..., and on cooperative investments in launch range infrastructure. LSO and LSP were active... Missions Other Missions & Data Analysis Soil Moisture Active & Passive Ice, Cloud & Land Elevation Satellite... Elev. Sat. (ICESat-II)...... Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP)....... Other Missions and Data Analysis................ (0.0) 70... Missions Other Missions & Data Analysis Soil Moisture Active & Passive Ice, Cloud & Land Elevation Satellite... its own power and telemetry and is expected to remain active for one...-Environmental Review. Successfully complete the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) Critical Design Review. Provide... solar system objects and identify the processes active in and among them.”) Demonstrate... solar system objects and identifying the processes active in and among them. Progress... information technologies and create active participation opportunities for NASA scientists and engineers to... observatory environmental testing. Complete the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) Systems Integration Review (SIR... solar system objects and identify the processes active in and among them.”) Demonstrate... solar system objects and identifying the processes active in and among them. Progress... Research and Applications Division Integration Space Interferometry Mission System Integration Review Soil Moisture Active/Passive...



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... soil moisture Soil exists at the boundary between the atmosphere and the Earth’s subsurface. Soil moisture.... Surface layer and root zone soil moisture are generally called near-surface soil moisture. Many... of soil moisture has the following benefits:  Improved drought prediction and monitoring. Soil moisture is... of soil moisture data. Soil moisture can be directly retrieved from point measurements and remote... density of soil, and 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 is the density of water. 9 Mapping soil moisture using low... that in the soil. Resistance blocks can overestimate soil moisture and often need to... of soil moisture. According to [30], soil moisture is very variable in time and space... of active and passive microwave remote sensing is made in Table 2.1. 15 Mapping soil moisture using low-frequency radio signals Characteristic Active microwave Passive microwave Spatial... Serious Slight Table 2.1 – Comparison of active and passive microwave remote sensing (Adapted from...]) 16 Mapping soil moisture using low-frequency radio signals Figure 2.4 – Active microwave remote... Mapping soil moisture using low-frequency radio signals The spatial resolution of passive...-based passive microwave systems used for deriving wide-area soil moisture. The Soil Moisture and Ocean... Mapping soil moisture using low-frequency radio signals Estimating soil moisture using L-band passive microwave measurements has the following benefits [37]: 1. The sensitivity to soil moisture... 20 Mapping soil moisture using low-frequency radio signals NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission...) L3_SM_A/P Soil moisture 9 km (radar/radiometer, daily composite) L4_SM Soil moisture (surface 9 km and root zone) Table 2.4 – SMAP soil moisture data products... Mapping soil moisture using low-frequency radio signals Chapter 5 Remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity using Loran-C signals 55 Mapping soil moisture using... content of soil, or soil moisture. - α is a constant that lies between 1.5 and 2.2. - β is the... Mapping soil moisture using low-frequency radio signals The modeled soil temperature and soil moisture at... the ECMWF soil moisture product (solid line) and the Loran-C estimated soil moisture (dashed line... the ECMWF soil moisture product (solid line) and the Loran-C estimated soil moisture (dashed line... the ECMWF soil moisture product (solid line) and the Loran-C estimated soil moisture (dashed line... the ECMWF soil moisture and the Loran-C estimated soil moisture for the uppermost soil layer (0 to... the ECMWF soil moisture product (solid line) and the Loran-C estimated soil moisture (dashed line... the ECMWF soil moisture product (solid line) and the Loran-C estimated soil moisture (dashed line... Mapping soil moisture using low-frequency radio signals Interestingly, combining soil layers 1, 2 and 3 produces... the ECMWF soil moisture product (solid line) and the Loran-C estimated soil moisture (dashed line... Loran-C estimated soil moisture and the ECMWF product was found for a soil depth of... be considered, especially the latest Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission. The Loran-C method..., J. S., and Engman, E. T., 1993. Intercomparisons Between Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing and Hydrological Modeling for Soil Moisture..., T. J., Schmugge, T. J., Nicks, A. D., Coleman, G. A., and Engman, E. T., 1981. Soil Moisture Updating and Microwave Remote Sensing for...-319. [5] Jackson, T. J., Hawley, M. E., and O’Neill, P. E., 1987. Preplanting Soil Moisture Using Passive Microwave Sensors. Water... of Soil Moisture Retrieval From ESAR (EMAC 94) and ERS-1/SAR, Part II: Soil Moisture... hydrological and microwave scattering modelling for spatial and temporal soil moisture mapping from ERS-1 and JERS-1 SAR data and macroscale... Soil Moisture Conditions by Coupling Satellite Sensor Data with a Soil-Plant System Heat and Moisture..., D., Nakamura, H., and Njoku, E. G., 1994. Solving the Inverse Problem for Soil Moisture and Temperature Profiles... Soil Moisture by Combined Remote Sensing and Modeling. ESA/NASA International Workshop on Passive... of Applications of Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Soil Moisture in the USSR... Building and Urban Research. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks. 97 Mapping soil moisture..., T. J., and Le Vine, D. E., 1996. Mapping surface soil moisture using an aircraft-based passive microwave instrument: algorithm and example.... [34] Njoku, E. G., and Entekhabi, D., 1996. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, Journal of..., E., Oliva, R., and Crapolicchio, R., 2012. ESA’s Soil moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission: Mission Performance and Operations. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and..., D. C., Kerr, Y. H., and Leroux, D., 2012. Validation of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Soil Moisture Over Watershed...