Спутник ФКИ. Solar Dynamics Observatory. [Редактировать]

Обсерватория солнечной динамики, (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO) — космическая обсерватория НАСА для изучения Солнца, рассчитанная на 5 лет работы. Была запущена 11 февраля 2010 года в рамках программы «Жизнь со Звездой» (Living With a Star, LWS). Целью программы LWS является развитие научных знаний, необходимых для эффективного решения аспектов Солнечно-Земных связей, которые непосредственно влияют на жизнь и общество. Целью SDO является понимание влияния Солнца на Землю и околоземное пространство путем изучения солнечной атмосферы на малых масштабах времени и пространства и во многих длинах волн единовременно.
На борту SDO находится аппаратура, способная получать 12 различных видов изображений Солнца. Один снимок SDO имеет размер 4096 на 4096 пикселей, что позволяет учёным наблюдать на поверхности Солнца детали с угловым размером 0,6 секунды. Аппарат передаёт снимки на Землю каждые 12 секунд, что составляет около 3 терабайт данных в сутки. В период с 2010 по 2015 было собрано около 2600 терабайт данных, в том числе 200 млн. фотографий.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - ГСО
4Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг3100
2Масса (сухая), кг1700
3Масса (полезной нагрузки), кг290

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град27.9
2Апогей, км35803.6
3Перигей, км35782.6
4Период, минут1436.1
5САС5 - 10
6Длинный диаметр эллипса, км42164

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2010-005A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор Goddard Space Flight Center
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-01785.5
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-0178.0
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2007-01-01623.7
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2007-01-0183.8
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-01867.6
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-0184.9
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-10-01682.6
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-10-01100.1

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2010-02-11 at 15:23:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xSolar Dynamics Observatory
3Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Solar Dynamics Observatory». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Lab. (United States); M. Walker, General Dynamics Information Technology (United States); R. Sutherland... solar cell efficiencies can be increased by as high as 5%. Dynamics... molecular dynamics framework incorporating non-adiabatic quantum transitions studying ultrafast dynamics and... carrier dynamics. This technique has the ability to directly image carrier dynamics...-28, Session 6 Excitation dynamics in nanoscale materials for solar energy harvesting O. V. Prezhdo... exciton generation, QD solar cells, and carrier dynamics in PbSe QD films... generation dynamics in polymer solar cells studied by transient absorption spectroscopy 3. “Polymer Solar..., R. T. Sparks, C. E. Walker, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (United States) 7783-06, Session..., S. M. Pompea, C. E. Walker, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (United States); E. F. C. Dokter, The Univ..., R. T. Sparks, C. E. Walker, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (United States); E. F. C. Dokter, The Univ... Federation) The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has led the development of..., S. M. Pompea, R. T. Sparks, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (United States); E. F. C. Dokter, The Univ... by relative motion within the observatory - an issue during long exposures... is performed at the integrated observatory level to verify PM optical... by relative motion within the observatory - an issue during long exposures... Solar Observatory (United States); M. K. Cho, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (United States); E. R. Hansen, National Solar Observatory (United States) The primary mirror (M1) of Advanced Technology Solar Telescope... simulate the image from the Observatory’s Optical Telescope Element. The FGS... Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Observatory level testing at Johnson Space... space astronomy (~40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope... Technology Solar Telescope R. S. Upton, T. Rimmele, National Solar Observatory (United States) The Advanced Technology Solar... learned for the NASA mission Solar Dynamics Observatory R. B. Rivera, M. S. Secunda, A. F. Uhl, NASA Goddard... worst case, performance degradation. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) experienced various types of..., testing, and launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory to help future programs avoid... vent design evolution for the Solar Dynamics Observatory In this work the optics... into the same cavities. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) had a number of such... Lab. (United States); J. D. Elwell, Space Dynamics Lab. (United States); I. H. Heinrichsen, W. R. Irace..., D. Miles, D. McLain, H. Latvakoski, M. F. Larsen, Space Dynamics Lab. (United States); M. A. Kahan, Optical... J. G. Cardon, H. Latvakoski, M. F. Larsen, J. D. Elwell, Space Dynamics Lab. (United States); A. K. Mainzer, I. H. Heinrichsen... developed at the Marseille Provence Observatory over more than 40 years...-astronomy facility---the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an.... In particular the Brera Astronomical Observatory will be in charge of... for demonstration. The Chandra X-ray Observatory, with its sub-arc second... instrument developed at the Brera Observatory, the ‘”Characterization Universal Profilometer... adjustment concepts for the Gen-X observatory D. A. Schwartz, R. J. Brissenden, M. D. Freeman, T. J. Gaetz, P. Gorenstein... required to be an X-ray observatory with 50 m^2 effective collecting area... 676 3290 · The Chandra X-ray Observatory, with its sub-arc second... represented by NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory with 0.5 arc-second resolution, but..., and by ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory with 4,300 cm2 of collecting... NASA/ESA/JAXA International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with ~15,000 cm2... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) sensor are approximately 0.2 % (k=1) in... so-called A-train atmospheric orbital observatory together with Aqua, Aura, Calipso... acquired by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO). The ROLO focal plane... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. A brief overview of...) took place at a high-altitude observatory on Cerro Toco, Chile, from...-45, Session 8 spie.org/op Observatory (CLARREO) mission is the measurement... strategy underpinning the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) design. Airborne spectroscopy... tropics by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory demonstrates the utility of remote... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) and absolute lunar irradiance... enhancement precipitation. G. Zhou, Chongqing Meteorological Observatory (China) L. Hao, Hebei Climate Ctr..., LLC (United States) and Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (United States...); R. Zavala, J. Benson, F. Vrba, D. Hutter, U.S. Naval Observatory (United States); H. Schmitt, U.S. Naval Research... capability of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) to image geostationary... at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Well over 100 search...



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... marked the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The European Cryosat-2 was launched... February 2010, NASA launched the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) into a geosynchronous orbit which... the agency's Orbiting Carbon - 15 - Observatory (OCO) replacement satellite aboard a Taurus... the ringed planet. >> Chandra X-ray Observatory Evidence for a thin veil of..., made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a 10-year mystery surrounding... a contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to provide science and operational... and engineers involved. Herschel Space Observatory Early in the reporting period... results from the Herschel Space Observatory. >> In January 2010, the Herschel... Mercury. >> Planck The Planck space observatory - ESA's mission to study the... and Atmospheric Physics NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) made new observations... the sun. >> Cameras on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured activity on the sun... Atlas booster in February, NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory arrived on station in geosynchronous.... NASA's LADEE spacecraft is a small observatory intended to study the moon... ESA-NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has completed half a solar cycle of..., the ESA Cornerstone Gaia astrometric observatory mission, to be launched before... this unusual solar minimum could be observed with a ‘Great Heliospheric Observatory’, a fleet... on 11 February 2010, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the most advanced... Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the observatory is able to remotely measure...’s Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) is the third mission in its Solar Terrestrial.... Solar tsunamis were discovered in 1997 by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO... the heating mechanism and dynamics of the active solar corona. With this... solar wind. Since its launch in December 1995, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory.../NASA project, is a space-based observatory, viewing and investigating the Sun... newer spacecraft, such as NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory are launched, SOHO’s continued observations... and dynamics of the solar interior and their role in driving solar activity... complexity of large space-based observatory missions places a growing emphasis on... distant objects known. NASA’s Chandra observatory and ESA's X-ray Multi-mirror... and high throughput spectroscopy, these observatory missions continue to generate major... (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) observatory, launched in 2002, is now... 2014. The large International X-ray Observatory (IXO), involving NASA, ESA and... Fermi (GLAST) MAXI (NASA/ESA) Observatory mission with 2.4 m telescope for imaging... with GI (guest observer) (ESA) Observatory mission. High throughput spectroscopy and... mission with GI programme. (Japan) Observatory mission with 10 m antenna for...-sky survey mission. Spitzer (NASA) Observatory mission. Space Infrared Telescope Facility... Herschel to L2. Herschel (ESA) Observatory mission, launched with Planck with... SVOM ASTRO-H GEMS (India) X-ray observatory. (ESA) Technology test mission for...; a fleet of advanced solar observatories, namely the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), Hinode (‘Sunrise’; formerly Solar-B), the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory... and Processing (SWAP), and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) are all currently in...-orbit Technology Demonstration Programme. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the first mission for... a more complete understanding of the solar dynamics that drive variability in the... through its Panel on Satellite Dynamics. IX.3 Solar System and Interplanetary Missions... dynamics of the atmosphere due to fast perturbations caused by the solar... field topology and dynamics, waves distribution etc.) influenced by solar activity. Over... launch the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). The currently expected launch... is December 2013. The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), launched on 11 February... further our understanding of the solar dynamics that drive variability in the... at the Royal Observatory of Belgium, where the solar observations are also...) and Peter Sutcliffe (Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, South Africa). Both the invited... of meteoric smoke Particles X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar... Space Network Deep Space Climate Observatory Deep Space Exploration Research Center... Diffusion in Liquids International X-Ray Observatory Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism... initiative Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics Solar Dynamics Observatory Sun Earth Connection Coronal...-Red Telescope Facility, now Spitzer Observatory (NASA) Satellite Laser Ranging Small... Diagnostics Instrument Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Solar irradiance model... Students programme Solar-Terrestrial Environment Solar-Terrestrial Energy Programme Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Space...



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... 25, 2009, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) satellite, also launched from... using data from the Keck Observatory reported the first definitive detection... 24, 2009, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) satellite mission was lost.... Spacewalking astronauts brought the orbiting observatory to a new apex of scientific... mission of the Herschel Space Observatory, a collaborative project between NASA and... molecules. Specifically, the Herschel Space Observatory’s principal objectives are to help..., aeroacoustics, materials and structures, propulsion, dynamics and control, sensor and actuator... of temperature and humidity, ocean dynamics research, volcanic eruption monitoring, forest... uncovered a source of solar drawings from the Wendelstein Observatory in Austria for... will be launched on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the calibration rocket... Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. Both of these... X-ray Observatory, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, and the Spitzer Infrared Observatory... multi-billion-dollar Chandra X-ray Observatory, operated in orbit for NASA..., Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO). This mission is designed... the Utah State University Space Dynamics Laboratory to advance the development... missions at x-ray (International X-ray Observatory), millimeter (CMB Polarimeter Satellite), and... instruments intended for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). With... goal for the International X-ray Observatory satellite mission of 2 eV at... parks to start monitoring landscape dynamics in and around their units... change will impact permafrost, carbon dynamics, and watershed hydrology will help... agencies, and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) component of the National... Oceanography and the Plate Boundary Observatory. In addition, the USGS worked..., and the USGS’s Cascade Volcano Observatory developed a prototype rapid-deployment hazard... to send data to the observatory, and can autonomously request the... included the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the National Astronomy and... National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The NSF... executive agency for the Gemini Observatory—an international A c t i v i t i e s The National Science.... The University of Arizona’s Steward Observatory Mirror Lab is fabricating the... (NSWP); the Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) program... research on the structure and dynamics of Earth’s upper atmosphere. In...-time dynamics. Geomagnetic storms occur when charged particles emitted by solar flares... three solar observatories: the Big Bear Solar Observatory and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California and the Mees Solar Observatory... construction of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Following the initial discovery of.... The South Pole IceCube Neutrino Observatory deployed 19 new strings of... available for science observations. The observatory expects the completion of all... 2004 met at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. The four working... activities of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), which, the Harvard-Smithsonian.... A c t i v i t i e s together with the Harvard College Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, forms 2 0 0 9 The... dark energy. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls... in A c t i v i t i e s As the Chandra X-ray Observatory entered its second decade of... of discovery with this remarkable observatory. FY 09 marked the third.... 141 142 The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Submillimeter Array (SMA) continued to... to offer its popular monthly Observatory Night lectures and telescope observing... of Astronomy, NASM opened a public observatory that provides visitors with the... loan from the Harvard College Observatory. Programming commemorating the Centennial of... Traffic Information Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions Committee on... Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Common Land Units cosmic microwave... Atmospheric Administration National Optical Astronomy Observatory National Oceanographic Data Center National... Research Announcement National Radio Astronomy Observatory Natural Resources Conservation Service National... Infrastructure National Science Foundation National Solar Observatory NSOF NSPO NSRL NSRS NSTC...-Situ Sensor-web Orbiting Carbon Observatory Organization for Economic Cooperation and... PNT POES PPPL Plate Boundary Observatory plasma-jet-driven magnetic-inertial... Measurement Experiment Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory synthetic aperture radar Solar Alpha Rotary Joint... Advanced Computing Solar Dynamics Observatory Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Calculator Solar, Heliospheric, and... Satellite Operations Control Center Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Space Exploration... Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics thermal infrared Television Infrared Observation...



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... following big questions: - How does solar variability affect human society, technological... data. Living with a Star The Solar Dynamics Observatory will launch in early FY10... complete mission Critical Design Review. Solar Terrestrial Probes The Magnetospheric Multiscale... magnetosphere. The Coupled Ion-Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) instrument on the... any solar cycle) ever recorded during solar minimum. At the same time Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO...-observed cycles. The twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) imagers have exceeded... of solar wind wave fronts sweeping past Earth. SDO completed observatory-level... of hazardous solar storms, started PrePhase A studies. NASA approved Solar Orbiter to... of the solar wind, is informally termed the "Heliophysics Great Observatory" since..., modeling and visualization research. NASA's Solar Data Analysis Center provides a variety... Res Voyager Geotail Wind Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Advanced Composition Explorer... Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) RHESSI Tech & Adv Concepts....6 212.2 204.6 208.7 230.0 236.6 Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) 108.1 20.8 34.1 20....1 223.8 212.0 216.6 232.8 237.5 -- Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) 90.0 24.1 14.2 14... Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), will complement and improve upon major capabilities of the Solar and Helispheric Observatory (SOHO), launched in 1995... concepts: the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission and Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC) with the European Space Agency. Solar Probe.../. Plans For FY 2010 The Solar Dynamics Observatory will launch in November 2009... the Solar Probe Plus mission. Detailed design activities for the Solar Orbiter... and Explanation of Changes Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is currently in... forms of solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in solar irradiance. The... of this document. Solar Probe Plus The Solar Probe Plus mission is... Earth and the solar system. NASA is examining several Solar Probe Plus... Balloon Program Office. Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC): The Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC...: Science Heliophysics Living with a Star Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) FY 2010 Budget Request... Living with a Star Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Project Purpose The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the... forms of solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in solar irradiance. Scientists... solar cycle. SDO measures subsurface flows, photopheric magnetic fields, high-temperature solar... provide crucial understanding of solar activity, the solar cycle, and the inputs...: Science Heliophysics Living with a Star Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Project Commitments SDO will... the solar atmosphere. Same Same University of Colorado Make hourly solar spectral... with a Star Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Schedule Commitments NASA authorized the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) project... 2008 to November 2009. Project Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Base Year 2006 Base...: Science Heliophysics Living with a Star Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Project Management The spacecraft...: Science Heliophysics Living with a Star Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Project Risk Management Title... the level of the entire observatory. Liklihood of risk: possible, but... provide new knowledge on the dynamics and extremes of the radiation.... Approaching as close as 9.5 solar radii, Solar Probe Plus will repeatedly sample... the most hazardous solar energetic particles are energized, Solar Probe Plus will..., sampling the solar wind as it evolves with rising solar activity toward... with a Star Solar Probe Plus Estimated Project Deliverables Solar Probe will launch... Directorate: Theme: Program: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes FY 2010 Budget... Directorate: Theme: Program: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Project Descriptions and... Missions and Data Analysis Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO): Launched on October... mechanisms that power the solar atmosphere and drive solar eruptions. SCI-244... Directorate: Theme: Program: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Implementation Schedule Project...: Project In Formulation: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS...: Project In Formulation: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS... of ~4 Gbits of data per observatory each day. Same Spacecraft GSFC...: Project In Formulation: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS... Operations Center and the Flight Dynamics Operations Area will be developed...: Project In Formulation: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS... operating. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI), and Two Wide... science discoveries. Coupled Ion-Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI): CINDI is a NASA... the edge of the solar system, where the solar wind interacts with...



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...] HELIO- 19 Solar Probe Plus [Formulation] HELIO- 25 Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC... from our Heliophysics System Observatory. The study of solar wind turbulence research... accomplishments, most notable was the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment rocket... 5.2 5.7 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 Directed Research & Technology 0.0 13.5 11.9 4.4 6.9 7.4 8.4 SOLAR Data Center 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 SEC Data & M odeling... deployed space assets, a Heliophysics System Observatory is created that enables interdisciplinary... Formulation Development Operations   SOLAR DATA CENTER The Solar Data Center provides mission... observations residing in the Virtual Solar Observatory. The center also provides a repository... data from the Heliophysics System Observatory in new, innovative investigations pursuing... and Computing participates in Virtual Observatory development efforts to assist in... and future missions of Flight Dynamics, the Operational Voice and Data... ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations   SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (SOHO) The Large Angle... context of the Heliophysics System Observatory, however several of the other... measures the composition of the solar-wind, solar energetic particles, anomalous cosmic... System Observatory mission. ACE addresses heliophysics science goals such as understanding solar... RAMATY HIGH ENERGY SOLAR SPECTROSCOPE IMAGER (RHESSI) RHESSI studies solar flares in... accelerated in solar eruptions? Observations will span nearly a full solar cycle by... AND DYNAMICS (TIMED) The TIMED mission characterizes and studies the physics, dynamics....1 103.2 137.1 229.3 215.2 Solar Probe Plus Solar Orbiter Collaboration 8.3 21.3 21...   Solar cycle 23 was the 23rd solar cycle since 1755, when recording solar... 2008. During solar maximum, huge sunspots and intense solar flares are more... 20002001. During solar minimum, the opposite occurs, and solar flares and sunspots are less frequent. The next solar maximum, for solar... was observed by SDO, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), Hinode, and RHESSI... provide new knowledge on the dynamics and extremes of the radiation... hours inside 10 solar radii, 965 hours inside 20 solar radii, and 2,134 hours inside 30 solar radii, sampling the solar wind as it evolves with rising solar... SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER COLLABORATION (SOC) Formulation Development.../missions/solar-orbiter. HELIO-30 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER... SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER COLLABORATION (SOC) Formulation Development... SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER COLLABORATION (SOC) Formulation Development... ions in the N/A solar wind as part of a solar wind analysis instrument... SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER COLLABORATION (SOC) Formulation Development... Program M gmt and Future M issions Solar Dynamics Observatory   LWS provides the opportunity to... Formulation Development Operations   Operating Missions SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY (SDO) Launched on February 11... form of solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. SDO collects data to help elucidate how solar activity... PHASE IN SOLAR FLARES The images shows a compilation of solar data from... deliver instrument suites to the observatory for integration and testing. Environmental... priorities. HELIO-40 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS...’s magnetosphere, where they control the dynamics of the geospace environment and.../mms/. HELIO -41 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS... four instrument suites to the observatory for integration and testing and... satellites. HELIO -42 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS....8 -38.2 HELIO -44 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS... four Gbits of data per observatory each day. Same Cost Share... V manifest. HELIO -46 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS... Operations Center and the Flight Dynamics Operations Area will be developed... Future M issions 1.2 1.4 4.4 4.1 3.5 8.0 22.6 STEREO 8.2 9.0 8.5 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.7 Hinode (Solar-B) 8.0 8.2 8.2 8.4 8.4 8.5 8.6 Change From FY 2012 Estimate... as projects. Operating Missions SOLAR TERRESTRIAL RELATIONS OBSERVATORY (STEREO) The goal of... basic heating mechanisms and dynamics of the active solar corona. By investigating... of the energization and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. IRIS explorer will... return of the Heliophysics System Observatory, as this fleet of spacecraft... the edge of the Solar System. As the solar wind from the... their relation to solar variability. THE COUPLED ION-NEUTRAL DYNAMICS INVESTIGATIONS (CINDI) CINDI is a mission to understand the dynamics of... examples of missions offering important dynamics knowledge useful for future human...



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...] HELIO- 19 Solar Probe Plus [Formulation] HELIO- 25 Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC... from our Heliophysics System Observatory. The study of solar wind turbulence research... accomplishments, most notable was the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment rocket... 5.2 5.7 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 Directed Research & Technology 0.0 13.5 11.9 4.4 6.9 7.4 8.4 SOLAR Data Center 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 3.8 3.8 3.9 SEC Data & M odeling... deployed space assets, a Heliophysics System Observatory is created that enables interdisciplinary... Formulation Development Operations   SOLAR DATA CENTER The Solar Data Center provides mission... observations residing in the Virtual Solar Observatory. The center also provides a repository... data from the Heliophysics System Observatory in new, innovative investigations pursuing... and Computing participates in Virtual Observatory development efforts to assist in... and future missions of Flight Dynamics, the Operational Voice and Data... ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations   SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (SOHO) The Large Angle... context of the Heliophysics System Observatory, however several of the other... measures the composition of the solar-wind, solar energetic particles, anomalous cosmic... System Observatory mission. ACE addresses heliophysics science goals such as understanding solar... RAMATY HIGH ENERGY SOLAR SPECTROSCOPE IMAGER (RHESSI) RHESSI studies solar flares in... accelerated in solar eruptions? Observations will span nearly a full solar cycle by... AND DYNAMICS (TIMED) The TIMED mission characterizes and studies the physics, dynamics....1 103.2 137.1 229.3 215.2 Solar Probe Plus Solar Orbiter Collaboration 8.3 21.3 21...   Solar cycle 23 was the 23rd solar cycle since 1755, when recording solar... 2008. During solar maximum, huge sunspots and intense solar flares are more... 20002001. During solar minimum, the opposite occurs, and solar flares and sunspots are less frequent. The next solar maximum, for solar... was observed by SDO, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), Hinode, and RHESSI... provide new knowledge on the dynamics and extremes of the radiation... hours inside 10 solar radii, 965 hours inside 20 solar radii, and 2,134 hours inside 30 solar radii, sampling the solar wind as it evolves with rising solar... SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER COLLABORATION (SOC) Formulation Development.../missions/solar-orbiter. HELIO-30 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER... SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER COLLABORATION (SOC) Formulation Development... SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER COLLABORATION (SOC) Formulation Development... ions in the N/A solar wind as part of a solar wind analysis instrument... SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: LIVING WITH A STAR SOLAR ORBITER COLLABORATION (SOC) Formulation Development... Program M gmt and Future M issions Solar Dynamics Observatory   LWS provides the opportunity to... Formulation Development Operations   Operating Missions SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY (SDO) Launched on February 11... form of solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. SDO collects data to help elucidate how solar activity... PHASE IN SOLAR FLARES The images show a compilation of solar data from... deliver instrument suites to the observatory for integration and testing. Environmental... priorities. HELIO-40 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS...’s magnetosphere, where they control the dynamics of the geospace environment and.../mms/. HELIO -41 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS... four instrument suites to the observatory for integration and testing and... satellites. HELIO -42 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS....8 -38.2 HELIO -44 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS... four Gbits of data per observatory each day. Same Cost Share... V manifest. HELIO -46 SCIENCE: HELIOPHYSICS: SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES MAGNETOSPHERIC MULTISCALE (MMS... Operations Center and the Flight Dynamics Operations Area will be developed... 26.3 40.9 3.5 8.0 22.6 9.6 9.7 9.7 8.4 8.5 8.6   The Sun, solar system, and universe consist primarily... as projects. Operating Missions SOLAR TERRESTRIAL RELATIONS OBSERVATORY (STEREO) The goal of... basic heating mechanisms and dynamics of the active solar corona. By investigating... of the energization and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. IRIS explorer will... return of the Heliophysics System Observatory, as this fleet of spacecraft... the edge of the Solar System. As the solar wind from the... their relation to solar variability. THE COUPLED ION-NEUTRAL DYNAMICS INVESTIGATIONS (CINDI) CINDI is a mission to understand the dynamics of... examples of missions offering important dynamics knowledge useful for future human...



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... — accomplished by Hubble as an observatory project —  will be within reach..., the use of a space-based observatory and near-IR observations already... and spectroscopic capabilities of the observatory will ensure that a multitude of... WFIRST-2.4 will truly be a 'Great Observatory' for the Twenty-first Century... take good advantage of the observatory’s capabilities and have incredible scientific... Function to substellar masses, evolution, dynamics, brown dwarfs IMF: high mass... coronagraph instrument on a future WFIRST-2.4 observatory will also be partially determined...-2.4 will be the most sensitive observatory yet for studying warm dust... drive the requirements for the observatory capabilities and design. With an... survey capability requirements of the observatory are listed in the lefthand... middle boxes. The top-level Observatory design/operations parameters are listed...-2.4 Design/Operations Overview Key WFIRST-2.4 Observatory Design Parameters • 2.4 m diameter telescope aperture... launch vehicle will inject the observatory into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. Using... charter specified that the WFIRST-2.4 observatory be serviceable. For this study... integration and test of the observatory (see Figure 3-3). On the payload... micro- Section 3: WFIRST-2.4 DRM Telescope& Solar&Array&/& Sunshield& Coronagraph& Instrument& Wide...&truss)& Spacecra3& Bus& Figure 3-3: WFIRST-2.4 Observatory configuration featuring the 2.4-m telescope, two... retested prior to delivery to Observatory I&T (see Figure 3-18). 67 WFIRST... be continuously monitored with the observatory attitude control system and field... worked closely with the U.S. Naval Observatory to mature the H4RG-10..., followed by mass properties and dynamics testing. After a functional test, the... science requirements that drive the observatory pointing requirements. The absolute pointing...  Thermal  Blankets Mass  Properties  Measurements Dynamics  Testing Functional  Test Check  Optical... design is based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft, which was designed... (PAF); see Table 3-5 for the Observatory mass breakdown. The spacecraft top... Instrument Carrier Telescope Spacecraft Observatory (dry) Propellant (3σ) Observatory (wet) Mass (kg) Cont... 1987 4577 3095 7672 Table 3-5: Observatory mass breakdown Section 3: WFIRST-2.4 DRM... refurbishment or upgrades to the observatory by replacing individual modules. Each..., body-mounted solar array panels provide the observatory power. The solar array is sized to provide full observatory power... is sized to accommodate all observatory loads during the maximum eclipse... the payload when necessary. The observatory uses a MIL-STD-1553B command..., propulsion system performance, and flight dynamics errors. The propulsion subsystem control... reaction wheels, which keeps the observatory thermally-safe, power-positive and... the fine pointing of the observatory based on the guide star... sent to the GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility. The MOC performs spacecraft... archives and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Several dedicated Science Teams will... integration philosophy of the WFIRST-2.4 observatory is based on the wellestablished... observatory environmental test phase is performed. Upon successful completion of the observatory environmental test program, the observatory is Section 3: WFIRST... the major elements of the observatory (telescope, instrument, and spacecraft) are... necessary. Over the two year observatory I&T period, the Project will have... to the instrument during observatory I&T. The WFIRST-2.4 observatory I&T flow is very achievable... reserve. The overall 79 month observatory development schedule includes seven months.... Early interface testing between the observatory and ground system is performed.../optical/thermal analyses of the observatory. Section 4: Path Forward 5) Continue assessing... in §4 will further refine the observatory and its performance, enabling a faster...   Free-­‐floating  Planets  in  the  Solar  Neighborhood     Background   As   part   of...  a  free-­‐floating  planet  in  the  solar  neighborhood.  Right:  Spectrum  of   CFBDSIR2149...,   free   floating   planets   and   all   solar   system   analog   planets   except   Mercury...-­‐borne  telescope  is  the  ideal  observatory  for  the  study  of  cool...   the   advantages  of  a  space-­‐based  observatory.     Key  Requirements   FOV  –  to  cover...,   with   typical   values   of   ~   1013   solar   masses.   The   full   census   of...)   indicates   the   existence   of   billion   solar   mass   BHs   merely   a   few   hundred...,  200,  225  and   z = 15 250   solar   mass   progenitors.     These   magnitudes   are... starlight suppression methods.) Studies of solar system planets and theoretical modeling... the search region. The (space) observatory constraints are given by its... instrument, the constraints of the observatory, modeling of an observation of... Coordination Group SCE Control Unit Solar Dynamics Observatory Science Definition Team Sloan Digital...



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... the Choquet capacity: Application to solar magnetograms// Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and... Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields // Solar Physics (accepted). 4. Bludova N.G.. Obridko V.N.. Badalyan... index of cyclic variation of solar activity // Solar Physics (submitted) 5. Obridko, V. N.; Nagovitsyn... Yu.A. Long-term variations of solar magnetic fields from geomagnetic data... 2011, Санкт-Петербург, 2. V Central European Solar Physics Meeting. 9-12 октября 2011...-1.06 2012, Москва, 6. Fourth Workshop "Solar influences on the magnetosphere, ionosphere..., Пулково, 24-28 сентября 2012. 8. Solar and heliospheric influences on the... multiple periodicities in a flaring loop// Solar Physics, 2012, (DOI: 10.1007... солнечных пятен На материале Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) исследуются долгопериодические колебания... L.L., Olemskoy S.V. Solar dynamo model with diamagnetic pumping and nonlocal alphaeffect. – Solar Phys....1850-1856. 3. S.A.Grib. Impact of solar wind tangential discontinuities on the... Earth Objects Research at Pulkovo Observatory». Генеральная Ассамблея МАС, Пекин (Китай...-320M and MTM-500M Pulkovo observatory telescopes for GAIA FUN SSO...–588, 2012]. 2. E.A.Popova, I.I.Shevchenko, Planetary dynamics in the Alpha Centauri system.... P. 450–451. 3. E.A.Popova, I.I.Shevchenko, Planetary dynamics in the Alpha Centauri system...–588, 2012]. 5. E.A.Popova, I.I.Shevchenko, Planetary dynamics in the Alpha Centauri system.... P. 450–451. 6. E.A.Popova, I.I.Shevchenko, Planetary dynamics in the Alpha Centauri system... Б.Б. и аспирант Манкаева Г.И. 44 По данным Solar Dynamics Observatory детально изучена зональная структура магнитного... Л.Д.) Космические программы: Участие в космической программе Solar Dynamics Observatory. Обработка и интерпретация корональных (AIA, крайний..., 2012 19. Grib S.A., «Impact of solar wind tangential discontinuities on the... L.L., Olemskoy S.V. Solar dynamo model with diamagnetic pumping and nonlocal alphaeffect. – Solar Phys... the Choquet capacity: Application to solar magnetograms, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and... M., Lindholm M.and R. Jalkanen, 2012. Background solar irradiance and the climate of... Sunspot Umbra Observed with the Solar Dynamic Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and... Large-Scale Solar Magnetic Field on the Solar Corona and Solar Wind (Chapter 12 ), in book Exploring the Solar...: Regional and temporal variability of solar activity and galactic cosmic ray... Based on Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 2012... of relativistic electrons accelerated in solar flares// Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 2012... density on the dynamics of the microwave spectrum of solar flaring loops... I.V. Kudryavtsev, Dynamics of Accelerated Electron Beams and X Rays in Solar Flares with... H.I. Bicentennial decrease of the total solar irradiance leads to deficit of... H.I. Bicentennial decrease of the total solar irradiance leads to unbalanced thermal..., A.; Stepanov, A. & Tlatov A. SDO in Pulkovo Observatory. In: The Sun: New Challenges... Observations of Solar System Bodies with Telescopes of Pulkovo Observatory // Gaia follow-up network for the solar system objects... proceedings, held at IMCCE -Paris Observatory, France, November 29 - December 1, 2010... Yu.A. Long-term variations of solar magnetic fields from geomagnetic data... of the solar rotational discontinuities with a contact.S discontinuity inside the solar transition... with Normal Astrograph of Pulkovo observatory: from digitized plates to modern... for electron acceleration models in solar flares from microwave observations with.... 39. Ogurtsov M.G., Lindholm M., Jalkanen R. 2012. Solar activity, space weather and the..., Alexei A.; Bertello, L.; Tlatov, A.; Nagovitsyn, Y.; Kilcik, A. Solar Cycle Variations of Sunspot Magnetic... Strengths from the Mount Wilson Observatory; American Astronomical Society, AAS Meeting.... of the ESO Workshop “Circumstellar dynamics at high resolution”, Foz do....0101 44. Popova E.A., I.I.Shevchenko, Planetary dynamics in the Alpha Centauri system...–85. 45. Popova E.A., I.I.Shevchenko, Planetary dynamics in the Alpha Centauri system..., N.G. «On the energy release in solar flares», AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume.... Shevchenko I.I., Dynamical chaos in the Solar system. In: Chaos, Diffusion and..., A. G. Long-Term Variations of the Solar Supergranulation Size According to the..., V. N. Global magnetic fields: variation of solar minima, Comparative Magnetic Minima: Characterizing... use automatic telescopes of Pulkovo Observatory // "Fifty years of Cosmic Era.... 7. Совещание рабочей группы European Southern Observatory (Education and Public Outreach Department... 2012 г. 8. The ESO Workshop “ Circumstellar Dynamics at High Resolution”, Feb.27... 18. Международная конференция “Galaxies: Origin, Dynamics, Structure and Astrophysical Disks”, 14... in the Gaia era". Paris Observatory, June 2022, 2012. 35. 2-я Международная..., Ижевск, 2012. 75. Международная конференция "Solar Physics with Radio Observations: Twenty...



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... development of the Virtual Heliophysics Observatory (VHO) that allows for more... part of the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO). With its ample fuel... objectives of future missions (e.g., Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter ). Once these... the observations made by Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter which will... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Heliophysics System Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Old Prioritized Science Goals 2.1 PSG#1: Solar Cycle Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 PSG... Prioritized Science Goals 3.1 Two Full Solar Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Solar Wind Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Kinetic Signatures... MAVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Wind and Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Wind and IBEX... Prioritized Science Goals 1.4 Heliophysics System Observatory 4. Dust science Wind plays an... role in the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO). Wind achieved many of... deployment of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO), the heliospheric portion of...-Earth solar wind monitor to connect the solar (SDO) and inner heliospheric (Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter... primary phase of the Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions. The... 1. Long-term Variation Covering 2 Solar Cycles (a) Solar Wind Abundance Variations (b) SEP variations... the comparison of solar wind conditions over multiple solar cycles. McComas et... the reduced solar magnetic flux and solar wind power. The reduced solar wind... the STEREOOwens, 2.1.22010], Solar Activity flux proton in solar wind. which GoelzerVariation... Thus the weak solar polar fields at the solar 1.5 minimum abundance sunspot... spacecraft orbital ram direction. Paris Observatory/LESIA has used radio observations... 1. 2. 3. 4. Long-term variations: 2 Full Solar Cycles Solar wind structure Kinetic signatures of... solar magnetic cycle, of continuous observations of the solar wind. Long-term solar... complete solar cycles, comprised of three solar activity minima and two solar activity... abnormalities of the recent solar minimum and maximum. Solar cycle 23 was... with Cycle 23. 3.2 Solar Wind Structures The solar wind is a highly structured... length than the solar wind plasma possibly identifying solar source structure sizes...-Earth spacecraft, making it a unique observatory for tests of kinetic theory... insights concerning the characteristics and dynamics of the near-Earth IPD... part of the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO), Wind has been contributing.... DSCOVR The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) was launched on Feb... is tasked to provide solar wind solar wind proton and magnetic field... determined. 4.3 Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter Solar Probe Plus (SPP) and Solar Orbiter... skills (HW/SW maintenance, Flight Dynamics attitude analysis). Reengineering/upgrading existing... 2b includes support from flight dynamics for orbit determination and station... to be funded through the Observatory (VHO) that makes data queries....1007/BF00751327. Gopalswamy, N. (2015), The Dynamics of Eruptive Prominences, in Astrophysics... of solar wind quasiinvariant in solar cycle 23–Analysis of PDFs, J. Atmos. Solar...), Element Abundances in Solar Energetic Particles and the Solar Corona, Solar Phys., 289... Mass Ejections to Major Solar Energetic Particle Events, Solar Phys., doi:10... members of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO). The VHO provides a single.... In addition, the Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility provides orbit solutions to... OMNIWeb-related Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) allows easy comparison of... development of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) (http://vho.nasa.gov... Acceleration DSCOVR . . . . . . . Deep Space Climate Observatory DSN . . . . . . . . . . Deep Space Network E/PO... . . . . . . . . . . Heliophysics Great Observatory HI . . . . . . . . . . . Heliospheric Imagers HSO . . . . . . . . . . Heliophysics System Observatory HTR . . . . . . . . . . High... . . . . . . . . Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager SDO . . . . . . . . . . Solar Dynamics Observatory SECCHI . . . . . . . . Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation SEP . . . . . . . . . . Solar Energetic... on Wind ) SOHO . . . . . . . . . SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory SolO . . . . . . . . . . Solar Orbiter mission SPASE . . . . . . . . . Space... . . . . . . . Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory STICS . . . . . . . . . SupraThermal Ion Composition Spectrometer (Wind /SMS) SWE . . . . . . . . . . Solar Wind Experiment SWEPAM . . . . . . . Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (ACE) SWICS . . . . . . . . . Solar... EXpress VHO . . . . . . . . . . Virtual Heliophysics Observatory VWO . . . . . . . . . Virtual Waves Observatory WYE . . . . . . . . . . Work Year...



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... Prof. Ilya Usoskin Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Finland Opponent... Reviewers Prof. Roman Brajša Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of...-south difference. Keywords: Solar activity, sunspots, X-ray flares, solar rotation, active longitudes... Wang, a great scientist in solar physics and solar activity prediction. He has... in solar activity . . . . 2.1.5. Grand minima and maxima . . . . 2.2. Solar flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1. Classification of solar flares... during solar flares 2.2.4. Flare models . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3. Coronal mass ejections . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4. Solar energetic particles acceleration . . . 3. Solar... observations of the newest space solar telescope Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Small scale tornadoes... of a powerful solar event and the connections of solar events and the... evolution of solar activity and its effect on the solar-terrestrial environment... launched in 1997), SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory launched in 1995) and... solar activity appearing at different height in the solar atmosphere, e.g., sunspots at solar... its latitudinal variation in a solar cycle. Taking solar surface differential rotation into... long-term variation in solar surface rotation. 2. Solar activity 2.1. Sunspots Sunspots appear... sunspot areas began at Greenwich Observatory in 1874. 17 Fig. 2.2. The... by Rudolf Wolf of Z¨ urich Observatory in 1850s. Wolf started daily...]. Rudolf Wolf worked at Z¨ urich Observatory as the “primary” observer (judged... Federal Observatory, Z¨ urich), 18 and Koeckelenbergh (since 1980, at the Royal Observatory... maintained by the Swiss Federal Observatory in Z¨ urich, Switzerland through 1980... many observers when the Royal Observatory of Belgium took over the... sunspot numbers from the Z¨ urich observatory. Yearly values of Rz series... two successive minima defines the solar cycle. Solar cycle 1 started in March... 1874, when the Royal Greenwich Observatory started recording detailed sunspot observations... May, 1874 the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) started compiling sunspot observations... RGO, SOON, Rome Observatory, Swiss Federal Observatory and Royal Observatory of Belgium. The... observations at Armagh Observatory in 1795-1797. 2.1.4. Cyclicities in solar activity The... over a cycle) of solar cycles and showed that solar cycles are coupled... the end of MGM. 2.2. Solar flares A solar flare was first observed by... 1972 by Big Bear Solar Observatory. Before 1950s solar flares were mainly observed... 7 August 1972 by Big Bear Solar Observatory. This particular flare, so-called...; Vrˇsnak, 2008]. 2.4. Solar energetic particles acceleration Solar energetic particles (SEPs), mainly... from CMEs and solar winds [Cliver and Ling, 2009]. 3. Solar rotation 3.1. Heliographic... the axis of solar rotation is known, the solar latitude ψ, also called... fixed points on solar surface to define the solar longitude. Defining the... I) at the solar surface carried out at Mt. Wilson Observatory in 19681979... and Basu, 2000]. 50 (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft, and was seen... at the solar poles [Dikpati et al., 2004]. Fig. 3.5. Solar meridional flow... Sun and solar-like stars rather than the conventional solar dynamo theory... to exist in solar rotation. The variations in solar rotation are suggested... on the N-S asymmetry of solar activity and solar surface differential rotation in... significant. The N-S asymmetry of solar activity within a solar cycle is related to... cycle. 5.4.2. N-S asymmetry in solar rotation The N-S asymmetry in solar differential rotation has..., 2009a. Arlt, R., The solar observations at Armagh Observatory in 1795-1797, Astron... groups and highspeed solar wind streams-Evidence for a ‘solar memory’, Sol. Phys... H. M. Antia, Helioseismic estimates of solar structure and dynamics, ASP Conference Series, 293... H. M. Antia, Characteristics of solar meridional flows during solar cycle 23, Astrophys. J., 717... T. L. Duvall, Jr., A new component of solar dynamics: north-south divering flows migrating..., 1985. Bouwer, S. D., Periodicities of solar irradiance and solar activity indices, II, Sol..., and J. Jiang, Predicting solar cycle 24 with a solar dynmao model, Phys. Rev..., K., B. Kirov, J. Javaraiah, and R. Krasteva, Solar rotation and solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, Planetary... of spectral hardening in solar flares and related solar energetic particle events..., R. W. Komm, J. Schou, and M. J. Thompson, Solar Convection-Zone dynamics, 1995-2004, Astrophys. J., 634... sunspots in heliographic longitude, The Observatory, 81, 205-207, 1961 Losh... in longitude, Publications of the Observatory of the University of Michigan..., E. W., Sp¨ oerer’s Law of Zones, Observatory, 26, 329-330, 1903. Maunder... Nesme-Ribes, E., N. Meunier, and I. Vince, Solar dynamics over cycle 19 using sunspots... E. J. Smith, Preferred solar longitudes with signatures in the solar wind, J. Geophys. Res...-odd solar-cycle differences of corona brightness, Contributions of the Astronomical Observatory... increase of solar activity in the southern hemisphere during solar cycle 21...