Спутник ФКИ. Solar Orbiter. [Редактировать]

Дизайн миссии. Профиль миссии Солнечного Орбитального аппарата был разработан с условием нахождения аппарата на Солнечной орбите с апогеем 0.28. Данное расположение аппарата позволит обеспечить наблюдение за полярными областями звезды. Также это позволит уменьшить угловую скорость аппарата, что позволит улучшить качество съемки. Выведение на целевую орбиту планируется при помощи осуществления гравитационного маневра при помощи Венеры.

Научная нагрузка. Главные научно-исследовательские инструменты Солнечного Орбитального аппарата должны быть представлены Европейским космическим агентством и НАСА. В настоящее время все конкурсы на производство элементов аппарата и сборку уже завершены. Полезной нагрузкой аппарата являются:

  • анализатор солнечного ветра - должен предоставить полную информацию о состоянии солнечной плазмы (протоны, электроны, тяжелые ионы и альфа частицы) на расстоянии 0.28-1.4 AU
  • детектор высокоэнергетических частиц -должен измерять параметры частиц в диапазоне от 100 MeV/n до 200 MeV/n
  • магнитометр - должен предоставить данные о магнитных полях в гелиосфере
  • измеритель радио и плазматических волн - должен измерить параметры магнитных и электрических полей. Отличительной особенностью прибора должна являться высокая скорость работы (до 20 раз в секунду).
  • Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager  - должен предоставить данные о поверхности солнца, что должно обеспечить визуальное наблюдение магнитных линий.
  • спектрометр для измерения излучения лучей в Х диапазоне (от 4 до 150 Кэв).
  • коронограф - должен предоставить информацию о короне солнца в видимом диапазоне  с различными вариантами поляризации. Также прибор должен предоставить данные спектроскопии.
  • Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager - должен предоставить данные о прохождении солнечного ветра через магнитное поле Солнца.
  • ультрафиалетовый спектрограф - должен предоставить информацию о характеристиках плазмы в регионах на поверхности Солнца.

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12017-04-29. Компания Thales Alenia Space поставила инструмент METIS и защитный щит для КА Solar Orbiter.
Компания Thales объявила о поставке в интересах производства спутника для исследования Солнца и гелиосферы двух полезных нагрузок:
1. Космическому агентству Италии был передан научный инструмент METIS (Multi-Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy). Этот инструмент разрабатывался в кооперации с OHB Italy и должен будет предоставлять ученым возможность получения высокодетальных изображений солнечной короны в видимом и ультрафиолетовом качестве.
2. Тепловой щит КА был разработан в кооперации с итальянским подразделением Airbus и он был поставлен на тестовые стенды IABG в Германии в целях проведения тестирования. Изделие создано из титана и должно будет выдерживать температуры до 600 град. Цельсия.
Срок запуска КА 2019 год.Тэги: Solar OrbiterThales Alenia SpaceЕвропейское космическое агентствоКосмическое агентство Италии

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Диаметр (апертуры телескопа), метра1.2
2Габариты (в запускаемом состоянии), метра2.5×3.0×2.5
3Скорость передачи данных (на расстоянии 1 AU), кбит в секунду150
4Система ориентациина Солнце

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (разработки аппарата), млн. долл.2011-10-05672
2Стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-10-051000

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... a variety of fields including astronomy, solar physics, space plasma physics, Earth... be integrated with the Shuttle orbiter. Europe was heading towards human... Spacelab-1 integration with the Shuttle orbiter at Kennedy Space Center, 16... journey back into the inner Solar System, the Rosetta team is... organic material have survived our Solar System’s chaotic 4.6 billion year history... a comet close up with an orbiter and lander, Rosetta will show... in the evolution of the Solar System. Comets usually hail from... of the formation of the Solar System. ↑ The Rosetta Stone (British... oldest building blocks of our Solar System. As the worthy successor... them headlong into the inner Solar System, affording us a closer view... planet-building phase of the Solar System, but was delivered around... the ‘Rosetta Stones’ of the Solar System. Rosetta, with its Philae... it heads towards the inner Solar System and is gradually heated... belt while relying solely on solar cells for power generation, rather... spacecraft’s two solar wings, each 14 m long, employ a new solar-cell technology... 8700 watts in the inner Solar System and will provide around... journey back into the inner Solar System. Once awake, Rosetta will... space. Conversely, in the outer Solar System, the hardware and scientific... computer, powered only by the solar panels. Just before everything was... the power availability of the solar arrays, which will determine the... spacecraft’s two solar wings, each 14 m long, employ a new solar-cell technology... and away into the outer Solar System again. For example, a complicating..., the solar wind, along its elliptical orbit through the Solar System. Extensive... the chosen landing site, the orbiter must release Philae at a certain... speed to walking pace – the orbiter will move away and monitor... extensive measurements made by the orbiter, taking scientists closer to answering... in the history of the Solar System. Because the comet’s surface... onboard laboratory for analysis. The orbiter will continue to collect dust... are subsequently relayed to the orbiter, ready for transmission back to... is exhausted, it will use solar cells to recharge and attempt... comet and how quickly the solar cells become covered in dust... exploration → ROSETTA’S SCIENCE MIDAS The orbiter’s scientific payload includes 11 experiments...: Holger Sierks (Germany) ROSINA Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral..., which can be influenced by solar activity. Ionospheric delay can be... for human exploration of the Solar System. Money is a factor, of..., but the exploration of our Solar System owes a lot to these... and 2018. The Trace Gas Orbiter and Schiaparelli make up the... in 2018. Working together, the orbiter and rover will search the... monitor the effects of energetic solar events on Earth’s → in brief... team members magnetic environment, the solar wind and cosmic rays. Pioneering... PATHFINDER MICROSCOPE GAIA JWST BEPICOLOMBO SOLAR ORBITER (M1) EUCLID (M2) JUICE (L1... E BIOLAB, FSL, EPM, EDR (EuTEF, SOLAR) WITH COLUMBUS MAR 2008 S-9 MOGEN... imposed by the recent high solar activity. The analysis takes into... Titan is linked to the solar activity level as theoretically predicted... the amount of ionisation by solar irradiation in planetary atmospheres. An..., the corona. They contain little solar material, have lower temperatures, and... toward what is known as ‘solar maximum’, currently predicted for late... coronals holes often seen during solar minimum conditions. SOHO/EIT image..., the Propulsion Module and the solar array showed the good health... place for the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) PFM spacecraft, followed by... integration. Following a confidence test, the solar cell FMs have been ordered... the manufacturing of the MTM solar array structure that are currently... problems on the MPO Solar Array drive mechanisms, solar electrical propulsion thrusters... campaign for the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter is planned for November, followed... for the 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and Entry, Descent and... the ExoMars 2018 mission spacecraft →→SOLAR ORBITER The build-up of industrial... schedule of the solar generator continues to be worrisome. Solar Orbiter depends on BepiColombo technology developments for the solar generator that... simultaneous high temperature and high solar flux continue. The facility commissioned... 156 | November 2013 69 programmes Solar Orbiter Remote Interface Unit Engineering and... of the schedule of the solar array development and the late... three separated modules (platform, payload, solar array). Some equipment and instruments... supporting the characterisation the Sentinel-2 solar diffuser. These calibration activities pave..., apart from thermal blankets and solar array, by the year end... orbits with constantly changing local solar time. Inevitably some changes are... to an increase of the solar proton flux). The active detectors.... Breadboard elements, for large power solar panels, as required for exploration... used routinely in the SSA Solar Weather ESC coordinated by the... Solar Weather Expert Service Centre (ESC) is subscription to an automatic solar...



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... Humans. The fourth and final solar-power wing was delivered to... down operations of the Ulysses solar probe after nearly 19 years...-month mission. Japan's Kaguya lunar orbiter ended its 21-month mission... the Moon. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation... reduced life due to a partial solar array failure and is not... a technical error in the satellite's solar array. On 21 January the..., operated by solar power during daytime hours and solar-charged batteries at...-weather monitoring, the Plasma-Magnetometer Solar Weather Package. Total cost of... the Sun that help predict solar storms. On 6 June NOAA awarded... space. Glory also carries a total solar irradiance monitor and a cloud camera... began during the winter, when solar and nutrient availability were low... independent mirror systems, and two solar panels on each side of... and lubricated the damaged starboard solar alpha rotary joint (SARJ; see... brought the fourth and final solar array to the ISS, adding... of six people. The 73-m solar wings, folded into a 13.7 x 4.9 x 4.5-m package... in position outboard of the solar alpha rotary joint by the... employed unfurling and checking the solar array blankets and conducting some... Agency (JAXA), is a 16.5-tonne solar-powered cylinder about 10 m long... module with two flat rectangular solar arrays. To be launched by... on another planet outside the solar system. During its brief close... a solar telescope and spectrograph to investigate the dynamics of the solar chromosphere... to analyze the causes of solar flares. Koronas-Foton was the... satellite in a series to study solar-terrestrial physics as part of... of 56 accelerated particles during solar flares. The spacecraft will also... and build instruments for ESA’s Solar Orbiter mission, one of five ESA.... If committed by ESA, the Solar Orbiter is planned for launch in... down operations of the Ulysses solar probe on 30 June after... discovered that the dispersal of solar particles is not solely a function... Sun indefinitely. On 7 July NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was shipped... causes of the 11-year solar cycle. The 3.2-tonne spacecraft carries... to minimize damage to its solar cells. The $1-billion+ project, 57... Enceladus, which would include a NASA orbiter and an ESA lander and... system six years later. NASA's orbiter, currently called Jupiter Europa, would... performance of many of the orbiter’s instruments, most of them were... created when protons from the solar wind strike the lunar surface... Detector aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter further confirmed the presence of... and Kashgar. Japan's Kaguya lunar orbiter (see prior reports) ended its... it raised. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation... the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera... system and two four-wheeled solar-powered rovers, each equipped with... which neither the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter nor the Mars Odyssey spacecraft... storm that had obscured its solar panels and reduced its battery... the dust from the rover’s solar panels, making more power available... in 2004. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s (MRO’s) radar discovered several dirt... a small 110-kg Chinese Mars orbiter called Yinghuo-1, which will study... electric-power industry in space solar power systems, the Pacific Gas...-proven triple-junction gallium arsenide solar cells, which have demonstrated efficiencies... several sections of the Shuttle orbiter during its earliest flights. It... but only rammed into a protruding solar panel or antenna, because the... the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Beginning... of our planet and the solar system, he is looking to... also will provide a Mars telecommunications orbiter for the 2016 mission, with... supply their new version of a "Solar Wind Electron Analyzer," which will... measure the characteristics of Mars’ solar winds and their ionospheric electrons..., for studying the effects of solar flares and other space weather...), and the Chang’e 2 robotic lunar orbiter, due for launch in October... Moon and planets of the Solar System are also planned, along... system and two four-wheeled, solar-powered rovers each equipped with...



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... first use in 1958 of solar cells in spacecraft by both... their electrical power from photovoltaic solar panels (wall-mounted or deployed... main thermal load is usually solar radiation, but it may be... are second in size to solar panels). Space vacuum makes thermal... spacecraft has moving parts (e.g. pointing solar panels and antennas, deployable camera... non-heliocentric orbits), to calculate solar radiation and albedo loads. Orbit... may be subjected to direct solar radiation (if the atmosphere is... is fully cloud-covered), scattered solar radiation, convection from the ambient... (1.5·109 m against 1.4·109 m), so that solar radiation is not completely blocked... the Lagrangian points, so that solar panels are used to power..., and for astronomical satellites like Solar Orbiter (with a perihelion at 0.28 AU... future Solar Probe+ (approaching the Sun at 0.05 AU, where solar irradiation... point. The acceleration of the solar system around its galactic centre..., the eight planets in our solar system orbit the Sun in... α+H=local_sideral_time of the observer (approx. solar time). Both, right ascension and... to compensate the difference between solar day and sidereal day, to... the Equator at the same solar time in every orbit. A frozen... planets or moons have small solar beta angles (their own orbits...), whereas polar orbits may have solar angles from β=0 (coplanar orbit with... of relative altitude, h≡H/R, and orbit solar angle, β, by:  2h + h 2 Te 1 = arccos... eclipse, Te/To, versus orbit solar angle β, for circular Earth orbits... only occur for very small solar declination, when |δ| 3000 K, only the... (negative for electrical production in solar cells), and split the heat... in space, exposed only to solar radiation of irradiance E (E=1360 W/m2... the 2 2 4 steady state is simply 0 = Q solar − Q space = Eπ R − 4π R εσ T , showing that the steady... it is simply T=(E/(4εσ))1/4. Notice that solar radiation is absorbed is proportional... area, 4πR2. The dependence of solar irradiance E with Sun distance (decaying.... 8, showing the relative position of solar planets, although it must be... scale and semi-logarithmic scale. Solar planet positions are shown, but... 4. Find the solar irradiance on Mercury, and on the Solar Orbiter spacecraft. Sol... at 1 ua, E=1360 W/m2 (the ‘solar constant’), and irradiation decreases with...=E1(1/0.47)2=1360·4.5=6 kW/m2. Solar Orbiter is expected to be launched... will be exposed to a maximum solar irradiance of ESO,peri=E1... 27 of the Sun proximity, solar radiation can still be considered... absorber (in spite of having a solar absorptance of just 70% of... the appendage results in a constant solar absorption except during the eclipse... spacecraft are powered by photovoltaic solar panels systems (SPS, deployable or... cells systems (FCS). Solar panels are sets of solar cells that generate... the load) divided by incident solar radiation (1360 W/m2 at mean...). Roughly, half of incident solar radiation on a solar cell is absorbed and... thermal cycling. The record of solar powered distance was 2.6 AU by... missions close to the Sun, solar cells will be so severely... different surfaces are exposed to solar radiation in the open air... going close to the Sun (e.g. Solar Power+ is foreseen to approach... radii, getting 510 times more solar heat than at Earth distances... thermal environment: no convection, direct solar radiation, cryogenic space, on board... approaching the Sun (Solar Orbiter perihelion is at 60 solar radii, 0.28 AU..., −100..100 ºC. • Solar arrays, −190..110 ºC. The hottest solar cells developed (for...



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... 1.1: Expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface... interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. Objective... 1.1: Expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface... interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather.  Strategic... 1.1: Expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface... Goal) while maintaining throughout the solar competition. (Agency system.  1.2.2: Maintain capability... interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. Strategic... and physical processes in the solar system operate, interact and evolve... in technical capabilities, such as solar electric propulsion and capture mechanisms... interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. Lead... Contributing Programs Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Heliophysics Research, and... Imager) for Solar Orbiter successfully completed Critical Design Review.  Solar Probe Plus (SPP.... • Continue development of SPP and Solar Orbiter. • Conduct Key Decision Point (KDP... interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. Performance... to Earth and throughout the solar system. Performance Goal 1.4.2: Demonstrate progress... the outer reaches of the solar system.  HE-14-1: Demonstrate planned... to Earth and throughout the solar system.  HE-14-2: Complete mission... the outer reaches of the solar system. Performance Goal 1.4.3: Demonstrate progress... #4 Environmental Test.  HE-14-5: Complete Solar Orbiter Collaboration Heavy Ion Sensor (HIS... Review (CDR).  HE-14-6: Complete Solar Probe Plus (SPP) Preliminary Design... to Earth 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.1 and throughout the solar system. Green Green Planned Future... to Earth and throughout the solar system. Contributing Theme: Heliophysics Contributing... Observatory to track the journey solar energetic particles take as they... from active regions in the solar photosphere (the visible surface of... extreme-ultraviolet measurements from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). As the... solar energetic particles outward into the solar system. Scientists thought such impulsive solar... events. However, recent Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), Solar and Heliospheric Observatory... have a major effect. The injected solar energetic particles permeate the inner... that the boundary that separates solar and interstellar plasmas, known as... the outer reaches of the solar system. Contributing Theme: Heliophysics Contributing... the fiscal year’s progress. Prolonged Solar Minimum Could Mean Increase in... as solar maximum, is associated with more extreme solar activity, while solar minimum is a time of few sunspots. The last solar... predict solar weather conditions in future cycles. During the last solar minimum, spacecraft in NASA’s Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO) observed the solar...­ energy particles from outside the solar system) intensities increased. In 2009... trend may extend into future solar cycles. Two important implications are..., helps deflect the impact of solar coronal mass ejections. Coronal mass... HE-14-5 Green Contributing Program: Solar Terrestrial Probes Annual Performance Indicator... 2011 For FY 2014: Complete Solar Orbiter Collaboration Heavy Ion Sensor (HIS... FY 2015: HE-15-5: Initiate Solar Orbiter Collaboration launch integration activities at... Indicator For FY 2014: Complete Solar Probe Plus (SPP) Preliminary Design... FY 2016: HE-16-5: Complete Solar Probe Plus System Integration Review... and physical processes in the solar system operate, interact and evolve... locations where chemical and physical solar system to understand life could..., Geodesy and objects in the solar system Heat Transport (InSight) that... and physical processes in the 2.3.1.1 2.3.1.1 solar system operate, interact and evolve..., data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter show that these craters (approximately... type of atmosphere in the solar system. LADEE’s Neutral Mass Spectrometer...-1 and physical processes in the solar system operate, interact and evolve... and physical processes in the solar system operate, interact, and evolve... and physical processes in the solar system operate, interact, and evolve.... Asteroid Belt Reveals a Diverse Early Solar System A new map of asteroids..., the result of an orderly solar system evolution. Instead, different types... to Enceladus. Dwarf Planet Redefines Solar System’s Edge NASA-supported scientists... the experiments. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) detected widespread deposits of... lifecycle milestones for the Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna (ISARA... one wind project and two solar projects. NASA’s sustainability efforts also... the deep interior of Mars.  Solar Orbiter will make in-situ observations... the furthest points of the solar system, including Kepler, Cassini, the... and physical processes in the solar system operate, interact, and evolve... and physical processes in the solar system operate, interact, and evolve... August 31, 2012, by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Credit: NASA...



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... Module for the Trace Gas Orbiter designed, e.g., for scientific observations in... to every “corner” of the solar system, from the Sun itself..., Bepi-Colombo travelling to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, ExoMars Rover. The technical and... moons and planets beyond our solar system will need new methods... GLEX-2017.2.1.25 HIGH VOLTAGE SOLAR ARRAY TECHNOLOGY FOR LEO PLASMA....6.1.3 MISSION SCENARIOS UTILIZING LOTUS: LANDER/ORBITER TRANSUPPER STAGE Chrishma Singh-Derewa... FAST ACQUISITION TECHNOLOGY OF MARS ORBITER’S TTC TRANSPONDER Qin Fen, , China... THE STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND BEYOND Alexander MacDonald...-2017.13.1.14 A SELF-FLIGHT SOLAR SAIL MICROSATELLITE SYSTEM IN DEEP...: MISSION SCENARIOS UTILIZING LOTUS: LANDER/ORBITER TRANS-UPPER STAGE Chrishma Singh... INTERFERENCE SUPPRESSION TECHNOLOGY FOR LARGE SOLAR PANEL OF SPACECRAFT Wu Pengfei...-DISCHARGING PROTECTION TECHNIQUE FOR FLEXIBLE SOLAR ARRAYS OF CHINA’S SPACE STATION... DYNAMICAL POSITIONING METHODS FOR MARS ORBITER AND MARS LANDER Yan Jianguo... RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION VERIFICATION METHOD OF SOLAR BLIND ULTRAVIOLET CAMERA BASED ON... MULTI-XENON LAMPS FOR SIMULATED SOLAR RADIATION IN SPACE ENVIRONMENT Juan...



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... Heritage ix I. INTRODUCTION 1 1 Solar Variability S. K. Solanki 1 2 Spectroradiometry for Solar Physics in Space..., U. Ulmer, H. Wolf 355 28 The Solar Orbiter Mission and Design Recommendations U. Schu... at the solar surface and in the solar atmosphere from solar activity minimum...]. 1.3 Wavelength Dependence of Solar Variability The magnitude of solar variability is strongly... relative change in the solar irradiance between solar activity maximum and minimum... Livingston, W.C., Variability of the solar He I 10830 A Solar Physics, eds.: D.M. Rabin, J.T. Jefferies.... 2.3 Absolute Calibration of Solar Instruments on board Spacecraft 2.3.1 Solar Total Irradiance Monitors... for Solar Spectral Radiometry Solar physicists have attempted spectroradiometric measurements of the solar... Kurucz, R.L., Calculation of solar irradiances. I. Synthesis of the solar spectrum, Astrophys. J. 518... to those of a typical (solar or non-solar) space-telescope entrance-aperture... Imaging Telescope), SEM (Solar Extreme-ultraviolet Monitor), SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of... dataset of solar EUV irradiance measurements from solar minimum through solar maximum. The... abundance variations in the solar atmosphere and solar wind, Space Sci. Rev... importance of accurately calibrated solar irradiance data. The solar spectral irradiance in... aeronomic processes throughout the solar system. The solar VUV photons are absorbed... and its interactions with solar system objects. Calibrated solar irradiances from SOHO... solar arrays (SAP) are also indicated. 24.2 Solar-B and its Instruments The Solar... 24.2: Schematic diagram of the Solar-B Solar Optical Telescope and its associated... involves a timescale of several solar cycles, the Solar-B optical telescope is expected..., USA The next Japanese solar mission, Solar-B, is due for launch in....1 Introduction The next Japanese solar mission, Solar-B, is due for launch in... hours per year of solar observations. The Solar Auto Calibrating EUV/UV... solar-terrestrial relations, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 573–576, 1976. — 28 — The Solar Orbiter... overview is given of the Solar Orbiter mission. First, the key scientific... one of ESA’s future solar missions, the Solar Orbiter was selected in October... transferred to Solar Orbiter. We take an excerpt from the “Solar Orbiter Assessment Study... may be applicable to the Solar Orbiter. 28.2 Solar Orbiter Scientific Aims The Sun... our understanding of solar and heliospheric physics. The Solar Orbiter will, through a novel... close as 45 solar radii, the Solar Orbiter will view the solar atmosphere with... extended periods of time the Solar Orbiter will deliver images and data.... The scientific goals of the Solar Orbiter mission can be summarized as... corona from high latitudes. The Solar Orbiter will achieve its wideranging aims... Profile and Spacecraft Design The Solar Orbiter scientific requirements define a mission profile... 28.1: X-Y -plane projection of the Solar Orbiter trajectory. During the cruise phase... the overall configuration of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft during scientific observations. The... Solar 28.4. The Strawman Payload 365 Figure 28.4: Configuration of the Solar Orbiter. Orbiter... the thermal design of the Solar Orbiter. At one extreme, the spacecraft... Solar Orbiter constitute a package of sensors suited to a comprehensive study of the solar... instruments is proposed for the Solar Orbiter: an EUV full-Sun and... to the instruments of the Solar Orbiter payload are mainly imposed by... Learned from SOHO? Recommendations for Solar Orbiter The stability of the calibration... that the design of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft as described in the... outboard where that was impossible). Solar Orbiter presently has a cylindrical structure with... types. The instruments of the Solar Orbiter should be expected to have... of the mirror changes). The Solar Orbiter mission profile makes the operational... given the success of SOHO, Solar Orbiter will not present undue cleanliness... this description of the Solar Orbiter mission. Bibliography ESA, Solar Orbiter – A high-resolution mission... proposed in view of the Solar Orbiter UV instruments, for which the... instruments cheaper. As for the Solar Orbiter, the aspiration for wide-bandgap... cameras within the Solar Orbiter schedule. 29.1 Motivations Current solar atmospheric studies show... of the order of 1 . For Solar Orbiter [Marsch et al., 2000; Fleck... imagers are anticipated in the Solar Orbiter assessment study report. The format..., solar-blind, UV-sensitive cameras within the schedule of the Solar Orbiter: prototype demonstrated five years before launch. 2. All Solar Orbiter UV..., J.-C., Solar Orbiter – A high-resolution mission to the Sun and inner heliosphere, AAS/Solar... the Solar Orbiter, SP-493, in proceedings of Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop... UV detectors for the ESA Solar Orbiter, Diamond and Related Materials, in..., B., Harrison, R., Marsden, R., Schwenn, R., and Vial, J.-C., Solar Orbiter, a high-resolution mission to the... Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor SUMER Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation SWAN Solar...



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... in Spacecraft Technologies solar sail was accurately articulated. Solar sailing as an... term “solar sailing” (Garwin, 1958). Subsequent to the discussion of solar sailing... the Advanced Solar Electric Prolusion companion study NASA selected the Solar Electric... NASA completed dual solar sail development programs, funding a solar sail design by... Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki, formerly known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, and four micro-spacecraft. The solar sail... film used for solar sailing also has thin-film solar arrays embedded... CubeSat based solar sails. Indeed, NASA flew the first CubeSat solar sails... the future of solar sailing. 2. Performance metrics To compare solar sail mission... to the solar sail, ms is mass of the solar sail and... Sun-Synchronous Orbiter (Leipold et al, 1996a, 1996b). These two solar sail mission concepts are very similar, both using a solar sail...’s magnetotail. The Mercury Sun-Synchronous Orbiter meanwhile rotates the ascending node... the Sun the solar radiation pressure in-effect reduces solar gravity and... is increased solar gravity is further ‘reduced’, thus providing enhanced solar storm... a high-performance solar sail to directly balance the solar gravity to hover... the most preferential solar sail architecture. The identified preferential solar sail architecture... solar system rendezvous missions The use of solar sails for outer solar system... SRP with solar distance. 3.1.5 Outer solar system flyby missions Outer solar system fly... the negative elements of solar sail outer solar system rendezvous missions. A Jupiter.... The Cosmic Visions mission concept Solar Orbiter intends to deliver a science suite... respect to the solar equator and to a minimum solar approach radius of... inability of the Solar Orbiter mission to attain a solar polar orbit highlights the...; Macdonald et al, 2006). The Solar Polar Orbiter (SPO) mission concept is...-energy inner-solar system mission which is enabled by solar sail propulsion... spacecraft to rapidly escape the solar system. Solar sails mission concepts significantly... bound of the solar sail concept. 3.1.8 Key characteristics Solar sailing has traditionally... enhanced by solar sailing are more complex than simply this. Solar sailing... example the Solar Polar Orbiter mission. • Class Two • Where the solar sail is... as GeoSail or a Mercury SunSynchronous Orbiter Venus escape at end of... fly-through Outer solar system planet fly-by Solar Polar Orbiter Transit of... and Venus rendezvous Inner Solar System Outer Solar System rendezvous Highly Non... body Fly-by beyond solar gravitational lens Table 2. Solar sail mission key... of several solar sail missions such as the Solar Polar Orbiter and the... increase. 3.2.2 Medium-term: solar [olar orbiter The Solar Polar Orbiter (SPO) mission concept is... concept Solar Orbiter. However, the inability of the Solar Orbiter mission to attain a solar polar... to the solar limb from a terrestrial perspective which eliminates solar conjunctions and hence loss of telemetry. Once the solar sail has delivered the spacecraft to the solar polar orbit... solar sailing for a solar polar mission concept. It is thus conclude that solar...; SPO ≡ Solar Polar Orbiter; VenusSR ≡ Venus Sample Return. www.intechopen.com Solar Sailing... high AD2 of solar sailing. However, if a CubeSat based solar sail system..., allowing solar sailing to progress along its development roadmap. 6. Conclusions A solar sail... significantly enhanced by solar sailing, of which solar sailing is of marginal benefit and of which solar sailing... key applications of solar sailing and the presentation of a solar sail application pull technology development roadmap. Considering the solar sail..., hybridisation with solar electric propulsion the project risk of solar sailing could.... Dachwald, B., Solar Sail Performance Requirements for Missions to the Outer Solar System..., B., Optimal Solar-Sail Trajectories for Missions to the outer Solar System, Journal... Garwin, R.L., Solar Sailing – A Practical Method of Propulsion Within the Solar System, Jet... the outer solar system, JBIS, Vol. 61, August 2008. Kawaguchi, J., Solar Power..., R., Seboldt, W., Mercury SunSynchronous Polar Orbiter with a Solar Sail, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 39..., O., Solar Photonic Assist Trajectory Design for Solar Sail Missions to the Outer Solar... to Solar Sailing, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Solar Sailing..., G.W., McInnes, C.R., Lyngvi, A., Falkner, P., Atzei, A., Solar Polar Orbiter: a Solar Sail Technology Reference Study, Journal... 1977. Sauer, Jr., C., Solar Sail Trajectories for Solar Polar and Interstellar Probe....com Solar Sailing: Applications and Technology Advancement 59 Sharma, D.N., Scheeres, D.J., Solar System Escape Trajectories Using Solar Sails, Journal of..., Amsterdam, 1992. Yen, C. L., Comparing Solar Sail and Solar Electric Propulsions for Propulsive...



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..., M. and Groepper, P. and Peacock, T. (2001) Solar sailing - Mission opportunities and innovative...: eprints@cis.strath.ac.uk Solar Sailing – Mission Opportunities and Innovative... Programmes, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Solar sailing is a unique and elegant... mass. Rather than carrying propellant, solar sails acquire momentum from photons... in the space environment. Therefore, solar sails can expand the envelope... in December 1999 (DLR) Introduction Solar-sail technology was developed to... study sparked international interest in solar sailing for future mission applications... the development of solar-sail technologies. A strong interest in solar sailing is... individual photon is extremely small, solar sails require a large surface area... photons, solar sails must also be extremely light. For a future solar sail...) of order 0.1 – 1 mm/s2 from solar radiation pressure poses great engineering... science exploration missions throughout our Solar System and beyond, the programmatic... in the direction of developing solar sails, ESA’s Industrial Policy Committee... proposal to develop and launch a solar-sail in-orbit deployment demonstrator... hardware will be challenging. A successful solar-sail deployment demonstration will imply... European solar sailing will therefore establish the required confidence in solar sailing... mission scenarios described below. Figure 2. Solar-sail in-orbit deployment demonstration... examine the potential benefits that solar-sailing technology may provide for... missions will require rather large solar sails, a number of science missions... is therefore required while the solar sail manoeuvres to the required... as well as the lunar-solar gravitational perturbations, has demonstrated the... a solar-sail technologydemonstration mission. A mission to study a planet in our Solar System... array of instruments. It requires solar-electric propulsion, chemical propulsion and... of a 360 kg planetary orbiter, a 165 kg magnetospheric orbiter and a 44 kg hard lander. The three-axis-stabilised orbiter... orbiter will investigate the interaction of Mercury’s magnetic field with the solar... assess the potential benefits of solar sails for future planetary exploration... been reconfigured for delivery by solar-sail propulsion alone. To allow for a realistic comparison, the solar-sail solution must provide a comparable... is adequate for the Mercury orbiter mission, but a figure of 0.3 mm... + payload) of 590 kg (planetary orbiter, magnetospheric 61 Figure 4. A 2.38 year... a characteristic acceleration of 0.3 mm/s2 orbiter and lander), the sail size... is shown in Table 2. The solar-sail option offers significant advantages... orbiter Magnetospheric satellite Lander PAYLOAD TOTAL 463 59 31 553 Planetary orbiter... planetary orbiter and lander are jettisoned at Mercury, but the magnetospheric orbiter remains attached to the sail, the magnetospheric orbiter can... planetary orbiter and lander are jettisoned, the characteristic acceleration of the solar... magnetospheric orbit, the solar sail and magnetospheric orbiter could spiral in to... to the solar equatorial rotation period. With the increased solar-sail characteristic... which delivery of a Mercury orbiter and a close solar orbiter are part of the... the round-trip capabilities of solar sailing for future sample-return...’s inner heliosphere – Solo-Sail The Solar Orbiter mission Solo is a ESA F-class... demanding mission objectives, a combination of solar-electric propulsion and multiple gravity... advantages of solar sailing for future missions, we consider the Solar Orbiter mission profile in the context of using solar-sail... extremely large launch mass with a solar-electric propulsion system. The ideal... is 26 days, synchronous with solar equatorial rotation. The primary science... Solar Orbiter mission to ensure a reasonable comparison. In the case of the solar... particular, the unique 26-day solar synchronous orbit allows continuous observations..., the solar sail can rapidly crank the orbital inclination to a solar-polar.../s2 Figure 6. A 1.7 year cranking to solar polar orbit The thermal loads.... More importantly, the use of a solar sail leads to a significant increase... the solar co-rotation region. As solar sail-technology develops, therefore, future solar... Structure Orbiter power Common systems 145 131 64 182 Instruments Structure Orbiter..., during the summer solstice. The solar sail can be stationed directly... in permanent darkness (Fig. 8). The solar-sail performance needed can be... minimise the demands on the solar sail’s performance. Closer equilibrium locations... using larger or higher performance solar sails, or by selecting a less... of increased demands on the solar sail’s performance. Other applications of... for potential mission applications for solar-sailing propulsion have been identified.... Clearly, the readiness of the solar-sailing technology for implementation in..., orbit raising and navigation of a solar sailcraft. The first essential step...



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... камеры на борту Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Посадочное место 7 Примеры: Анализ планируемой... Найти время, когда Mars Express Orbiter (MEX) наиболее удален от Марса... временной интервал, когда Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) в 500 км от ровера... FOV NAC FOV Orbiter 35 Titan NAC FOV Orbiter 36 J2000 Z Earth... 23.4 deg. Path of sub-solar point on unit sphere (in... [L] Voyagers [L] Lunar Orbiter [L] Helios 1,2 [L] Past Users Current Users Cassini Orbiter Mars Odyssey Mars Exploration Rover Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter DAWN Mars Science Lab Juno SMAP MAVEN GRAIL Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... Pathfinder Osiris-Rex Mars Climate Orbiter [F] Mars Polar Lander [F] Examples of...) Huygens Probe (ESA) Solar Probe Stardust/NExT Solar Orbiter (ESA) Mars Global Surveyor...



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..., Earth science, planetary science, and solar and space physics. These surveys... Mission (GACM) 3D-Winds (Demo) Solar and Earth radiation $200 Soil... Russia – to successfully return a lunar orbiter to Earth after landing a rover... and other parts of the solar system and advancing aeronautics research... 1.1: Expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface..., origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for... interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather Australia... and other parts of the solar system. In addition, many of... example, India launched the Mars Orbiter spacecraft in November 2013 to... its journey through the inner solar system and measuring the increase...-Huygens mission includes the Cassini orbiter, which orbits Saturn, and the... the mission’s communication antenna. The orbiter’s 12 science instruments included two... for operations and tracking the orbiter and probe. The United States... life on Mars using an orbiter that detects trace gases and... services and ESA providing the orbiter. However, budget constraints led to... NASA’s Mars Odyssey, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Science Laboratory missions... advancing space exploration of our solar system and beyond while also... study Earth, the Sun, our solar system, and the universe. Center... extends human reach throughout the solar system. Marshall Space Flight Center... science and discovery throughout our solar system. Specifically, the Center developed... Directorate. Explores the Earth, our solar system, and the universe; charts... cooperation related to Earth science, solar system exploration, heliophysics, and astrophysics... to study solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares... GPS and a microwave ranging system; (2) Solar Orbiter, a spacecraft that will be placed... and characterizing planets in other solar systems. CSA Capabilities CSA has... General IG-16-020 82 Solar Orbiter. The Solar Orbiter is a spacecraft equipped with... contributing two instruments to the Solar Orbiter: SoloHI, a wide-field heliospheric imager... of heavy ions in the solar wind. ESA is providing the... expected launch date for the Solar Orbiter is October 2018. ESA Capabilities.... The Magnetospheric MultiScale mission is a solar-terrestrial mission comprised of four... on exploring Earth and the solar system and conducting research aimed...,000. Mars Orbiter Mission. India’s first interplanetary mission, Mars orbiter was launched... conditions and processes of the solar system by investigating Ceres and... Ceres and Vesta. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The Orbiter is a multipurpose spacecraft designed... Infrared Mapping Spectrometer to the orbiter. ASI’s interests include international cooperation... on other bodies in the solar system and exploratory missions to..., crewed rover system, power systems, solar electric propulsion, and in-situ... of Inspector General Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Roscosmos provided the Lunar Exploration... Orbiter, which launched in June 2009. The primary objective of the Orbiter..., momentum, and energy of the solar winds that are transferred into... understanding of the physics of solar terrestrial relations. The satellite included...-ray bursts, soft gamma repeaters, solar flares, and other transients. In... Institute, which includes research in solar and space physics (heliophysics) and... on the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter. The Spacecraft Systems Working Group... lunar exploration, including sending a lunar orbiter and lander, and expanding its... studying the habitability of different solar system bodies. Deep Space Network... radar astronomers to observe the solar system and the universe, and... Cooperation INTA has interests in solar system and planetary exploration, including... Station. Cassini Orbiter’s Magnetometer. Launched in 1997, the Cassini orbiter is a joint...’s Imperial College is using the orbiter to measure the strength and... heavy ions and to predict solar particle events. The UK Space... to mitigating the effects of solar radiation on spacecraft design and... as it enters our inner solar system, observing at close range... Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO), and the Ion and..., and interacts with radiation and solar wind. measurements of some of... one or more significant subsystems (e.g., solar panels, propulsion, avionics, etc.). Cases...