Спутник ФКИ. Solar Orbiter. [Редактировать]

Дизайн миссии. Профиль миссии Солнечного Орбитального аппарата был разработан с условием нахождения аппарата на Солнечной орбите с апогеем 0.28. Данное расположение аппарата позволит обеспечить наблюдение за полярными областями звезды. Также это позволит уменьшить угловую скорость аппарата, что позволит улучшить качество съемки. Выведение на целевую орбиту планируется при помощи осуществления гравитационного маневра при помощи Венеры.

Научная нагрузка. Главные научно-исследовательские инструменты Солнечного Орбитального аппарата должны быть представлены Европейским космическим агентством и НАСА. В настоящее время все конкурсы на производство элементов аппарата и сборку уже завершены. Полезной нагрузкой аппарата являются:

  • анализатор солнечного ветра - должен предоставить полную информацию о состоянии солнечной плазмы (протоны, электроны, тяжелые ионы и альфа частицы) на расстоянии 0.28-1.4 AU
  • детектор высокоэнергетических частиц -должен измерять параметры частиц в диапазоне от 100 MeV/n до 200 MeV/n
  • магнитометр - должен предоставить данные о магнитных полях в гелиосфере
  • измеритель радио и плазматических волн - должен измерить параметры магнитных и электрических полей. Отличительной особенностью прибора должна являться высокая скорость работы (до 20 раз в секунду).
  • Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager  - должен предоставить данные о поверхности солнца, что должно обеспечить визуальное наблюдение магнитных линий.
  • спектрометр для измерения излучения лучей в Х диапазоне (от 4 до 150 Кэв).
  • коронограф - должен предоставить информацию о короне солнца в видимом диапазоне  с различными вариантами поляризации. Также прибор должен предоставить данные спектроскопии.
  • Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager - должен предоставить данные о прохождении солнечного ветра через магнитное поле Солнца.
  • ультрафиалетовый спектрограф - должен предоставить информацию о характеристиках плазмы в регионах на поверхности Солнца.

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12017-04-29. Компания Thales Alenia Space поставила инструмент METIS и защитный щит для КА Solar Orbiter.
Компания Thales объявила о поставке в интересах производства спутника для исследования Солнца и гелиосферы двух полезных нагрузок:
1. Космическому агентству Италии был передан научный инструмент METIS (Multi-Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy). Этот инструмент разрабатывался в кооперации с OHB Italy и должен будет предоставлять ученым возможность получения высокодетальных изображений солнечной короны в видимом и ультрафиолетовом качестве.
2. Тепловой щит КА был разработан в кооперации с итальянским подразделением Airbus и он был поставлен на тестовые стенды IABG в Германии в целях проведения тестирования. Изделие создано из титана и должно будет выдерживать температуры до 600 град. Цельсия.
Срок запуска КА 2019 год.Тэги: Solar OrbiterThales Alenia SpaceЕвропейское космическое агентствоКосмическое агентство Италии

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Диаметр (апертуры телескопа), метра1.2
2Габариты (в запускаемом состоянии), метра2.5×3.0×2.5
3Скорость передачи данных (на расстоянии 1 AU), кбит в секунду150
4Система ориентациина Солнце

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (разработки аппарата), млн. долл.2011-10-05672
2Стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-10-051000

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... Heritage ix I. INTRODUCTION 1 1 Solar Variability S. K. Solanki 1 2 Spectroradiometry for Solar Physics in Space..., U. Ulmer, H. Wolf 355 28 The Solar Orbiter Mission and Design Recommendations U. Schu... at the solar surface and in the solar atmosphere from solar activity minimum...]. 1.3 Wavelength Dependence of Solar Variability The magnitude of solar variability is strongly... relative change in the solar irradiance between solar activity maximum and minimum... Livingston, W.C., Variability of the solar He I 10830 A Solar Physics, eds.: D.M. Rabin, J.T. Jefferies.... 2.3 Absolute Calibration of Solar Instruments on board Spacecraft 2.3.1 Solar Total Irradiance Monitors... for Solar Spectral Radiometry Solar physicists have attempted spectroradiometric measurements of the solar... Kurucz, R.L., Calculation of solar irradiances. I. Synthesis of the solar spectrum, Astrophys. J. 518... to those of a typical (solar or non-solar) space-telescope entrance-aperture... Imaging Telescope), SEM (Solar Extreme-ultraviolet Monitor), SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of... dataset of solar EUV irradiance measurements from solar minimum through solar maximum. The... abundance variations in the solar atmosphere and solar wind, Space Sci. Rev... importance of accurately calibrated solar irradiance data. The solar spectral irradiance in... aeronomic processes throughout the solar system. The solar VUV photons are absorbed... and its interactions with solar system objects. Calibrated solar irradiances from SOHO... solar arrays (SAP) are also indicated. 24.2 Solar-B and its Instruments The Solar... 24.2: Schematic diagram of the Solar-B Solar Optical Telescope and its associated... involves a timescale of several solar cycles, the Solar-B optical telescope is expected..., USA The next Japanese solar mission, Solar-B, is due for launch in....1 Introduction The next Japanese solar mission, Solar-B, is due for launch in... hours per year of solar observations. The Solar Auto Calibrating EUV/UV... solar-terrestrial relations, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 573–576, 1976. — 28 — The Solar Orbiter... overview is given of the Solar Orbiter mission. First, the key scientific... one of ESA’s future solar missions, the Solar Orbiter was selected in October... transferred to Solar Orbiter. We take an excerpt from the “Solar Orbiter Assessment Study... may be applicable to the Solar Orbiter. 28.2 Solar Orbiter Scientific Aims The Sun... our understanding of solar and heliospheric physics. The Solar Orbiter will, through a novel... close as 45 solar radii, the Solar Orbiter will view the solar atmosphere with... extended periods of time the Solar Orbiter will deliver images and data.... The scientific goals of the Solar Orbiter mission can be summarized as... corona from high latitudes. The Solar Orbiter will achieve its wideranging aims... Profile and Spacecraft Design The Solar Orbiter scientific requirements define a mission profile... 28.1: X-Y -plane projection of the Solar Orbiter trajectory. During the cruise phase... the overall configuration of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft during scientific observations. The... Solar 28.4. The Strawman Payload 365 Figure 28.4: Configuration of the Solar Orbiter. Orbiter... the thermal design of the Solar Orbiter. At one extreme, the spacecraft... Solar Orbiter constitute a package of sensors suited to a comprehensive study of the solar... instruments is proposed for the Solar Orbiter: an EUV full-Sun and... to the instruments of the Solar Orbiter payload are mainly imposed by... Learned from SOHO? Recommendations for Solar Orbiter The stability of the calibration... that the design of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft as described in the... outboard where that was impossible). Solar Orbiter presently has a cylindrical structure with... types. The instruments of the Solar Orbiter should be expected to have... of the mirror changes). The Solar Orbiter mission profile makes the operational... given the success of SOHO, Solar Orbiter will not present undue cleanliness... this description of the Solar Orbiter mission. Bibliography ESA, Solar Orbiter – A high-resolution mission... proposed in view of the Solar Orbiter UV instruments, for which the... instruments cheaper. As for the Solar Orbiter, the aspiration for wide-bandgap... cameras within the Solar Orbiter schedule. 29.1 Motivations Current solar atmospheric studies show... of the order of 1 . For Solar Orbiter [Marsch et al., 2000; Fleck... imagers are anticipated in the Solar Orbiter assessment study report. The format..., solar-blind, UV-sensitive cameras within the schedule of the Solar Orbiter: prototype demonstrated five years before launch. 2. All Solar Orbiter UV..., J.-C., Solar Orbiter – A high-resolution mission to the Sun and inner heliosphere, AAS/Solar... the Solar Orbiter, SP-493, in proceedings of Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop... UV detectors for the ESA Solar Orbiter, Diamond and Related Materials, in..., B., Harrison, R., Marsden, R., Schwenn, R., and Vial, J.-C., Solar Orbiter, a high-resolution mission to the... Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor SUMER Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation SWAN Solar...



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... in Spacecraft Technologies solar sail was accurately articulated. Solar sailing as an... term “solar sailing” (Garwin, 1958). Subsequent to the discussion of solar sailing... the Advanced Solar Electric Prolusion companion study NASA selected the Solar Electric... NASA completed dual solar sail development programs, funding a solar sail design by... Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki, formerly known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, and four micro-spacecraft. The solar sail... film used for solar sailing also has thin-film solar arrays embedded... CubeSat based solar sails. Indeed, NASA flew the first CubeSat solar sails... the future of solar sailing. 2. Performance metrics To compare solar sail mission... to the solar sail, ms is mass of the solar sail and... Sun-Synchronous Orbiter (Leipold et al, 1996a, 1996b). These two solar sail mission concepts are very similar, both using a solar sail...’s magnetotail. The Mercury Sun-Synchronous Orbiter meanwhile rotates the ascending node... the Sun the solar radiation pressure in-effect reduces solar gravity and... is increased solar gravity is further ‘reduced’, thus providing enhanced solar storm... a high-performance solar sail to directly balance the solar gravity to hover... the most preferential solar sail architecture. The identified preferential solar sail architecture... solar system rendezvous missions The use of solar sails for outer solar system... SRP with solar distance. 3.1.5 Outer solar system flyby missions Outer solar system fly... the negative elements of solar sail outer solar system rendezvous missions. A Jupiter.... The Cosmic Visions mission concept Solar Orbiter intends to deliver a science suite... respect to the solar equator and to a minimum solar approach radius of... inability of the Solar Orbiter mission to attain a solar polar orbit highlights the...; Macdonald et al, 2006). The Solar Polar Orbiter (SPO) mission concept is...-energy inner-solar system mission which is enabled by solar sail propulsion... spacecraft to rapidly escape the solar system. Solar sails mission concepts significantly... bound of the solar sail concept. 3.1.8 Key characteristics Solar sailing has traditionally... enhanced by solar sailing are more complex than simply this. Solar sailing... example the Solar Polar Orbiter mission. • Class Two • Where the solar sail is... as GeoSail or a Mercury SunSynchronous Orbiter Venus escape at end of... fly-through Outer solar system planet fly-by Solar Polar Orbiter Transit of... and Venus rendezvous Inner Solar System Outer Solar System rendezvous Highly Non... body Fly-by beyond solar gravitational lens Table 2. Solar sail mission key... of several solar sail missions such as the Solar Polar Orbiter and the... increase. 3.2.2 Medium-term: solar [olar orbiter The Solar Polar Orbiter (SPO) mission concept is... concept Solar Orbiter. However, the inability of the Solar Orbiter mission to attain a solar polar... to the solar limb from a terrestrial perspective which eliminates solar conjunctions and hence loss of telemetry. Once the solar sail has delivered the spacecraft to the solar polar orbit... solar sailing for a solar polar mission concept. It is thus conclude that solar...; SPO ≡ Solar Polar Orbiter; VenusSR ≡ Venus Sample Return. www.intechopen.com Solar Sailing... high AD2 of solar sailing. However, if a CubeSat based solar sail system..., allowing solar sailing to progress along its development roadmap. 6. Conclusions A solar sail... significantly enhanced by solar sailing, of which solar sailing is of marginal benefit and of which solar sailing... key applications of solar sailing and the presentation of a solar sail application pull technology development roadmap. Considering the solar sail..., hybridisation with solar electric propulsion the project risk of solar sailing could.... Dachwald, B., Solar Sail Performance Requirements for Missions to the Outer Solar System..., B., Optimal Solar-Sail Trajectories for Missions to the outer Solar System, Journal... Garwin, R.L., Solar Sailing – A Practical Method of Propulsion Within the Solar System, Jet... the outer solar system, JBIS, Vol. 61, August 2008. Kawaguchi, J., Solar Power..., R., Seboldt, W., Mercury SunSynchronous Polar Orbiter with a Solar Sail, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 39..., O., Solar Photonic Assist Trajectory Design for Solar Sail Missions to the Outer Solar... to Solar Sailing, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Solar Sailing..., G.W., McInnes, C.R., Lyngvi, A., Falkner, P., Atzei, A., Solar Polar Orbiter: a Solar Sail Technology Reference Study, Journal... 1977. Sauer, Jr., C., Solar Sail Trajectories for Solar Polar and Interstellar Probe....com Solar Sailing: Applications and Technology Advancement 59 Sharma, D.N., Scheeres, D.J., Solar System Escape Trajectories Using Solar Sails, Journal of..., Amsterdam, 1992. Yen, C. L., Comparing Solar Sail and Solar Electric Propulsions for Propulsive...



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..., M. and Groepper, P. and Peacock, T. (2001) Solar sailing - Mission opportunities and innovative...: eprints@cis.strath.ac.uk Solar Sailing – Mission Opportunities and Innovative... Programmes, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Solar sailing is a unique and elegant... mass. Rather than carrying propellant, solar sails acquire momentum from photons... in the space environment. Therefore, solar sails can expand the envelope... in December 1999 (DLR) Introduction Solar-sail technology was developed to... study sparked international interest in solar sailing for future mission applications... the development of solar-sail technologies. A strong interest in solar sailing is... individual photon is extremely small, solar sails require a large surface area... photons, solar sails must also be extremely light. For a future solar sail...) of order 0.1 – 1 mm/s2 from solar radiation pressure poses great engineering... science exploration missions throughout our Solar System and beyond, the programmatic... in the direction of developing solar sails, ESA’s Industrial Policy Committee... proposal to develop and launch a solar-sail in-orbit deployment demonstrator... hardware will be challenging. A successful solar-sail deployment demonstration will imply... European solar sailing will therefore establish the required confidence in solar sailing... mission scenarios described below. Figure 2. Solar-sail in-orbit deployment demonstration... examine the potential benefits that solar-sailing technology may provide for... missions will require rather large solar sails, a number of science missions... is therefore required while the solar sail manoeuvres to the required... as well as the lunar-solar gravitational perturbations, has demonstrated the... a solar-sail technologydemonstration mission. A mission to study a planet in our Solar System... array of instruments. It requires solar-electric propulsion, chemical propulsion and... of a 360 kg planetary orbiter, a 165 kg magnetospheric orbiter and a 44 kg hard lander. The three-axis-stabilised orbiter... orbiter will investigate the interaction of Mercury’s magnetic field with the solar... assess the potential benefits of solar sails for future planetary exploration... been reconfigured for delivery by solar-sail propulsion alone. To allow for a realistic comparison, the solar-sail solution must provide a comparable... is adequate for the Mercury orbiter mission, but a figure of 0.3 mm... + payload) of 590 kg (planetary orbiter, magnetospheric 61 Figure 4. A 2.38 year... a characteristic acceleration of 0.3 mm/s2 orbiter and lander), the sail size... is shown in Table 2. The solar-sail option offers significant advantages... orbiter Magnetospheric satellite Lander PAYLOAD TOTAL 463 59 31 553 Planetary orbiter... planetary orbiter and lander are jettisoned at Mercury, but the magnetospheric orbiter remains attached to the sail, the magnetospheric orbiter can... planetary orbiter and lander are jettisoned, the characteristic acceleration of the solar... magnetospheric orbit, the solar sail and magnetospheric orbiter could spiral in to... to the solar equatorial rotation period. With the increased solar-sail characteristic... which delivery of a Mercury orbiter and a close solar orbiter are part of the... the round-trip capabilities of solar sailing for future sample-return...’s inner heliosphere – Solo-Sail The Solar Orbiter mission Solo is a ESA F-class... demanding mission objectives, a combination of solar-electric propulsion and multiple gravity... advantages of solar sailing for future missions, we consider the Solar Orbiter mission profile in the context of using solar-sail... extremely large launch mass with a solar-electric propulsion system. The ideal... is 26 days, synchronous with solar equatorial rotation. The primary science... Solar Orbiter mission to ensure a reasonable comparison. In the case of the solar... particular, the unique 26-day solar synchronous orbit allows continuous observations..., the solar sail can rapidly crank the orbital inclination to a solar-polar.../s2 Figure 6. A 1.7 year cranking to solar polar orbit The thermal loads.... More importantly, the use of a solar sail leads to a significant increase... the solar co-rotation region. As solar sail-technology develops, therefore, future solar... Structure Orbiter power Common systems 145 131 64 182 Instruments Structure Orbiter..., during the summer solstice. The solar sail can be stationed directly... in permanent darkness (Fig. 8). The solar-sail performance needed can be... minimise the demands on the solar sail’s performance. Closer equilibrium locations... using larger or higher performance solar sails, or by selecting a less... of increased demands on the solar sail’s performance. Other applications of... for potential mission applications for solar-sailing propulsion have been identified.... Clearly, the readiness of the solar-sailing technology for implementation in..., orbit raising and navigation of a solar sailcraft. The first essential step...



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....4 16.5 16.5 16.5 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter 199.2 147.5 40.0 19.1 0.2 0.1 - 4.1 34... Satellite (LCROSS) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) will launch in late... on NASA's next lunar orbiter after Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter (LRO) and Gravity... considering options for: a small lunar orbiter (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment... expected from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission developed by Exploration...): Vesper, a Venus chemistry and dynamics orbiter that would advance our knowledge... Mission funding. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which began... Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Scout (Phoenix) Mars... collaborative effort, with a four year orbiter prime mission. Cassini is the..., initiated study of Solar Orbiter Collaboration project, delayed formulation of Solar Sentinels, and..., Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SPC) with the European Space Agency. Solar Probe... the solar system. The Solar Orbiter Collaboration will investigate the links between the solar... Solar Probe mission. 5. Select instruments for start of Phase A for the Solar Orbiter... a predictive space weather capability. Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC) The Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC) with... that were prioritized by the Solar Orbiter/Solar Sentinels Joint Science and Technology... 2007 Select instruments for the Solar Orbiter Collaboration SOC New Implementation Schedule... of science investigations. NASA-led Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC) instruments are to... 6.1 By 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that will provide information... 9AC12 Launch the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. (LRO) Lunar Precursor Robotic Program....0 20.0 20.0 20.0 0 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter 120.7 209.5 91.5 23.2 0.2 0.1 0 Lunar....5 Budget Authority ($ millions) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Robotics Lander Lunar Precursor... by executing the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observing and...-situ resources. LPRP's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is in development... 6.1 ("by 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that will provide information... Changes Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project is a lunar... Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter FY 2009 Budget Request Budget... Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Purpose The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is... Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Parameters LRO has a dry... activities. The instruments are: * Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) for precise... Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Commitments LRO will launch... Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Schedule Commitments LRO received confirmation... Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Development Cost and Schedule Summary... plan changes. Project Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Base Year Base Year Development... Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Management The LRO Project... Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Risk Management Title Aggressive... of Shuttle production contracts for Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Boosters... Test Facility used for testing orbiter maneuvering system rocket engines. For... Operations Transition & Retirement FLIGHT HARDWARE Orbiter EVA 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 External Tank 298.7 313... Space Center (KSC) include three Orbiter Processing Facilities, two launch pads... Space Shuttle Space Shuttle Program Orbiter The Orbiter, the winged vehicle that... (OCO), Glory, Kepler, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite... of Shuttle production contracts for Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Boosters... (PER) for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Advanced... 6.1 By 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that will provide information... Shuttle production Shuttle contracts for Orbiter, External Tank, Program Solid Rocket... 6.1 By 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that will provide information... 9AC12 Launch the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. (LRO) Lunar Precursor Robotic Program... 7SSE13 Red Begin Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) primary science phase. Efficiency... Sands for the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) missions. Outcome 6.1: By 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO..., the Venus Chemistry and Dynamics Orbiter, proposes to significantly advance understanding... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter JOI Jupiter Orbit Insertion LROC Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera...-Infrared Spectrometer MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter NISN NASA Integrated Services Network... Outer Planets Assessment Group OPF Orbiter Processing Facility ORR Operations Readiness... SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar SOC Solar Orbiter Collaboration SATS Small Aircraft Transportation... Exploration and Technology SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet SPC Solar Orbiter Collaboration SC Shared...



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..., Earth science, planetary science, and solar and space physics. These surveys... Mission (GACM) 3D-Winds (Demo) Solar and Earth radiation $200 Soil... Russia – to successfully return a lunar orbiter to Earth after landing a rover... and other parts of the solar system and advancing aeronautics research... 1.1: Expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface..., origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for... interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather Australia... and other parts of the solar system. In addition, many of... example, India launched the Mars Orbiter spacecraft in November 2013 to... its journey through the inner solar system and measuring the increase...-Huygens mission includes the Cassini orbiter, which orbits Saturn, and the... the mission’s communication antenna. The orbiter’s 12 science instruments included two... for operations and tracking the orbiter and probe. The United States... life on Mars using an orbiter that detects trace gases and... services and ESA providing the orbiter. However, budget constraints led to... NASA’s Mars Odyssey, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Science Laboratory missions... advancing space exploration of our solar system and beyond while also... study Earth, the Sun, our solar system, and the universe. Center... extends human reach throughout the solar system. Marshall Space Flight Center... science and discovery throughout our solar system. Specifically, the Center developed... Directorate. Explores the Earth, our solar system, and the universe; charts... cooperation related to Earth science, solar system exploration, heliophysics, and astrophysics... to study solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares... GPS and a microwave ranging system; (2) Solar Orbiter, a spacecraft that will be placed... and characterizing planets in other solar systems. CSA Capabilities CSA has... General IG-16-020 82 Solar Orbiter. The Solar Orbiter is a spacecraft equipped with... contributing two instruments to the Solar Orbiter: SoloHI, a wide-field heliospheric imager... of heavy ions in the solar wind. ESA is providing the... expected launch date for the Solar Orbiter is October 2018. ESA Capabilities.... The Magnetospheric MultiScale mission is a solar-terrestrial mission comprised of four... on exploring Earth and the solar system and conducting research aimed...,000. Mars Orbiter Mission. India’s first interplanetary mission, Mars orbiter was launched... conditions and processes of the solar system by investigating Ceres and... Ceres and Vesta. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The Orbiter is a multipurpose spacecraft designed... Infrared Mapping Spectrometer to the orbiter. ASI’s interests include international cooperation... on other bodies in the solar system and exploratory missions to..., crewed rover system, power systems, solar electric propulsion, and in-situ... of Inspector General Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Roscosmos provided the Lunar Exploration... Orbiter, which launched in June 2009. The primary objective of the Orbiter..., momentum, and energy of the solar winds that are transferred into... understanding of the physics of solar terrestrial relations. The satellite included...-ray bursts, soft gamma repeaters, solar flares, and other transients. In... Institute, which includes research in solar and space physics (heliophysics) and... on the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter. The Spacecraft Systems Working Group... lunar exploration, including sending a lunar orbiter and lander, and expanding its... studying the habitability of different solar system bodies. Deep Space Network... radar astronomers to observe the solar system and the universe, and... Cooperation INTA has interests in solar system and planetary exploration, including... Station. Cassini Orbiter’s Magnetometer. Launched in 1997, the Cassini orbiter is a joint...’s Imperial College is using the orbiter to measure the strength and... heavy ions and to predict solar particle events. The UK Space... to mitigating the effects of solar radiation on spacecraft design and... as it enters our inner solar system, observing at close range... Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO), and the Ion and..., and interacts with radiation and solar wind. measurements of some of... one or more significant subsystems (e.g., solar panels, propulsion, avionics, etc.). Cases...



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... Cells ................................................................. 27 3.2.4 Amorphous/Polycrystalline Solar Cells .................................................................. 29 Solar Arrays ........................................................................................................................29 3.3.1 BOdy-Mounted... Environment Solar Arrays .......................................................................... 69 Mars Surface Solar Arrays ..................................................................................................73 5.6.1 Multi-junction Solar Cells... power full power 4) High Temperature Solar Arrays Solar Probe, Sentinels, PASO 5) High... of solar intensity (e.g., Solar Probe) • • • • • • High intensity/high temperatures (Mercury and solar missions... solar cells used in space is given in Table ES-3. Solar Arrays Solar... Nuclear Sample Return (CNSR), (2) Neptune Orbiter (NO), (3) Venus Surface Sample Return... Europa Orbiter, Europa Lander, various Jupiter Orbiters. These missions require solar cells... missions (e.g., Mercury Orbiter, PASO, Inner Heliospheric Constellation and Solar Flotilla missions) that... several challenges to solar array technologies. The Jupiter Polar Orbiter and 10... in order to enable the Solar Probe, Solar Sentinels, Enterstellar Probe, and... about 0.2 AU. These include Solar Probe, Solar Sentinels, Interstellar Probe, and PASO... solar cells Single junction GaAs solar cells • Multi-junction III-V compound semiconductor solar... final product. 3.2.4 Amorphous/Polycrystaliine Solar Cells Solar cells utilizing amorphous or polycrystalline.... Solar cell manufacturers usually package solar cells into panels. Each panel contains solar... Station 100-kilowatt solar power system has eight solar arrays. Solar array designs... Require or May Benefitfrom Solar Power 39 Solar Cell and Array Technology... C/D MRO Mars Recon Orbiter Near Term CNES1 Mars CNES Orbiter Flight 1 Near Term CNES2 Mars CNES Orbiter Flight 2 Near... ASI/NASA Telesat and Science Orbiter Near Term MSR Mars Sample... Scout 2 Mid Term EO Europa Orbiter Near Term PKE Pluto-Kuiper... Lander Mid Term NO Neptune Orbiter Mid Term CNSR Comet Nucleus... Far Term JPO Jupiter Polar Orbiter Far Term SPECS Submillimeter Probe...) were: Europa Orbiter Pluto/Kuiper Express Europa Lander Neptune Orbiter Titan Explorer Saturn Ring Observer Jupiter Polar Orbiter. A decadal... the solar cell performance. Missions to the Jovian system (Europa Orbiter, Europa Lander, Jupiter Polar Orbiter) will also experience high radiation doses (See Section 5.5). Advanced solar... missions that depend on solar power. Lowmass solar arrays with low stowed.... The primary purpose of the orbiter missions is to explore the... launch a powerful scientific orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. This mission will focus... orbit. For example, the Reconnaissance Orbiter will measure thousands of Martian... 0.25 AU in 2015, the Solar Orbiter mission (a European Space Agency Spacecraft..., and the Particle Accelerator and Solar Orbiter (PASO) mission is proposed to... Solar Power Part II - Final Report Solar Cell and Array Technology The Solar... Solar Power 49 Solar Cell and Array Technology • Solar Polar Imager Jupiter Polar orbiter • Mercury Orbiter... cost arrays, high temperature solar cell/arrays, solar cells and arrays that... missions (e.g. Mercury Orbiter, PASO, Inner Heliospheric Constellation and Solar Flotilla missions) that... to within 4 solar radii from the center. The solar-powered Solar Probe mission presents challenges to the solar cell and... SSE Jovian missions. Solar-powered Jupiter Polar Orbiter and 10 Electrodynamics missions... systems to replace or augment solar arrays. Solar arrays may be designed... 0.25 AU in 2015, the Solar Orbiter (a European Space Agency Spacecraft) reaches..., and the Particle Accelerator and Solar Orbiter (PASO) attains 0.17 AU in... 5-5. SquareRigger™ Solar Array System Advanced Solar Cells and Arrays 63 Solar Cell and... be purchased. 5.3 High Temperature Solar Arrays Introduction Solar arrays have been used... components from direct solar illumination. The solar array, which converts solar illumination to... power. 5.5 High Radiation Environment Solar Arrays Introduction Solar-powered missions to the... Report Solar Cell and Array Technology 5.6 Mars Surface Solar Arrays 5.6.1 Multi-junction Solar... • Dust mitigation 4) High Temperature Solar Arrays Solar Probe, Sentinels, PASO ·350°C operation... a high altitude aircraft for solar cell calibration, solar simulators for cell efficiency... Aeronautics and Space Agency Neptune Orbiter National Renewable Energy Laboratory Navy... Solar Reflector OSS Office of Space Science PASO Particle Accelerator and Solar Orbiter Abbreviations and Acronyms 91 Solar Cell and Array...



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....3 25.3 Budget Authority, $ in million Solar Terrestrial Probes Heliophysics Explorer Program...], HELIO-19 Solar Probe Plus [Formulation], HELIO-25 Solar Terrestrial Probes, HELIO... in the launch of the Solar Orbiter Collaboration mission to 2017. In... will use a solar telescope and spectrograph to explore the solar chromosphere, a 2000... measurements of atmospheric aerosols and solar irradiance. Project Element Provider Description... the surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and (if technically possible... close quarters. It comprises a large orbiter, which is designed to operate... Survey, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) science mission are three..., ESMD will transfer Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) operational control and funding... Ops Res Research Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Science Mission Lunar Atmosphere... a small Class III, Enhanced Class D Orbiter. Estimated Project Deliverables The spacecraft..., constitutes a critical element of NASA's solar system exploration capability. NRC-recommended... the solar system as it is today and of the solar system... Jupiter Large variations in solar intensity, solar array temperatures, solar off-point angle... Title Solar Array Issues Risk Statement Development issues with the solar arrays... prove impossible. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is in its extended... to fly on a Mars 2016 orbiter mission to measure trace gases... its formulation phase, MAVEN, a robotic orbiter mission, will provide a comprehensive picture... designs from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and 2001 Mars Odyssey missions... Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL..., JSC, GSFC None Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) JPL JPL, ARC, GSFC... in the 2016 (trace gas orbiter) and the 2018 (two rovers... ions, solar wind and solar energetic particles, magnetic fields, and solar extreme ultraviolet... Magnetometer (MAG) Measures interplanetary, GSFC solar wind, and ionospheric magnetic fields... effects of solar-energetic particles is not tailored properly, then solar events.... The Solar Orbiter Collaboration will transition into Phase B for formulation. Solar Probe Plus.... SDO will continue mission operations. Solar Terrestrial Probes The Magnetospheric Multiscale... out of the inner solar system, with the solar wind flagging more.... Preparing for the next solar maximum, the Solar Dynamics Observatory completed its... for Phase A studies for Solar Orbiter collaboration mission. Solar Probe Plus, completed the...: the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) and the Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC) mission. Solar Probe... integration and testing. The Solar Orbiter Collaboration and Solar Probe Plus missions will... of this document. Solar Probe Plus The Solar Probe Plus mission is... forms of solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in solar irradiance. Space... Wallops Balloon Program Office. Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC): The Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC) is... CNES and DERA. NASA-led Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC) instruments were selected.... Approaching as close as 9.5 solar radii, Solar Probe Plus will repeatedly sample... the most hazardous solar energetic particles are energized, Solar Probe Plus will..., sampling the solar wind as it evolves with rising solar activity toward... with a Star Solar Probe Plus Estimated Project Deliverables Solar Probe will launch... Directorate: Theme: Program: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Project Descriptions and... Directorate: Theme: Program: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Implementation Schedule Project...: Project In Development: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS...: Project In Development: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS...: Project In Development: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS...: Project In Development: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS...: Project In Development: Science Heliophysics Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS... the edge of the solar system, where the solar wind interacts with... will use a solar telescope and spectrograph to explore the solar chromospheres. This... and Stirling power conversion, solar (photovoltaic and solar-dynamic systems), and nuclear... successes of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation... Kennedy Space Center include three Orbiter Processing Facilities, two launch pads... the Mobile Launch Platforms, the Orbiter Processing Facilities, and landing site... safe SSP mission execution. For Orbiter, these costs include safing the... covers the costs of dispositioning Orbiter, Space Shuttle Main Engine, External... System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), • Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and • Stratospheric... Research Awards LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter IRM Information Resources Management LRR... Technology Council MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center... SOC Security Operations Center SOC Solar Orbiter Collaboration Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared...



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.... Space Exploration. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched in August 2005... its return to Earth. Shuttle orbiter Atlantis, launched on 9 September, docked... Shuttle fleet stand-down following orbiter Columbia’s failure. In a 6-1/2-hour spacewalk... of the four sensors inside orbiter Discovery’s liquid hydrogen fuel tank... pose little risk to the orbiter on re-entry. A concern was... should they have struck the orbiter. Subsequent observation by a camera mounted... the orbiter’s thermal protection system, and 350 digital photos of the orbiter... the next Shuttle flight of orbiter Atlantis. On 16 August NASA... to the mission’s primary Shuttle orbiter. On 7 July NASA downgraded its... in the year. The planned Solar Orbiter launch was delayed by two... in September 2007, and NASA’s Solar Dynamics Orbiter, planned for 2008. On... Vehicle, Ares-5. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched on 12 August... window; a Mars science and communications orbiter to be launched in 2013... April that the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), planned for launch in... the LRO, India’s Chandrayaan lunar orbiter and other spacecraft. The LRO... successful mission, ESA’s Smart-1 lunar orbiter was guided to a controlled crash... lunar -81- exploration programme: a lunar orbiter mission in 2007, a rover on... (Chang’ E3). The Japanese (JAXA) orbiter mission SELENE (Selenological and Engineering.... A new mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), is being developed by... launched the Messenger mission, a Mercury orbiter, as a part of its Discovery... mission consists of a Mercury Planetary Orbiter (for high resolution multi-wavelength... physics studies), and a Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (dedicated to a study of particles... Programme. Principal goals for the orbiter's latest mission extension include continued... observations with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; imaging of possible landing sites... to wind and ice. The orbiter’s current mission extension was planned... achieve a low Mars orbit. The orbiter carries three science instruments (THEMIS.... Mars Express consists of an orbiter with eight experiments. These are... separation from the Mars Express orbiter and nominal injection, entered the... early 2004, the Mars Express orbiter delivered new science results related... as with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission during the extended mission... past water. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched in August 2005, arrived... future missions. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter carries six science instruments, three... one metre. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter carries the most powerful camera... and rovers. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter also carries a sounder to find...-resolution instruments. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also serve as the... to use the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in coming years. -122- The... orbiter, a descent module and a Mars rover. Dwarf Planets and Small Solar System... Rosetta project consists of an orbiter with eleven experiments and a lander... the major objectives of the orbiter is to study the development... scheduled for November 2007. The orbiter will deploy the lander after... redundant radio channels to the orbiter due to a commanding error. One... Titan’s formation. -127- The Cassini orbiter also made extensive studies of... had been successfully achieved. The orbiter carries out remote visual, infrared... to observing Titan, the Cassini orbiter is making extensive measurements of... first one, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), will study the surface... second one, the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), will investigate the magnetic... by the NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). MRO was inserted into... and its payload. The Cassini orbiter was built and managed by... the assessment phase is ESA’s Solar Orbiter, to be launched in 2015... pixel size. Over extended periods, Solar Orbiter will deliver images and data... will be explored by a magnetospheric orbiter (MMO), that is an element... solar-terrestrial science: (1) the solar interior; (2) the solar atmosphere; (3) the influence of the solar... highly complementary to the ESA Solar Orbiter and would fit well with... comet. The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Category III), successfully launched from... an Atlas-5 launch vehicle. The orbiter (MRO) contains a high resolution camera... Mars Odyssey. ESA’s Mars Express orbiter (Category III) continues its mission... Aparatus Proposed ESA/JAXA Mercury orbiter (2012) Balloon-borne Experiment with... (NASA) Lunar mission (India) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar rover (China) Sample...-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer US Lunar orbiter NASA/CSA satellite A mission consisting... Orbiter Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer Monitor Experimental (Russia) Mercury Planetary Orbiter Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mesospheric Summer Echoes Meteosat... and Atmospheric Administration Japanese Mars orbiter (US) National Polar-orbiting Operational... SMART-1 SNOE SOFIE SOHO Sojourner Solar A Solar B Solar Orbiter SOLAR-2000 SORCE SOXS Soyuz-Fregat... SunRISE Selenological and Engineering Explorer orbiter mission (JAXA) Space Environment Monitor...



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... .................................................................................................................15 3.1.4. VC-4: Solar Orbiter E-field measurements and wake ....................................................16 3.1.5. VC-5: Solar Orbiter electron measurements... .............................................................................29 3.2.3. VC-4 Solar orbiter E-field and wake ..............................................................................29 3.2.4. VC-5 Solar orbiter electron measurements ....................................................................30... Physics Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (ESA) BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (JAXA) Magnetospheric MultiScale mission (NASA) BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (ESA... instrument Solar Energetic Particle Spacecraft Secondary Electron Emission from Electron impact Solar Orbiter (ESA) Statement Of Work Solar Probe plus (NASA... Software Requirement for SPIS-SCI Solar Wind Analyzer To be defined... environment of a spacecraft in the solar wind. Adv. Space Res., 1981... electrical charging of the Rosetta orbiter: 1. Numerical model. J. Geophys. Res., 2004... interaction effects expected on Crossscale, Solar orbiter, or EJSM/Laplace and submitted... photoelectron issues are similar to Solar Orbiter (VC-4, VC-5), which is presently... Title VC-4: Solar Orbiter E-field measurements and wake VC-4 Solar Orbiter E-field measurements and... effects of the non-conducting solar panels Test case  Simple model... with new developments  For different solar panel positions (facing or 35..., 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1 AU  Average and extreme solar wind conditions (regular slow and...  Comparison with model in the Solar Probe Plus context: [Ergun2010]   Comparison... SWOOPS, Helios, Wind 3DP (CDAWeb) Solar Probe Plus, Bepi-Colombo TR... 3.1.5. Number Title VC-5: Solar Orbiter electron measurements VC-5 Solar Orbiter electron measurements Priority High... with new developments  For different solar panel positions (facing or 35..., 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1 AU  Average and extreme solar wind conditions (regular slow and...)  Comparison with model in the Solar Probe Plus context: [Ergun2010]  Comparison... SWOOPS, Helios, Wind 3DP (CDAWeb) Solar Probe Plus, Bepi-Colombo -18... other test cases: Rosetta and Solar Orbiter (VC-4, VC-5) are good analogies... in very varied medium (from Solar Wind to inner jovian magnetosphere... : validation with C. Cully’s code For solar wind conditions: comparison to Rosetta...-1) and electron trajectories (VC-2), Solar Orbiter for the solar panel interconnects (VC-4, VC5...’s code Large potential difference at solar panel interconnects (~200V) Comparison with...-003 TBD Messenger (PDS) Cluster Solar Orbiter -20- TR 4/17826 DESP JUNE... Solar Orbiter cases (VC-4, VC-5). Origin Scientific case   Wake effect due to solar..., ESC-003 TBD Messenger (PDS) Solar Orbiter TR 4/17826 DESP -21- JUNE... the inclusion of I-V curves of solar arrays  Comparison with ESA previous... not add much outside the Solar Orbiter simulations, for which the community... for both average and extreme solar wind conditions (regular slow and... workshop May be redundant with Solar Orbiter cases Contact: J.A. Sauvaud (IRAP) ESC... (IRAP, STEREO Science Center, CDAWeb) Solar Orbiter -24- TR 4/17826 DESP JUNE... a variety of Local Time and solar illumination conditions Comparison to data...-2 VC-4 Cluster E-field Cluster electron Solar Orbiter measurements measurements E-field measurements and... Cluster Rosetta VC-5 VC-12 Solar Orbiter Cassini electron electron measurements measurements... instance, solar wind, magnetosheath and inner magnetospheric regions. 3.2.3. VC-4 Solar orbiter E-field and... presented, and in addition several solar panel orientations will be simulated... The effect of non-conducting solar panels on the electric field...-FGS-2, SR-ESC-3). 3.2.4. VC-5 Solar orbiter electron measurements Solar orbiter cases are exciting validation... is of particular importance for Solar Orbiter which will hold its electron... the magnetospheric lobes and the solar wind to very high densities...



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... in Spacecraft Technologies solar sail was accurately articulated. Solar sailing as an... term “solar sailing” (Garwin, 1958). Subsequent to the discussion of solar sailing... the Advanced Solar Electric Prolusion companion study NASA selected the Solar Electric... NASA completed dual solar sail development programs, funding a solar sail design by... Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki, formerly known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, and four micro-spacecraft. The solar sail... film used for solar sailing also has thin-film solar arrays embedded... CubeSat based solar sails. Indeed, NASA flew the first CubeSat solar sails... the future of solar sailing. 2. Performance metrics To compare solar sail mission... to the solar sail, ms is mass of the solar sail and... Sun-Synchronous Orbiter (Leipold et al, 1996a, 1996b). These two solar sail mission concepts are very similar, both using a solar sail...’s magnetotail. The Mercury Sun-Synchronous Orbiter meanwhile rotates the ascending node... the Sun the solar radiation pressure in-effect reduces solar gravity and... is increased solar gravity is further ‘reduced’, thus providing enhanced solar storm... a high-performance solar sail to directly balance the solar gravity to hover... the most preferential solar sail architecture. The identified preferential solar sail architecture... solar system rendezvous missions The use of solar sails for outer solar system... SRP with solar distance. 3.1.5 Outer solar system flyby missions Outer solar system fly... the negative elements of solar sail outer solar system rendezvous missions. A Jupiter.... The Cosmic Visions mission concept Solar Orbiter intends to deliver a science suite... respect to the solar equator and to a minimum solar approach radius of... inability of the Solar Orbiter mission to attain a solar polar orbit highlights the...; Macdonald et al, 2006). The Solar Polar Orbiter (SPO) mission concept is...-energy inner-solar system mission which is enabled by solar sail propulsion... spacecraft to rapidly escape the solar system. Solar sails mission concepts significantly... bound of the solar sail concept. 3.1.8 Key characteristics Solar sailing has traditionally... enhanced by solar sailing are more complex than simply this. Solar sailing... example the Solar Polar Orbiter mission. • Class Two • Where the solar sail is... as GeoSail or a Mercury SunSynchronous Orbiter Venus escape at end of... fly-through Outer solar system planet fly-by Solar Polar Orbiter Transit of... and Venus rendezvous Inner Solar System Outer Solar System rendezvous Highly Non... body Fly-by beyond solar gravitational lens Table 2. Solar sail mission key... of several solar sail missions such as the Solar Polar Orbiter and the... increase. 3.2.2 Medium-term: solar [olar orbiter The Solar Polar Orbiter (SPO) mission concept is... concept Solar Orbiter. However, the inability of the Solar Orbiter mission to attain a solar polar... to the solar limb from a terrestrial perspective which eliminates solar conjunctions and hence loss of telemetry. Once the solar sail has delivered the spacecraft to the solar polar orbit... solar sailing for a solar polar mission concept. It is thus conclude that solar... Return; SPO ≡ Solar Polar Orbiter; VenusSR ≡ Venus Sample Return. Solar Sailing: Applications and... high AD2 of solar sailing. However, if a CubeSat based solar sail system..., allowing solar sailing to progress along its development roadmap. 6. Conclusions A solar sail... significantly enhanced by solar sailing, of which solar sailing is of marginal benefit and of which solar sailing... key applications of solar sailing and the presentation of a solar sail application pull technology development roadmap. Considering the solar sail..., hybridisation with solar electric propulsion the project risk of solar sailing could.... Dachwald, B., Solar Sail Performance Requirements for Missions to the Outer Solar System..., B., Optimal Solar-Sail Trajectories for Missions to the outer Solar System, Journal... Garwin, R.L., Solar Sailing – A Practical Method of Propulsion Within the Solar System, Jet... the outer solar system, JBIS, Vol. 61, August 2008. Kawaguchi, J., Solar Power..., R., Seboldt, W., Mercury SunSynchronous Polar Orbiter with a Solar Sail, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 39..., O., Solar Photonic Assist Trajectory Design for Solar Sail Missions to the Outer Solar... to Solar Sailing, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Solar Sailing..., G.W., McInnes, C.R., Lyngvi, A., Falkner, P., Atzei, A., Solar Polar Orbiter: a Solar Sail Technology Reference Study, Journal... 1977. Sauer, Jr., C., Solar Sail Trajectories for Solar Polar and Interstellar Probe..., 2000. Solar Sailing: Applications and Technology Advancement 59 Sharma, D.N., Scheeres, D.J., Solar System Escape Trajectories Using Solar Sails, Journal of..., Amsterdam, 1992. Yen, C. L., Comparing Solar Sail and Solar Electric Propulsions for Propulsive...