Техника. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. [Редактировать]

Стратосферная обсерватория ИК-астрономии  — совместный проект НАСА и Германского центра авиации и космонавтики по созданию и использованию телескопа системы Кассегрена, работающего с борта летящего самолета. Первые изображения с помощью этого телескопа были получены 26 мая 2010, астрономические наблюдения велись около 2 минут, в ходе которых были сняты Юпитер и ядра галактики M82. Первый научный вылет состоялся в начале декабря этого же года и шёл около 10 часов, в течение которых проводились наблюдения области активного звездообразования в туманности Ориона.

SOFIA расположен на борту широкофюзеляжного самолета Boeing 747SP, который был модифицирован для установки телескопа-рефлектора с 2.5 метровой апертурой в задней части фюзеляжа и работает на высотах 12−14 км, в стратосфере. Первоначально телескоп был разработан для астрономических наблюдений в инфракрасной области спектра, но также может быть использован для наблюдений в частотах видимой области спектра. Водяной пар, находящийся в атмосфере Земли, поглощает некоторые ИК волны на их пути к поверхности планеты, но возможности проекта SOFIA позволяют поднять телескоп достаточно высоко, чтобы он был выше основной массы пара атмосферы. На высоте полета самолета доступно около 85 % всего ИК спектра. Самолет может перелететь практически в любую точку планеты, позволяя вести наблюдения как в Северном, так и в Южном полушариях. После завершения разработок, ожидается, что в течение следующих 20 лет самолет сможет совершать по 3 — 4 ночных полета с наблюдениями в неделю.

Научные инструменты
В настоящее время в разработке 7 первых научных приборов, пять из которых производятся Американской стороной проекта и два со стороны Германии. В список научных приборов входят: камеры, спектрометры и фотометры работающие в ближнем, среднем и дальнем ИК диапазонах. Некоторые научные инструменты предназначены для конкретных явлений, т.е. узконаправленные, другие же предназначены для широкого спектра задач и способны работать одновременно с другими инструментами для получения информации от изучаемых объектов и явлений.

Телескоп обладает следующими научными приборами:

  • EXES (Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph)
  • FIFI-LS (Field Imaging Far Infrared Line Spectrometer)
  • FLITECAM (First Light Infrared Test Eperiment CAMera)
  • FORCAST (Faint Object InfrRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope)
  • GREAT (German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies)
  • HAWC+ (High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera)
  • HIPO (High Speed Imaging Photometer for Occultation)

SOFIA телескоп
Подобно большинству современных научных телескопов, телескоп SOFIA использует зеркало для накопления и фокусировки света от исследуемых объектов. Зеркальные телескопы более практичны в использовании и дёшевы в изготовлении по сравнению с телескопами, использующими линзы для тех же целей. Основное зеркало расположено в нижней части телескопа и имеет 2.7 метра в диаметре. Поверхность зеркала глубоко вогнута, тщательно отшлифована и имеет покрытие из алюминия для обеспечения максимальной отражательной способности. Входящий световой поток отражается от поверхности основного зеркала и направляется обратно к переднему краю телескопа, где расположено вторичное выгнутое зеркало диаметром 0.4 метра, направляющее свет от исследуемого объекта обратно к первичному. На пути дважды отражённого и сконцентрированного света на расстоянии примерно в 1 метр от поверхности первичного зеркала расположено следующее, но уже плоское зеркало, отражающее свет в сторону от зеркальной системы телескопа внутрь самолёта, где расположена фокальная плоскость телескопа. Здесь сфокусированный поток света регистрируется и анализируется одним из научных приборов.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1SOFIAНайтиНайти

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-12-15. DLR возвратила НАСА воздушную обсерваторию SOFIA. Основной задачей, решаемой в Германии, являлось проведение капитального ремонт самолета. В качестве подрядчика выступала Lufthansa Technik. Трудоемкость операций по обслуживанию составила 60,000 часов. В ходе ремонта подрядчик выполнил следующие работы: демонтаж и повторная сборка кабины, замена шасси, проверка и обслуживание всех структур самолета, замена двух двигателей.Тэги: Немецкий аэрокосмический центрStratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy
22015-01-10. Kepler и SOFIA, две астрономические миссии НАСА под угрозой закрытия из-за технических и бюджетных ограничений. SOFIA это самолет серии Боинг-747SP который оборудован 2.5 метровым инфракрасным телескопом. Угрозу данному проекту составляла возможность резкого снижения уровня финансирования (до 12.3 млн. в 2015 году, по сравнению с 87.4 в 2014 году). Однако, конгресс нашел возможности увеличить данный объем до 70 млн. долл. Космический аппарат Kepler в 2014 году испытывал технические проблемы с маховиками и двигателем ориентации на Солнце. Однако, по заверению НАСА сейчас все проблемы уже решены. Особенностью найденного решения является использование солнечного ветра для стабилизации аппарата. Тэги: KeplerStratospheric Observatory for Infrared AstronomyЕвропейское космическое агентство
32015-01-15. Стратосферная обсерватория ИК-астрономии (SOFIA) 13 января 2015 года начала третий сезон научных полетов.Тэги: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy
42015-02-03. NASA получила дополнительное финансирование аэрообсерватории SOFIA.
SOFIAЧерез год после приостановки на модернизацию самолета проекта Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), Белый Дом попросил конгресс увеличить бюджетное финансирование на эксплуатацию установленного на Боинг 747 космического телескопа.
Как часть бюджетной заявки на 2016 год NASA попросило о выделении 85 млн долл на продолжение программу по эксплуатации обсерватории. Это значение на 20 процентов выше чем выделенные в 2014 году средства.
Перед последним слушанием в сенате руководство НАСА сказало, что часть средств пойдет на разработку нового телескопа.Тэги: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Диаметр (телескопа), метра2.5

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-01-01373.0
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01604.5
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-012954.5
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-0135.0
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2007-01-01919.5
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2007-01-012000.0
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-013002.9
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-0135.0
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-011128.4
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-011839.5

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... 336 – Science Results from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Poster Session 337 – Astrophysical.... The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is pioneering the... the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in... L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster... Institution(s): 1. Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, 2. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 3. The Ohio State... large telescopes. MINERVA is a dedicated observatory for exoplanet detection that consists of... College, 3. Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 4. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network... Astrophysical Research Consortium/Apache Point Observatory for this work. References: [1] Y. R. Fernandez et... Astronomy Observatory, 2. Swarthmore College 144.22 – The Secret Lives of Cepheids: Searching for... Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA... infrared astronomy instruments. 146.22 – Characterization of Silicon Moth-Eye Antireflection Coatings for... space-borne observatory designed for optimal sensitivity in the mid-infrared through submillimeter... Southern Observatory, 3. Johns Hopkins University, 4. Leiden University, 5. Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy... Institution(s): 1. Harvard-CfA, 2. Leiden Observatory, 3. Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, 4. NRAO, 5. UC San...) spectra for 27 nearby host galaxies observed in Las Campanas Observatory. For the... Institution(s): 1. Center for Astrophysics, 2. Florida Institute of Technology, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 4. Space...(s): 1. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 2. University of Chicago Yerkes Observatory, 3. Wisconsin School for the Deaf... Radio Astronomy Observatory, 5. National Radio Astronomy Observatory 241.10 – A New High-Frequency Search for Galactic... of Technology, 2. Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, 3. University of Washington...-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 2. Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 4. Universit... Astronomy Observatory, 2. University of Chicago Yerkes Observatory, 3. Williams Bay Lion's Club, 4. Wisconsin Center for...(s): 1. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 2. University of Chicago Yerkes Observatory, 3. Wisconsin School for the Deaf... Astronomy Observatory, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory 247.01 – The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program Lowell Observatory... University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is... Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia. Author(s): Linnea Saby1 Institution(s): 1. National Radio Astronomy Observatory... German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (GREAT) on board of Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA... search for trends in the population. A thorough search of the literature for infrared excess stars has been combined with a large-scale survey for... Flight Center, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 4. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 5. Space Telescope Science Institute... students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have... University, 2. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 4. Swinburne University of... Bonfield4 Institution(s): 1. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 2. South African Astronomical Observatory, 3. University of Cape... 336 – Science Results from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Poster Session 336.01... FORCAST instrument on board the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). NGC 7009 has a relatively... magnitude, at best. With the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) routinely operating science flights... Planc Institute of Radio Astronomy, 2. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 3. New Mexico Institute of... Southern Observatory, 4. Harvard-Smithsonian, CfA, 5. Macquarie University, 6. Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy... Center for Astrophysics, 5. JPL/Caltech, 6. KIPAC/Stanford, 7. Lund Observatory, 8. Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, 9. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics... for Radio Astronomy, 11. Middlebury, 12. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 13. Observatory... Astronomy Observatory, 2. University of Wisconsin-Madison 409.04 – A New Mass Conversion Law for... Faure2 Institution(s): 1. ESO, 2. Grenoble Observatory, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 4. UCLA 410.06D – Determining... Variations The North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has the... post-observing support throughout the observatory for more efficient use of resources... North Observatory The students of the Glendale Community College’s Astronomy Students for Telescope...



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... Observatory (SDO) into a geosynchronous orbit which is not a usual trajectory for an astronomy... observe the Sun for over five years. The observatory is part of... launch the agency's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) replacement satellite aboard a Taurus... ringed planet. >> Chandra X-ray Observatory Evidence for a thin veil of carbon has... Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to provide science and operational support for Chandra, a powerful... Earth for analysis. >> Suzaku Astronomers used the Suzaku orbiting X-ray observatory, operated... Physics NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) made new observations about...´s robotic Earth observation, astronomy and planetary exploration probes for the next decade... and launch site for sounding rockets and long duration stratospheric balloons. Kiruna... business unit was responsible for the medium wave infrared and TopSat remote... Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite have provided an unprecedented - 165 - opportunity for... sensitive to regional changes in stratospheric volcanic and tropospheric mineral aerosols... (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer), although designed primarily for astrophysics science objectives... the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, is designed to discover and... be observed with a ‘Great Heliospheric Observatory’, a fleet of spacecraft designed and... of astronomy. After the most profound lull in solar activity for nearly... Observatory are launched, SOHO’s continued observations will provide essential calibration data for...) observatory, launched in 2002, is now supplying the world gamma-ray astronomy... development for launch in 2014. Spectrum RG is a RKA Xray observatory with Russian and German X-ray instruments for launch in 2014. The large International X-ray Observatory (IXO... being launched in 2003. Infrared NASA’s Spitzer Observatory has ended its cryogenic... of millions of infrared sources, and its data for many years to... the NASA-DLR SOFIA stratospheric observatory for far-IR astronomy in 2010. NASA and...) MAXI (NASA/ESA) Observatory mission with 2.4 m telescope for imaging and spectroscopy of... GI programme. (Japan) Observatory mission with 10 m antenna for orbiting VLBI imaging... survey mission. Spitzer (NASA) Observatory mission. Space Infrared Telescope Facility. IR telescope...-H GEMS (India) X-ray observatory. (ESA) Technology test mission for future Laser Interferometer... mission for high resolution spectroscopy and hard X-rays. Indian mission for X-ray astronomy. (RKA) Mission for X-ray astronomy with Russian and German telescopes. Conclusions Astronomy from space is a model for.... The requirement for simultaneous ground-based observations at optical, infrared and radio.... The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the first mission for NASA’s Living With... in the development of a stratospheric airship for small payloads and associated technologies.... A joint exercise for the evaluation of a world-wide stratospheric airship system and... prepare for the first scientific flight of PILOT – a new astronomy gondola. The astronomy... and monitoring of long duration stratospheric balloon flights anywhere in the... for measurement of vertical water vapour profiles, SPIRALE – an infrared absorption spectrometer for... scattered sunlight to characterize stratospheric aerosols; SALOMON, a spectrometer for measuring aerosol extinction... absorption, ISAO – a spectrometer for measuring stratospheric ozone; STAC, for in situ measurement of... for the launch of scientific balloon flights for the Far-infrared Interferometric Telescope astronomy... Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). The currently expected launch date for DSCOVR is December 2013. The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO... very useful for learning about high energy astrophysics, gamma-ray astronomy and... included future plans for using data from the Fermi observatory, were made... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations Charged Aerosol Release Experiment Coordination Action for... Program Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communication and Astronomy (Japan) formerly VSOP An... Infrared Infrared Astronomical Satellite International Reference Ionosphere spectrometer for the measurement of the stratospheric... Telecommunications Union Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics Influence of Vibrations... Diffusion in Liquids International X-Ray Observatory Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism..., now Spitzer Observatory (NASA) Satellite Laser Ranging Small Missions for Advanced Research... Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Solar irradiance model high time and high spectral resolution model for... for the Study of the Origin and Evolution of Life Stratospheric and... Energy Programme Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer - 275...



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... recommended space astronomy missions, such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), Large Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and the Space Infrared Telescope for... Map for the 2010–2020 Decade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4.1. IXO: International X-ray Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11... Space Telescope: Launch 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4.4.9. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA): Fully operational 2014 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39... to formulate a long-term programme for observatory-class missions. The Working Group... concepts driven by science requirements for future observatory-class missions. Technology development... the only new large space astronomy Observatory to be possibly operational in... loss of scientific capability. Space Infrared Observatory for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) (Ferlet... a large aperture, cryogenically cooled far-infrared observatory studied as a collaborative JAXA/ESA... a large aperture, cryogenically cooled far-infrared observatory is essential to bring about... concepts driven by science requirements for future observatory-class missions. Technology development... Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a recommended NASA observatory based on... of space astronomy in the future. Next generation c ray Observatory. Large specialised... USA, Europe, Japan. SPICA: far infrared observatory (Japan, ESA, Canada, USA) – to... WG vision for “ground based” observatory status and future plans. Astronomy is the... observatory (INTEGRAL), launched in 2002, is now supplying the world c-ray astronomy... development for launch in 2014. Spectrum RG is an RKA X-ray observatory with Russian and German X-ray instruments for launch in... all-sky survey mission (NASA) Observatory Infrared Telescope Facility. IR telescope of... appreciation of and support for astronomy, than any observatory since Galileos telescope. HST... Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachussets, is responsible for the conduct... for a planned operational lifetime of 2 years with possible extension. The Observatory is... primary astronomical usage of the observatory is for high-resolution spectroscopy with... science, which is very important for an observatory-class mission (see Fig... radiation. For the foreseeable future, INTEGRAL will remain the only observatory enabling.... The observatory continues to collect near-ultraviolet (227 nm) images for a Legacy... productive observatory demonstrating the importance of the infrared spectral region for galactic, extragalactic... The Herschel Space Observatory is the largest infrared space observatory launched to date... (L2). Infrared astronomy is a young and exciting science. In recent decades infrared astronomers.../CSA) Observatory, IR 6.5 m mirror telescope sensitive from 0.6 to 27 lm Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (NASA... – Germany X-ray astrophysical observatory. Germany is responsible for the development of the... observatory being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for studying... Space Agency. The observatory consists ofa large, infrared-optimised space telescope with... element of the NASA programme. 4.4.9. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA): Fully operational 2014 SOFIA..., 2000) is a world-class airborne infrared observatory (see Fig. 41) that will.... 41. Photo of SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, during ’open-door’ flight tests.... Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST).WFIRST is an observatory designed to... X-ray Observatory (IXO). After this merger a study was performed for IXO which.... 5.2.2.8. M3: Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT). The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT..., for high throughput X-ray observations. Dark matter and cosmic ray observatory on... international space observatory designed for observations in the ultraviolet domain. The observatory includes... in 2014. The observatory is expected to operate for about 10 years... – German X-ray astrophysical observatory. Germany is responsible for the development of the... construct a space observatory operating in millimetre, sub-millimetre and infrared wavelength ranges... ESO observatory in Chile. Major facilities like the Australia telescope for radio astronomy... Antenna Low Frequency Array Large Observatory For X-ray Timing Large Synoptic Survey... Square Kilometer Array Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Space Programme Committee Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and... al., International X-ray Observatory (IXO) Assessment Study Report for the ESA Cosmic.... 24–32, 2010. Krabbe, A., SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. In: SPIE, vol. 4014, pp...



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... Missions ............................................................................................................................................................. 9 Expendable Launches ............................................................................................................................................................... 9 Space Science Astronomy and Space Physics .............................................................................................................................................. Solar System... another area of astronomy, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory(GRO) has found... requirements of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), as a multi-satellite facility... employed for research in such scientific disciplines as geophysics, astrophysics, and astronomy... from an orbiting gravitational wave observatory. To improvecurrent propulsion systemsand achieve... system for the National Science Foundation (NSFIsponsored Laser Interferometric Gravitational Observatory complex..., astronomers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, AZ, reported observations... Astrophysical Observatory (SAO)in Cambridge, MA, and at the Center for Earth... stars undetected in High Energy Astronomy Observatory-2 (HEAO-2)images but also showed.... The HST, NASA's first Great Observatory launched in April 1990, continued... in 1992. A Smi thsonian Astrophysical observatory (SAO) scientist also worked with... Observatories, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) launched in April 1991... of the originally envisioned, larger observatory-will complement theobservations made by... a year later. A fourth Great Observatory, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), remained the highest priority in space astronomy... no formal developmental efforts for an infrared astrophysics mission will begin until... funding is available, strong support for infrared science makes the initiation of... scientists from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, provided new insights into the... stars undetected in High Energy Astronomy Observatory-2(HEAO-2)imagesbut also showed that... its research aircraft. For example, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAGa C-141 Starlifter... the KAO for their research. In Other Areas of Astronomy, NIST scientists... observatory. NIST scientists havealso constructed the first stageof a vibration isolation system for the NSF-sponsored Laser Interferometric Gravitational Observatory complex, consisting... scientists at the SAOs Whipple Observatory in AZ achieved the first... by NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), but at energy levels..., astronomers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Tucson, AZ, reported... for collecting radio signals from space), a staff member of the National Astronomy.... At the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson, AZ, scientists have... preparation for proposed observing programs for the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1993, members of the Laboratory for Astrophysics... Naval Research Laboratory for use on the ESA's Infrared Space Observatory, have shown... (HST), the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), all Space Shuttleflights, and... rocketsemployed for research in such scientific disciplines as geophysics, astrophysics, and astronomy... cause virtually no impact on stratospheric ozone. Laboratory testing of low.... For example, the Forest Service acquired high alti tude, color, infrared aerial... from the Second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-111, a sixmonth study... total ozone amounts for the period 1979-92. Infrared sounders on the... objective techniques for diagnosis and predicting of hurricane intensity using infrared satellite... temperature and humidity product for theTelevision and Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational... System Second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition Anti-Ballistic... rays COSPAS COSTR 62 Astronomy Observatory Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science Advanced... Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle... Global Positioning System Gamma Ray Observatory The temporary gain in lift... Haystack Auxiliary Radar High Energy Astronomy Observatory High-Energy Solar Physics Highly... Group Infrared Infrared Astronomy Satellite Icing Research Tunnel Intelsat Solar Array Coupon Improved Stratospheric..., high radio frequency Kuiper Airborne Observatory-a C-141 Starlifter at AmesResearch Center... Acceleration Mapping System Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment Satellite... TIMED TIROS SNOWpack TELemetry Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Solar and Heliospheric Observatory A sudden, intense brightening... ROSAT CRRES Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Extreme... STS flight. Launched Gamma Ray Observatory to measure celestial gamma-rays...



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... Search for Origins: A Vision for Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Space Astronomy Exploration and the Search for Origins: A Vision for Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Space Astronomy... and the Search for Origins: A Vision for UltravioletOptical-Infrared Space Astronomy REPORT OF THE... for the Future of Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Astronomy from Space ............................................................................................... 1 1. Astronomy: Its Rewards for Science and Society ................................... 1 2. Goals for the... or more. NASA’s first infrared observatory, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), promises... broad capabilities in ultraviolet-optical-infrared (UVOIR) astronomy from space that are... develop a space observatory of aperture m or larger, optimized for imaging and spectroscopy... operation of this observatory, so that resources available for scientific analysis will... Function Infrared-Optical Telescope Array Infrared Infrared Astronomical Satellite Interstellar Medium Infrared Space Observatory International... Space Infrared Telescope Facility Space Interferometry Science Working Group Small Explorer Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy... for the Future of Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Astronomy from Space 1. ASTRONOMY: ITS REWARDS FOR SCIENCE... Space Astronomy that the HST is an optical rather than an Infrared.... I. A Vision for the Future of UVOIR Astronomy from Space The Space Infrared Telescope... on new technological solutions for both the observatory and its operations is... Astronomy from Space II. The Proposed Program 3. ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL-INFRARED SPACE OBSERVATORIES FOR... be investigated with observatory-class missions. A cooled telescope optimized for the wavelengths..., a space observatory is required, as demonstrated by ESA’s Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and.... Moreover, the technology required for this observatory is important to smaller, more... post-SIRTF mission concepts for a future cooled space observatory proposed over the... observatory. That is, the ‘cost   Exploration and the Search for Origins: A Vision for... state of Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared (UVOIR) space astronomy in the year 2005... IR space astronomy, two very important missions are ESA’s Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), just beginning its planned 1-1/ 2 year mission, and NASA’s Space Infrared... Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will be a 2.5m aperture IR-optimized telescope flown at stratospheric... construction of a multi-aperture infrared interferometric space observatory. It is more difficult... provide the first space observatory capabilities in the infrared, ISO and SIRTF... would possess baseline observatory requirements similar to those for the study of... would have baseline observatory requirements similar to those for the study of... observatory at λ տ 10 µm for z տ 3. A spectral resolution of about λ/∆λ ≈ 103 should be adequate for... wavelengths will be a vital capability for a future observatory. As a guide, a spatial resolution... and the Search for Origins: A Vision for UVOIR Space Astronomy for the 4m space...) 1992, The Next Generation Infrared Space Observatory, (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers) Brown... Observatory, (Didcot: Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) Thronson, H. A., Sauvage, M., Pascal, G., & Vigroux, L. (eds) 1995, Infrared... scientific goals and priorities for UltravioletOptical-Infrared (UVOIR) astronomy. Although our report focusses... the Search for Origins: A Vision for UVOIR Space Astronomy (2) construction of an Infrared (IR... Committee considered. For point sources, a 4m cooled space observatory will have roughly... and Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Section 7.5 discusses point-source sensitivities for a 4m telescope for broadband... background-limited space observatory will be critical for spectroscopic study of small... will have been discovered by Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), SIRTF, and large.... A particularly informative program for a future IR space observatory will be extragalactic mineralogy... space observatory optimized for λ ≈ 3 – 20 µm will be the single most important facility for... at red and infrared wavelengths with a large space observatory. At rest wavelengths..., and thus on the observatory’s orbit. Optimization for wavelengths longer than 3 µm is... technical requirements for operation longward of about 2 µm—instrument and observatory cooling, cryogenic... Astronomy. Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Panel on Ground-Based Optical and Infrared Astronomy. Richard McCray, Chair. 1995. A strategy for ground-based optical and infrared astronomy...



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...-239 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SMD-243 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SMD-247 Astrophysics Explorer Wide-field Infrared Survey... societal needs. Plans For FY 2008 1) OCO mission observatory Pre-Ship Review... conducts prime operations for the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and Hinode... the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). If selected for development, the second....7 57.1 58.4 59.5 61.0 62.5 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 90.8 -- 77.3 89.1 88... planet-finding research and technology. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 0.0 77.3 The SOFIA Program... how stars and galaxy form. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Following engine checkout in... Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA, hosts the principal investigator institution for the Infrared Array..., high-energy gamma-ray observatory designed for making observations of celestial gamma... for astronomy and physics for the current decade--is a large, deployable, spacebased, infrared astronomical observatory... for astronomy and physics for the decade--is a large, deployable, space-based infrared astronomical observatory. JWST conducted a replan in 2006 and is scheduled for... Parameters JWST will be optimized for infrared astronomy, with some capability in the... near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The observatory was designed to be... for science operations and science center. W.M. Keck Observatory, California Association for Research in Astronomy...: Science Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Program Budget Budget Authority ($ millions) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA... Major Program Changes FY 2008 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) FY 2007 PB... Directorate: Theme: Program: Science Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Program Relevance SOFIA will... offers a unique world-class facility for infrared astronomy covering parts of the spectrum... a 2.5 meter telescope optimized for infrared/sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy. In addition, the SOFIA... Directorate: Theme: Program: Science Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Implementation Schedule Project Prior... Directorate: Theme: Program: Science Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Program Risk Management Title...: Project In Development: Science Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Budget / Life Cycle... of Major Project Changes Project Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) The SOFIA project is...: Project In Development: Science Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Project Purpose Mission... Imaging Photometer for Occultation (HIPO) Lowell Observatory High-speed imaging photometer for Occultations...: Project In Development: Science Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Schedule Commitments The...) N/A N/A 2010 Development Cost Summary Project Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Base Year 2007 Base... Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Project Management The current replan places responsibility for SOFIA program management, aircraft observatory development, and flight...: Project In Development: Science Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Project Risk Management... the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and sub-millimeter... space to date. The observatory will operate for 700 hours a year at... systems at White Sands for the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Lunar... were added for: the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), Aquarius, Glory, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory.../2008 5 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 2007 1,005.5 2007 1,005.5 1/1/2013 0 Wide-Field Infrared Survey... Deliver Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) instruments to spacecraft for integration. Living with... Deliver Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) instruments to spacecraft for integration. APG 7ESS15... Deliver Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) instruments to spacecraft for integration. Living with... TPF Terrestrial Planet Finder SOFIA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy TPS Thermal Protection System SOHO...



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... . . . . . . . . . . .627 III-21 High Energy Astronomy Observatory Project Plan, NASA, June 13... SIRTF . . . . . . . . . . . .Space Infrared Telescope Facility SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . .Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory SOFIA . . . . . . . . . . .Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SPAC . . . . . . . . . . . .Space.... B. Stellar Astronomy 1. Title: Proposed Study for a Satellite Telescope Institution: Princeton University Observatory Project... interested in high-energy and infrared astronomy, and wishes to see them... SPACE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY The fourth Great Observatory, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility is a long-lived, meter-class, cryogenically cooled, infrared observatory... as those described below. [23] STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY (SOFIA) SOFIA is a 3-meter-class... the next several years, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy will give new power to... areas such as x-ray and infrared astronomy, solar physics, and solar system... (e.g., the Keck telescopes), aircraft (e.g., the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy—SOFIA), balloons, and sounding rockets... more suitable for planetary astronomy purposes. The space agency built an observatory on... believe that astronomy and astrophysics (e.g., Space Telescope, Gamma Ray Observatory) represent better... first of NASA’s major astronomy missions, Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO)-1.20 The... the execution of a National Space Astronomy Observatory, among other projects.29 [III... Laboratory, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory as well as those from... Instrument for Gamma Ray Astronomy to be Flown to the Orbiting Solar Observatory... is discussed in detail below. Infrared Astronomy Parts of the near-IR... to the development of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a three-meter telescope on... and dry. 117. H. H-G. Aumann, Airborne Infrared Astronomy (Rice University Ph.D. thesis, 1970...). 118. F. J. Low, “Airborne Infrared Astronomy: The Early Years,” Airborne Astronomy Symposium, NASA Ames... the infrared was not launched until 1983. This satellite, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite.... It remains for the fourth Great Observatory, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF... a photometer for the far IR. A European satellite, the Infrared Space Observatory, which had... has been used on all infrared astronomy satellites and probably made such...-BASED ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) The second Great Observatory... (NASA) [3] Princeton University Observatory Associated Universities for Research in Astronomy University of Rochester... Orbiting Astronomical Observatory project. The review of the Orbiting Astronomy Observatory given to... telescopes for space astronomy. We envision such an instrument as a National Astronomical Observatory... Harvard College Observatory Cambridge, Mass. [iii] PREFACE The Astronomy Missions Board was... in a stratospheric airplane primarily for point source observations, and a Small Astronomy Satellite to... program. The infrared astronomy program has a most pressing need for research and development...-21 Document title: High Energy Astronomy Observatory Project Plan, NASA, June 13... Revision C HMA-1001 HIGH ENERGY ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY PROJECT PLAN APPROVED: [signature] Rocco... Flight Project 832, High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO). This plan is prepared... Project 832, entitled “High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO).” The NASA code number... EXPLORING THE UNKNOWN 639 Infrared Astronomy Research Program Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics... National Observatory, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, National Accelerator Laboratory, and National Center for Atmospheric... the IDT’s, the Astronomy Team, and the Observatory Scientists selected as a result... to the IDT’s, the Astronomy Team, and Observatory Scientists, are as follows... to provide a space observatory for use by the international astronomy community to extend... opportunities for refurbishment and upgrading of the focal-plane instruments. The Infrared Astronomy... of astrophysics for infrared astronomy, and could form the backbone of future infrared observational... material. A large airborne observatory with infrared capabilities (concept for study) would allow [70... Observatory Science Working Team [1] GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATORY SCIENCE PLAN I. INTRODUCTION Gamma-ray astronomy... Astronomy Observatory RICHARD C. HENRY, The Johns Hopkins University RICHARD A. McCRAY, Joint Institute for... served as a professor of astronomy and observatory director at the University of... was responsible for the early planning on the high energy astronomy observatory and..., 690, 727 Infrared Space Observatory, 529 Infrared Spectrograph, IRS, 541 Infrared Telescope in Space... Administration, NOAA, 471 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, 662 National Radio Company..., 517, 616, 619 National Space Astronomy Observatory, 507 National Space Policy, 204..., 428 Stone, Peter H., 452, 453 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, 216, 250, 258, 527...



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... AFRL) Adaptive Optics with a Laser for Astronomy (Calar Alto, ES, 3.5 m Durchmesser/diameter...) Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (Infrarotastronomie/infrared astronomy) Austrian Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope... GMD) Caribbean Diaspora for Science, Technology, and Innovation Center for Astronomy Education (University... Adenosinmonophosphat California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education Commission on...¨ uchtung) Carnegie Airborne Observatory Computer Aided Optimization Council for Accreditation in Occupational...¨ arer Antigenrezeptor California Association for Research Astronomy Computer Aided Radio and Television... Survey (Astrophysik/astrophysics) Collection of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles (DLR project) Committee...-Shelf (hardware or software) Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics (neuartige Blasenkammer... Tololo Inter-American Observatory (La Serena, Chile) Center for Intelligent Transportation Research... of New York Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (Gran Sasso National... Committee for Future Accelerators European Consulting Forum for Research Networking Exoplanet Characterization Observatory... und Softwaretechnik (Berlin) Far-Infrared Surveyor (Astronomie/astronomy) Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg... Routing Encapsulation GREAT German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (onboard SOFIA... Astrophysical Observatory High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz Telescope Harmonised European Approaches for Transport...-P´ erot Interferometer (Astronomie/astronomy) Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared Heavy Ion Research... M¨ unchen Intracluster Medium (Astronomie/astronomy) International Commission for Mathematical Instruction Internet Control...] Innovative Medicine for Europe India-Based Neutrino Observatory Iranian National Observatory Institut f¨ ur... Retrieval Infrared [Radiation] Institutional Repository Iran (ISO 3166) Institute for Radio Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (Grenoble, FR) Infrared Astronomical Satellite... (AIP Service) Independent System Operator Infrared Space Observatory (1995–1998) International Standards.../telecommunication) International X-Ray Observatory International Year of Astronomy (2009) International Young Physicists... of the Hubble Space Telescope for infrared, planned for 2018) Java 2 Enterprise Edition... Intelligenz Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics Korea Institute for Advanced Study (Seoul... Interferometric Camera – Near-Infrared Visible Adaptive Interferometer for Astronomy LINE Long Interspersed Element... Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (Infrarotastronomie/infrared astronomy) Large Millimeter Telescope (on Volc...) Random Access Memory Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory (bei/near Cambridge, UK) Mixed... (Astronomie/astronomy) Magnetresonanz-Mikroskopie Mesh Reduction Method(s) Messenger RNA Magdalena Ridge Observatory... Observatory (at WVU et al.) Integration of Novel Nanoparticle Based Technology for... National Astronomical Observatory of Japan Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (f¨ ur/for ESO... etwa 2020/planned for around 2020) New Gravitational-Wave Observatory Non-Government... of Automotive Excellence National Optical Astronomy Observatory (USA) Network Operating (or: Operation... office) Noise Rating National Radio Astronomy Observatory (Green Banks, WV, USA) Numerical... Memory National Virtual Observatory (USA, geplant f¨ ur/planned for 2010) Near Video.../astronomy) Output Variance Constraint Optical Vortex Lens (Astronomie/astronomy) Owens Valley Radio Observatory...) Parallel Connected Twin Junction (Infrarotastronomie/infrared astronomy) Packet Control Unit (Telekommunikation/telecommunication... Stars (planned search for exoplanets, ESA, start 2024) Plateau Observatory (Antarctica) Packet... Stratospheric Cloud (Ozonloch/hole in the ozone layer) Presidential Specialized Council for... Astronomical Observatory South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation Software as a Service (for... Adaptive Recursive Filter Stratospheric Change and its Role for Climate Prediction (DFG... Maximum Mission (NASA) Submillimeter (Infrarotastronomie/infrared astronomy) Small Open Reading Frame (Genetik... Observatory (Sudbury, ON, CA) Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy (or: Microscope) Services for... Access Protocol (Telekommunikation/telecommunication) Southern Observatory for Astronomical Research Study of Oxytocin... (G¨ ottingen) Superresolution Optical Fluctuation Imaging Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (NASA/DLR, seit/since 2006... Awareness (Astronomie f¨ ur benachteiligte Kinder/astronomy for handicapped children) University of North...) Vapor-Cooled Shield (Infrarotastronomie, Kryostat/infrared astronomy, cryostat) Voice Communication System Vertical... Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (in UK manufactured camera for ESO, Chile... Area Search for Planets (Observatorium auf La Palma/observatory on La Palma... Decision Making Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Wyoming Infrared Observatory (USA) WAN Interface Sublayer...



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... from satellites such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and International Ultraviolet... to develop technology for lightweight, efficient propulsion concepts for swpersonic cruise con..., multiaxial constitutive models for composites will be developed for prediction of environmental... integration for aviation effectiveness and efficiency; (2) develop architectures for flightcrucial systems for future aircraft and devise analytical methods and techniques for.... Initial studies a r e underway for evaluating active controls concepts for future aerospace vehicle... .ature advanced materials. For example, processing techniques for fabricating ceramic matrix composite... area of devices for heterodyne detection in the far infrared portion of... for providing materials for detectors and mixers in the near- and far-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Methods will be investigated for... for extending the re- sponse of detectors out into the far infrared and upper portions of the submillimeter region for space..., dampers) will be prepared for installation for the second hot-fire test... technology to improve and extend infrared sensor performance and life. Onboard... station. For COFS 111, a project plan was defined for analytical development for multibody... class of high precision Earth observatory missions on the Shuttle, Space... have stressed the need for providing a n allowance for changes and modifications which... contractor for implementation is planned for late FY 1988. Initial funding for the... in the field of radio astronomy. The ultrasensitive network antennas are... such as Spacelabs, Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and Upper Atmosphere Research... are included for PSCN which provide for the circuits and facilities for programmatic... Control Center (MSOCC) for control of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), Cosmic... p i . o i e ~data from the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and the Upper Atmosphere... for completing replacement of display equipment and for large application software programs for... FACILITIES Observatory, Shuttle attached payloads, and the Upper Atmcsphere Research Satellite. For... needs. The funds requested for 1988 provide for: The continuation of prior... Committee recnpizes the necessitv for a comprehensive environmental program for the purpose of... efforts pursuing mechanisms for US-Latin American S&T cooperation. For example, a report entitled... A Physics and astronomy Hubble space telescope development Gamma ray observatory development ShutllelSpacelab... development ..................................... 3. Space science ..................................................................................... A. Physics and astronomy ...................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... 4. Space applications ....................................................................... A . Solid Earth observations... of them may consider for development. Negotiations for the development phase of... for procurement of stages for NASA missions, for technical monitoring and management activities for... authorizes $973,700,000 for Space SciencesPhysics and Astronomy, Life Sciences and...,000 is for Physics and Astronomy, $74,600,000 is for Life Sciences. and $307,300,000 is for Planetary Exploration. 1. PHYSlCS A N D ASTRONOMY-$891,800,000 Summary of fmcal year 1988 funding for physics and astronomy $98,400,000 Hubble Space Teleseope............................................................................... Gamma Ray Observatory... Total for physics and astronomy.......... .................................... 5913800800 The objectives of the Physics and Astronomy... wavelength regions, such as the infrared, ultraviolet, or x-rays and gamma... Telescope will be an automated observatory, delivered into orbit by the... new jobs, 270 are for Headquarters, 25 for the Inspector General’s Office... section authorizes $10 million for the program for each of fiscal years... 1989, and $15 million for the program for each of fiscal years... available October 1, 1987, for “Research and development”, for the following programs: (1) Permanently..., $553,600,000. Phvsics and astronomy, $581,800,000. (3) ~, (4) Life sciences... Observer Spacecraft for launch in 1992 and for procuring spare parts for-a Planetary... shall submit a detailed plan for collecting reimbursements for the utilization of the... period for which funds are otherwise available for obligation, provide for the p a r t for contingent... the high resolution solar observatory (HRSO). +$5,000,000 for initial work on...-$93,400,000. 3. Gamma Ray Observatory-$49,100,000. 4. Galileo-$55... in fiscal year 1988 for servicing technology for the space station so... development of a high resolution solar observatory (HRSO] as a vehicle-independent program...



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... projects in 2010. For example, in preparation for its upcoming confirmation review.... While NASA has implemented a plan for improving its acquisition management, monitoring... and Volatile EvolutioN Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource IdentificationSecurity... Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Surface Water and Ocean Topography... 5: Average Number of Critical Technologies for Projects in Implementation Figure 6: Average... Exploration Flight Test for the Orion vehicle, scheduled for September 2014 Exploratory... Financial Officer Orbiting Carbon Observatory Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 Office of Management and... Belt Storm Probes Solar Dynamics Observatory system definition review Space Network... Passive NASA Science Mission Directorate Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Solar Probe Plus Surface Water... technology readiness level(s) Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer This is a work... are highlighting several key areas for NASA management’s attention, including continued... value management, implementing best practices for design stability and technology maturity... about requirements, technology, and design. For those projects, NASA provided preliminary... Transparency and Design Criteria Needed for National Aeronautics and Space Administration... $636.5 million OCO-2 Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 $467.5 million $8.83 billion $281... Network Ground Segment Sustainment SOFIA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy TDRS Tracking and Data Relay... a lack of adequate funding for activities planned for fiscal year 2014. NASA... 5: Average Number of Critical Technologies for Projects in Implementation NASA’s increased... use original baseline data for measuring outcomes, including for JWST, one of... understood. More specifically, project officials for ICESat-2 acknowledged that important information... The project delivered the GPM observatory to Japan on November 27... International Partner: German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) Launch Location: Baikonur.... The system operates as an observatory with two spacecraft and instruments... eventual integration and testing activities for the observatory will also be affected... the integration and test schedule for the observatory to conduct as many... Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope that is... to work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum... as optocouplers. Each observatory’s FPI suite includes eight instruments, for a total of... International Partner: Institute of Research for Astrophysics and Planetology, Toulouse, France... Projects common name: Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 Previously Reported Challenges • • • • Funding Parts... Duration: 2 years NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) is being designed to... Projects common name: Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 OCO-2 project update Issue Update... covered by project reserves. The observatory is currently undergoing final assembly... building these units for a long duration of flight for the first time... integration and testing on the observatory. Following the late delivery of... planned integration and test activities for the observatory have been further adjusted....) The project also stated that observatory integration and test began in... to meet NASA’s requirements for human spaceflight. For example, the ICPS currently... following the preliminary design review. For example, additional detailed design activities... of Selected Large-Scale Projects Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA is a joint project between... observatory is designed to provide routine access to the visual, infrared, far-infrared... galaxies. Interchangeable instruments of the observatory are being developed to allow... derived from: 1991 Decadal Survey for Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council... is insufficient to prepare the observatory for storage. 11/95 Project confirmation... to complete deliverables for the Certification Products Contract for its CST-100... to complete deliverables for the certification products contract for its Dream Chaser... to complete deliverables for the certification products contract for its modified DragonRider... also noted that the request for proposal for the Commercial Crew Transportation... spacecraft/payload s are ready for launch. For the fixed-price contracts discussed... averages calculated were analyzed for meaningful relationships, for example, relationship between cost... oversight, we reviewed NASA’s metrics for measuring acquisition management and supporting... discussion of project challenges for selected projects. For LADEE, SOFIA, and TDRS...: $636.5 million Project: Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) Launch Readiness Date: February...: $493.9 million (under review) Project: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Full Operational Capability: April... in surrogate aircraft. Technology ready for detailed design studies. 6. System/subsystem... or limited/restricted flight demonstration for a relevant environment. Integration of technology...