Спутник ФКИ. Surface Water and Ocean Topography. [Редактировать]

Спутник фундаментальных космических исследований. Предназначен для решения задач: гидрологии, океанографии. По своей сути является спутником дистанционного зондирования Земли в высоком разрешении. Должен предоставить информацию о перемещении больших водных объемов по океану и рекам. Запуск аппарата планируется в 2020 году. Предварительно в качестве средства выведения выбрана ракета-носитель Фалькон 9. На аппарате планируется установить две антены Ka диапазона размером по 5 метров каждая. Антены будут расположены на штангах длиной 5 метров. Таким образом, аппарат сможет работать как интерферометр. Помимио этого на него будет установлены радиометр и GPS приемник. НАСА финансирует около двух третей от потребного объема ассигнований (затраты на интерферометр). Доля Франции в финансировании состаляет $300 млн (на высотометр, платформу и сборку аппарата). Великобритания планирует потратить 9 млн евро (затраты на часть оборудования радара).

 

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1SWOTНайтиНайти

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-01-07. Космическое агенство Франции подписало первый из планируемых трех контрактов на создание космического аппарата SWOT. Данный контракт заключен с Thales Alenia Space of France и содержит работы по платформе и интеграции оборудования.Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean Topography
22015-09-30. Thales Alenia Space получила заказ на поставку радарного альтиметра.
Thales Alenia Space подписала контракт с космическим агентством Франции на разработку и поставку радарного альтиметра Посейдон-3С. В качестве космического аппарата, на который будет установлен прибор обозначен космический аппарат SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography).
При этом, компания поставит агентству не только надирный высотометр, но и осуществит разработку и поставку принципиально нового широкозахватного радара Ка-диапазона. В целом данный контракт является развитием научно-технического задела который был получен в ходе работ над космическим аппаратом Jason-3 (на него был установлен Посейдон 3Б). Рабочие частоты нового прибора будут составлять 13.6 и 5.3 ГГц. Тэги: Thales Alenia SpaceJason 3Surface Water and Ocean TopographyКосмическое агентство Франции
32016-11-23. Компания SpaceX выиграла контракт НАСА.
Космическое агентство США выбрало компанию SpaceX в качестве поставщика услуг по запуску космического аппарата Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Сроком запуска объявлен 2021 год. Стоимость запуска объявлена в размере 112 млн. долл. В рамках контракта оператор окажет следующие услуги:
1. Осуществит адаптацию РН к ПН.
2. Обеспечит поступление телеметрии в процессе выведения.
3. Обеспечит производство и запуск РН.
Местом запуска выбрана пусковая база ВВС США Ванденберг.Тэги: Фалькон 9 (вер 1.2)SpaceXКосмическое агентство СШАSurface Water and Ocean Topography
42017-01-17. Космическое агентство Канады заключило новый контракт.
Космическое агентство Канады объявило о заключении 3.8 млн. долл. контракта с Communications & Power Industries Canada (CPI) на разработку компонентов для миссии Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Целевой задачей разрабатываемого в рамках проекта КА будет являться съемка около 90 процентов поверхности океанов, морей,рек и озер. Полученные в ходе эксплуатации КА данные планируется использовать для построения моделей круговорота воды и прогноза погоды. Запуск аппарата планируется в апреле 2021 года. Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean TopographyКосмическое агентство КанадыCommunications and Power Industries
52017-05-29. GAO обнародовала данные о состоянии разработки КА Surface Water and Ocean Topography.
Согласно представленному отчету:
1. Целью миссии Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) будет являться использование широкозахватного альтиметра, который должен будет обладать высокой скоростью съемки и улучшенной точностью. Целевыми объектами для съемки выбраны поверхности океанов, крупных озер и морей. В дальнейшем эти данные должны будут позволить уточнить модели изменения уровня воды в реках и помочь в предсказании изменений климата. SWOT является совместным проектом между CNES и НАСА.
2. В рамках планирования участники проекта предприняли ряд действий, которые направлены на снижение риска разработки КА. В частности, при оценке сроков создания агентства предусмотрели достаточные резервы по срокам запуска. Вместе с тем, согласно текущим оценкам, срок запуска спутника сдвинулся на шесть месяцев вправо. Причиной переноса срока являются технические проблемы с созданием Ка диапазонного радарного интерферометра (KaRIn). Также GAO отметило, что данный инструмент создается в рамках широкого привлечения международной кооперации, а следовательно он может быть не готов в заданные сроки.
3. Стоимость проекта составляет $754.9 млн., в том числе:
- стоимость предварительной проработки - $136.8 млн.
- стоимость разработки - $571.5 млн.
- стоимость работы с КА - $46.7 млн. Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean Topography

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2000
2Мощность, Вт2000

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата (пуска)октябрь 2020

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (работ по платформе аппарата и интеграции на нее оборудования), млн. долл.2015-01-0794
2Стоимость (интерферометра), млн. долл.2015-01-07300
3Заказчик Космическое агентство США
4Заказчик Космическое агентство Франции
5Производитель (платформы и интеграции оборудования)Thales Alenia Space
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (предварительная, проекта), млн. долл.642 – 742
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-01-071100
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24647 – 757
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2016-02-01647 – 757
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2017-05-20754.9
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (предварительная проработка проекта), млн. долл.2017-05-20136.8
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработка), млн. долл.2017-05-20571.5
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (работа с КА), млн. долл.2017-05-2046.7

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Surface Water and Ocean Topography». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Properties and Ocean Biogeochemistry (Invited): H Maring, P S Bontempi 0817h IT11B-02 Ocean Photobiogeochemical Cycling and... IT11C-08 Surface-wave effects on porewater nutrient profiles and water-column and benthic...-08 Surface Wave Processes Affecting Light Transmission and Imaging Through the Ocean Surface: P J Sutherland... for Data Management and Quality Control Collaboration in the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas... Topography and Surface Circulation in the Western Labrador Sea and Newfoundland Offshore: Satellite Observations and Ocean... of Equatorial 13C Water and its impact on sea surface temperature in the... 1730h BO15I-15 POSTER Surface Ocean Temporal and Spatial Variability of the South... the Temporal Variability in Productivity and Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange in Hawaiian... decadal variations of fresh water content and sea surface height in Beaufort: C C Tang... polarization distribution and short-term fluctuation induced by nonlinear ocean surface waves: M Shen... Between Surface Wind Stress and Sea Surface Temperature over Major Mid-Latitude Ocean Currents... PO24D-06 Tracing Surface Flow Patterns and Upwelling Rates from Ocean Color Features... of Adaptation Rates, Natural Variability and Ocean Acidification: J A Kleypas, L Bianucci, J C Currie, M Karnauskas... 1730h Climate Change and Ocean Biology: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Experimental Approaches to... Density Stratification in the Surface Ocean on Physical, Biogeochemical, and Ecosystem Processes Posters... and dissolved inorganic carbon to temperature and salinity in surface waters of the ocean... of Surface Heat Flux and Ocean Heat Transport in Four Decades of Atlantic Ocean... Detection of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in Beach Water and Sand & the Performance... PA31A E145 Wednesday 0800h Calcification and Ocean Acidification: From Laboratory to Geological... Institute of Ocean Sciences; J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences 1530h CO34A...-Sea CO2 Fluxes and Ocean Acidification Impacts in the Arctic Ocean: N R Bates, J T Mathis... POSTER Seasonal Intrusion of Indian Ocean Surface Water into the Persian Gulf: F Yao... Poster Hall E Wednesday 1730h Calcification and Ocean Acidification: From Laboratory to Geological... and cycling: F C Batista, C Ravelo, M McCarthy 1730h PA35B-06 POSTER Variability in Surface Water Nutrients And Physical Properties From Elemental And Isotopic Ratios... deep water ventilation and surface water productivity over the last 4 Ma from benthic and planktic... distribution and fate of surfaceactive substances in the sea-surface microlayer and water column and their effect on the near surface light... of breaking waves and Langmuir circulation on the ocean surface mixed layer: S Li... Institute of Ocean Sciences; J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences 0800h CO41A... Water Tracers To Improve Our Understanding Of Surface Ventilation In The Arctic Ocean... 1530h Climate Change and Ocean Biology: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Experimental Approaches to... Underrepresented Students to Coastal Margin and Ocean Science: A Multi-offering Partnership Approach... of future elevated atmospheric pCO2 and ocean acidification on benthic foraminifera: A McIntyreWressnig... of Mexico Surface Water via a Comprehensive Microarray for Biogeochemical, Ecological and Environmental Processes...) Presiding: J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences; S R Alin, NOAA/PMEL; G A McKinley... seasonal cycle of surface ocean pCO2 off the Oregon and Washington coast: W W Evans... Participation Facilitates Student-Centered Inquiry and Ocean Literacy: T Haste 1730h ED45A-02...-10 POSTER USING DYNAMIC OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY TO PROBE SOUTHERN OCEAN CIRCULATION: A Griesel, S T Gille... POSTER Topography and the 3D structure of irreversible mixing in the Southern Ocean... Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water in the southern Pacific Ocean: T G Casal, M O Baringer... the Southern Ocean CO2 sink with surface water measurements of CO2 and C-14 of... Water and The Role of Lateral Oceanic Fluxes in the Eighteen Degree Water..., past sea level reconstructions and ocean re analyses and observed steric sea level... Niño-3 SST to atmospheric fields and ocean state: X Zhang, B D Cornuelle, D H Roemmich 1730h... between interior-driven and surface-driven dynamics flow in baroclinic ocean turbulence: K Smith... Combined Impacts of Climate Warming and Ocean Carbonation on Eelgrass (Zostera marina...) Presiding: J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences; S R Alin, NOAA/PMEL; G A McKinley... atmospheric and ocean interannual variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic Ocean: E K Demirov...-02 On eddy propagation and the anisotropy of ocean surface kinetic energy: B Conley... Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission (Invited): E Rodriguez 1415h PO53D-06 Synergy Between Glider and...) Presiding: J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences; S R Alin, NOAA/PMEL; G A McKinley... for Ocean and Coastal Management: Examples from the California Ocean Protection Council and Ocean Science...



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Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT§) Project Science Requirements ... Products and Data Product Delivery ………………………..14 2.7 Ocean Science Performance Specifications ……………………………….19 2.8 Surface Water Science Performance Specifications ……………………….23 v This document has been reviewed and determined... Document 1- SWOT Mission Objectives The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission has been recommended... of the elevation of land surface water and ocean surface topography. The SWOT mission will provide... characterize the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation determined from the ocean surface topography at spatial resolutions of 15 km (for 68% of the ocean... provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and will provide... measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle... inventory of all terrestrial surface water bodies whose surface area exceeds (250m)2 (goal... change in terrestrial surface water bodies at sub-monthly, seasonal, and annual time... temporal and spatial scales of the hydrologic processes controlling surface water storage and transport... surface water, for example through water impoundment behind dams, withdrawals and releases to rivers and...- to global-scale sensitivities of surface water storages and transport to climate, antecedent... evapotranspiration and Q is the net of all surface water discharges and groundwater flows into and... global inventory of the surface water components in ΔS and Q. The scientific value of... discharge, yet the magnitude of surface water storage change remains unknown leaving... and methane) evasion directly from the water into the atmosphere. The water surface area and... to estimate the global ocean mean sea surface and surface slopes. These data can be used to improve estimates the ocean... land/ice topography, its changes and potential land-cover classifications. 7. SWOT water surface elevation... be possible to use profiling ocean topography measurements from other missions flying... sample seasonal and inter-annual variability for both the ocean and surface water height changes... of ocean tidal signals. Tidal signals must be removed from the ocean topography data in order to meet the mesoscale and submesoscale measurement requirements and.../Jason-2 and better than the GEOSAT and GFO ocean altimeter missions. For surface water, an..., including ice or snow covered surface water; surface water in regions of extreme topographic... the surface water requirements, certain rivers and lakes in regions of extreme topography will..., including (1) ice or snow covered surface water; surface water in regions of extreme topographic... entire measurement swath and the nadir gap: 1. Ocean sea surface heights (SSH) (including... the surface water data: • • For each pass, a geolocated water mask of all water bodies... surface water elevations with the same sampling as the water mask. Estimated surface water elevation uncertainties (1σ) with the same sampling as the water... all water bodies where surface water is detected by SWOT. 2.6.3.b [Requirement] A global water mask... rivers, lakes, wetlands, reservoirs and all surface water bodies at a spatial resolution as... science results for high-frequency ocean mesoscale and surface water studies. The key contribution... KaRIN for observing ocean variability at all scales. 2.8- Surface Water Science Performance Specifications In order to achieve the surface water science objectives, the following measurement science requirements and goals...: 2.8.1 [Requirement] The post separation for surface water Level-2 data shall be consistent.... 2.8.2.a [Requirement] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a... average and length exceeds 10 km. 2.8.2.b [TSM Requirement] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a...] on average and length exceeds 10 km. 2.8.2.c [Goal] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a... total water body area for water bodies whose surface area is between (100m)2 and... water bodies whose surface area exceeds 1 km2 and (2) 25 cm or better for water bodies whose surface... surrounding topography or vegetation and arriving at the same time as the water... the water return. 2.8.11 [Requirement] SWOT shall provide flagging of frozen surface water in both the pass-by-pass and global data... of the frozen water flag. 2.8.12 [Requirement] The SWOT surface water elevation shall... SWOT surface water discharge equations shall be calibrated for unknown bathymetry and roughness...



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OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY Lee-Lueng Fu Jet Propulsion ... ocean surface from the geoid is known as the ocean surface topography. The geoid is a surface on which the Earth’s gravity field is uniform. The ocean surface topography is caused by ocean waves, tides, currents, and the loading of atmospheric pressure. The main application of ocean surface topography is for the determination of large-scale ocean circulation... spatial and temporal scales. We all have the experience of watching ocean surface and being awed by the ever-changing waves and their... current at ocean surface can be computed from the pressure at ocean surface as...=h-hg-hT-ha h=H-R Sea Surface Reference Ellipsoid Bottom Topography Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 1 Schematic illustration... Chelton et al., 2001). 456 OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY 80′N 40′N 0′ 80′S 80′S 160... Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 2 OST derived from a combined analysis of satellite altimeter data, surface drifter data, and a geoid model (From Rio and Hernandez, 2004... water, and u and v are the zonal and meridional velocity components, respectively. The large-scale ocean... ocean surface topography (denoted by OST hereafter), defined as the deviation of the ocean surface from the geoid, and g is the Earth... geoid is defined as the ocean surface on which the Earth’s gravity... absence of any motions, the ocean surface would be conformed to the... for ocean currents is thus equivalent to the role of atmospheric surface pressure for winds. The speed and direction of large-scale wind blowing at the Earth’s surface... atmospheric surface pressure; similarly, the speed and direction of large-scale ocean surface currents... heat content of the water column of the ocean. OST is also influenced by other factors such as OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY... −5 0 5 10 15 20 330 360 Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 3 A snapshot (May 30, 2007... from a satellite to the surface of the ocean allows the determination of the distance between the satellite and the ocean surface... of the sea surface is determined in this coordinate and so is... channels, which are used 458 OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY 65 55 45 35 25... 25 300 330 360 30 Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 4 The standard deviation of... of sea surface height and OST by providing enhanced spatial and temporal resolutions... of applications. Ocean general circulation The measurement of sea surface height from... ocean current systems, we have to supplement the satellite-derived result OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY... gases (e.g., CO2), and nutrients around the global oceans. Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 5 Maps of... the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean in Figure 3. In the Pacific Ocean, the... of the ocean that expands the volume of sea water, and the other... circulation and the heat content of the ocean finds many practical 460 OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY... 5 270 300 330 360 10 Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 6 The linear trend of... surface temperature reflects the heat only in a thin layer of the ocean surface, the heat stored below the ocean surface estimated from... of ocean energy and the associated stirring and mixing of ocean properties like temperature and... Shuttle Radar Topography Mission OCEAN SURFACE VELOCITY for mapping the land topography (Farr et... to monitoring and mitigating its consequences. Such a satellite mission called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT..., M., Oskin, M., Burbank, D., and Alsdorf, D., 2007. The shuttle radar topography mission. Reviews of... the north Atlantic ocean from altimetry and the gravity recovery and climate experiment.... Rio, M.-H., and Hernandez, F., 2004. A mean dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and... Data Records Geodesy Ocean Modeling and Data Assimilation Ocean, Measurements and Applications Radar, Altimeters Sea Level Rise 461 OCEAN SURFACE VELOCITY Bertrand Chapron1, Johnny Johannessen2 and Fabrice Collard3... absolute surface currents as well as ageostrophic processes including convergence and divergence... are rare. To derive global ocean surface current estimates from space, the... indeed measuring the oceanographic surface topography with good precision. Ocean surface current estimates are... the gradient of the sea surface topography and surface geostrophic current. Satellite altimetry is..., repeat, and long-term sampling, the estimation of sea surface height (SSH... in several ocean modeling and forecasting systems. As such the availability and continuity...



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... Quality and Ozone ....................................................................................................... 33 6.1.2. Land Imaging ..................................................................................................................... 34 6.1.3. Ocean Color Observations ................................................................................................ 34 6.1.4. Ocean Surface and Water-Level Monitoring .................................................................... 34 6.1.5. Ocean Surface Vector Winds ............................................................................................ 35 6.1.6. Space Weather Monitoring............................................................................................... 35 6.1.7. Weather, Hazards, and Seasonal..., climate and weather, natural hazards, land-use change, ecosystem health, water, and other... geodesy, bathymetry, topography, geolocation, timing, and the fundamental measurement systems and standards supporting... promote and sustain economic vitality (e.g., transportation, agriculture, energy, water, and natural resource management) and...-surface monitoring and characterization: Observations in this measurement group support food and water security, water... and risk mapping, and natural-resource management. These observations particularly include topography and bathymetry, surface modeling, hydrologic data, and ecosystems-related data... derive from coastal and inland water level and flow measurements, seafloor topography, and ocean topography from satellite..., ocean and water-cycle research, and space-weather research), to improve public services, and to... Earth’s surface, such as coupling between space weather and geomagnetic storms; and,  Water cycle..., floods, and water availability (precipitation, soil moisture, snow-water equivalent, evapotranspiration, groundwater, surface water, and runoff..., and inland water-level and flow measurements and maintain the continuity of ocean and seafloor topography measurements... U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) and o Consolidating various land, coastal, and ocean ecosystem mapping projects into a national ecosystem map. Consolidate GPS surface-monitoring... and surveys of living marine resource. o Explore opportunities to leverage land- and ocean-observing platforms across programs and agencies. o Use modeling... and shoreline mapping to improve services in the Disasters and Ocean and Coastal Resources and Ecosystems SBAs.  Airborne meteorological data collection and reporting..., and gust; barometric pressure; air temperature; sea surface temperature; wave height and periodicity; and ocean acidification, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen. The observations from moored buoys and..., and ocean coastal zones. They provide the national standards for tide-and water-level... and efficiency of observations in areas such as landsurface, coastal, and ocean monitoring and research; species surveys; and hurricane forecasting. Several... 6.1.4. Ocean Surface and Water-Level Monitoring The Secretary of Commerce, through the NOAA Administrator and... Administrator and international partners, will conduct sustained observations for ocean surface and inland water-level monitoring for sea level, navigation, ocean and coastal products, and... or SAR) and passive (e.g., high-resolution microwave) data for ocean-surface monitoring. The... and analysis of pollution (e.g., oil spills) and detection and analysis of coastal change and ocean... assess natural and anthropogenic hazards and to measure changes to topography, biomass, ecosystem flux, soil moisture, coastal and inland land subsidence, surface water, groundwater, and... 6.1.5. Ocean-Surface Vector Winds The Secretary of Commerce, through the NOAA Administrator and... the measurement of near-ocean-surface wind speed and direction. These data sets... enhance modeling of the atmosphere, surface waves, and ocean circulation, with the potential... be launched in 2019.  Surface-water and ocean topography through the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite, to be... * SNOwpack TELemetry (SNOTEL) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) satellite (ESA... matter expert Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment Surface Water Ocean Topography Total solar irradiance Calibration...



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... Quality and Ozone ....................................................................................................... 33 6.1.2. Land Imaging ..................................................................................................................... 34 6.1.3. Ocean Color Observations ................................................................................................ 34 6.1.4. Ocean Surface and Water-Level Monitoring .................................................................... 34 6.1.5. Ocean Surface Vector Winds ............................................................................................ 35 6.1.6. Space Weather Monitoring............................................................................................... 35 6.1.7. Weather, Hazards, and Seasonal..., climate and weather, natural hazards, land-use change, ecosystem health, water, and other... geodesy, bathymetry, topography, geolocation, timing, and the fundamental measurement systems and standards supporting... promote and sustain economic vitality (e.g., transportation, agriculture, energy, water, and natural resource management) and...-surface monitoring and characterization: Observations in this measurement group support food and water security, water... and risk mapping, and natural-resource management. These observations particularly include topography and bathymetry, surface modeling, hydrologic data, and ecosystems-related data... derive from coastal and inland water level and flow measurements, seafloor topography, and ocean topography from satellite..., ocean and water-cycle research, and space-weather research), to improve public services, and to... Earth’s surface, such as coupling between space weather and geomagnetic storms; and,  Water cycle..., floods, and water availability (precipitation, soil moisture, snow-water equivalent, evapotranspiration, groundwater, surface water, and runoff..., and inland water-level and flow measurements and maintain the continuity of ocean and seafloor topography measurements... U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) and o Consolidating various land, coastal, and ocean ecosystem mapping projects into a national ecosystem map. Consolidate GPS surface-monitoring... and surveys of living marine resource. o Explore opportunities to leverage land- and ocean-observing platforms across programs and agencies. o Use modeling... and shoreline mapping to improve services in the Disasters and Ocean and Coastal Resources and Ecosystems SBAs.  Airborne meteorological data collection and reporting..., and gust; barometric pressure; air temperature; sea surface temperature; wave height and periodicity; and ocean acidification, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen. The observations from moored buoys and..., and ocean coastal zones. They provide the national standards for tide-and water-level... and efficiency of observations in areas such as landsurface, coastal, and ocean monitoring and research; species surveys; and hurricane forecasting. Several... 6.1.4. Ocean Surface and Water-Level Monitoring The Secretary of Commerce, through the NOAA Administrator and... Administrator and international partners, will conduct sustained observations for ocean surface and inland water-level monitoring for sea level, navigation, ocean and coastal products, and... or SAR) and passive (e.g., high-resolution microwave) data for ocean-surface monitoring. The... and analysis of pollution (e.g., oil spills) and detection and analysis of coastal change and ocean... assess natural and anthropogenic hazards and to measure changes to topography, biomass, ecosystem flux, soil moisture, coastal and inland land subsidence, surface water, groundwater, and... 6.1.5. Ocean-Surface Vector Winds The Secretary of Commerce, through the NOAA Administrator and... the measurement of near-ocean-surface wind speed and direction. These data sets... enhance modeling of the atmosphere, surface waves, and ocean circulation, with the potential... be launched in 2019.  Surface-water and ocean topography through the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite, to be... * SNOwpack TELemetry (SNOTEL) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) satellite (ESA... matter expert Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment Surface Water Ocean Topography Total solar irradiance Calibration...



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0.23/5
...  Lakes • Reservoirs • Satellite radar altimetry • Surface water level C. Birkett (*) Earth System Science... Global Analysis Office of Management and Budget Ocean Surface Topography Mission Precise Orbit Ephemerides Root Mean Square Satellite with ARgos and... Laser Ranging Solid-State ALTimeter Surface Water and Ocean Topography TOPEX/Poseidon Tropical Rainfall Measuring..., the volume of water stored in the region’s lakes and reservoirs. For... variations in the surface elevation of the world’s oceans and ice sheets... variations in surface water level of the world’s largest lakes, rivers and wetlands.... In such cases, surface elevation data over inland water may be degraded... applications that include fisheries and water resources, sediment transport and navigation, 24 C. Birkett... noted that water levels alone do reflect irrigation potential and could singularly... and reservoirs in regions of agricultural significance. (ii) The production of surface water-level variations with respect to a mean reference datum and accurate... of 254 ascending and descending passes over the Earth’s surface with a geographical...’s surface. The temporal resolution of the measurements are ~10 days, and the.... In general, the construction of ocean surface height assumes the following two... ellipsoid, and “range” is the distance between the altimeter and the surface (estimated from the radar echo). Both range and the... tide is applied, but elastic-ocean and ocean-loading tides are only applicable... areas of steep lake bottom topography (e.g., Lake Tanganyika), these geoid-related... the global ocean collinear sea surface height differences between the Jason-1 and Topex... the quantity and quality of elevation measurements over inland water targets and the... depending on target size, location, and surface roughness. These studies used ground...: The USDA Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor Water-Level Gauge Measurements Compared... Lake and Reservoir Water Level Measurements USDA/FAS GLAM DSS Validation and Verification... parameters, construction of lake water level and subsequent computation of GFO lake...) GFO surface elevation: As per T/P and Jason-1, construction of the GFO surface elevation... lake surface. It determines how quickly the lake can be detected and..., the same approach topography is not always sampled and subtleties can cause... instrument follows other smaller water bodies or surrounding topography. As an operational... locations where wind, ice, and other surface characteristics differ. In complex regions... water or drought (like the Aral Sea and Lake Chad), phase and amplitude... locations and the overall lake-level status (red/low water, blue/high water... direct water storage information to having access to T/P, Jason-1, and GFO water-level... 2002 and 2003 and has gradually recharged reservoirs. Initial recovery in water levels... respect to ground water reserves for winter wheat and barley production that... this result and announced that as much as 0.6 m of water level (~50... cover many aspects relating to water quantity and quality. In addition to... with fish productivity, water security, vegetation ecology, and information theory metrics relating... records. The importance of monitoring surface water for a variety of applications is...-derived surface water levels. The ESA/De-Montfort University (UK) River and Lake.... Point and click access to graphs and text files gives surface water variations for... the Ocean Surface Topography Mission or OSTM, which was launched in June 2008 and... tracking modes, ocean-tracking mode (for sea surfaces) and ice-tracking mode.../reservoir data in both the ocean- and ice-tracking modes although the... according to surface roughness and complexity. Analysis of the radar echoes and associated... narrow (<1 km wide) bodies of water, and (c) for targets in complex or..., Recommendations and Future Outlook An on-line database of water-level variations... number of inland water bodies in the system and to enhance the... greater relevance to agriculture efficiency and water resources management in the future...), in terms of water resources and drought records, and to the Global Earth... inland water altimetry instrument, there are limitations on target size, and the...) on the proposed NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission (Fu 2003; Alsdorf... water-level information at certain resolution and accuracies. The current Ice, Cloud, and... D, Rodriguez E, Lettenmaier DP (2007) Measuring surface water from space. Rev Geophys 45... and water body – stage, width and gradient: satellite radar altimetry, interferometric SAR, and laser...) Wide-swath altimetric measurement of ocean surface topograph. JPL Publication 03-002..., Beckley B (2007) Monitoring reservoir and lake water heights with satellite radar altimeters... ice and ocean tracking modes of the ERS-1 radar altimeter over non-ocean...) GRACE estimates of terrestrial water storage: validation and applications. Eos Trans AGU...



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0.25/5
SWOT Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission – SWOT 101 A quantum improvement for oceanography and hydrology from....   2 SWOT SWOT Mission Overview •  The Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT) is a satellite mission... and hydrology •  Oceanography: First global determination of the ocean circulation, kinetic energy and dissipation at high resolution •  Hydrology: First global inventory of fresh water storage and its change on a global...  spa6al  and  temporal   variability  in  the  world's  terrestrial   surface  water  storage  and  how  can  we   predict  these  varia6ons  more   accurately  and  on...  and  flux?   Image.  L.  Smith   Oceanography   How  well  can  we  resolve  the  ocean...   the  variability  of  ocean  surface  topography   that  determines  the  velocity  of  ocean   currents,  especially...   offshore  opera6on,  naviga6on,  and   ecosystem?   Southern Ocean near-surface current speed from ECCO2... surface water. •  Coverage limited by available downlink data rate (620 Mbps), transmit and... Oceanographic Objectives •  Ocean topography is an analog of atmospheric surface pressure: ocean currents flow around the highs and lows of ocean topography, like winds blow around the highs and lows of surface...: ocean gyres, El Nino, sea level rise, large eddies. •  Ocean currents and eddies... the ocean, play key roles in the transport of heat, carbon and nutrients. They affect climate via modulation of sea surface temperature and heat... SWOT Oceanographic Objectives (cont) •  Ocean currents and eddies at these short scales are also important to coastal ocean... the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation at spatial resolutions of 15 km and larger, providing the missing link between 15 and 200 km for ocean...  rights  reserved.   13 SWOT Submesoscale Ocean Processes Approx  1  side  swath   Approx...  reserved.   15 SWOT SWOT Ocean Data Products •  Ocean  data  (Low  Resolu6on,  LR...  onboard  tables  and   ephemeris  from  DORIS,  so  mixed  ocean/land,  large  coastal...  surface  height,  slope,  sigma0,   error  informa6on,  geophysical  correc6ons  (tropo,  etc.)  and  fields...  from    land  –  coastal  ocean  coverage  depends  on  orbit/land/ water              configura6on...  cloud     •  HR  data  over  coastal  ocean  could  be  processed                to  resolu6on... spatial and temporal variability of freshwater stored in the world’s terrestrial water... SWOT Hydrologic Objectives •  Surface water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands uniquely integrates spatially... terrestrial water cycle. As such, measuring surface water storage and fluxes reveals spatial and temporal patterns in the water cycle. Trenberth  et  al.,  2007   •  Current global observation capabilities of surface water are insufficient to characterize the present-day water cycle: –  The flux of water through rivers is... water cycle. –  Water storage can only be measured in the largest lakes and reservoirs, but most variability in water storage is in smaller water bodies. –  There are no consistent global measurements of water storage... terrestrial surface water bodies whose surface area exceeds (250m)2 (lakes, reservoirs, wetlands) and >10km... in terrestrial surface water bodies and river discharge at submonthly, seasonal, and annual time... (threshold) •  Water surface elevation/height: –  10 cm error for 1 km2 area and 25... m)2 and 1 km2 (baseline) –  11 cm error for 1 km2 area (threshold) •  Water surface slope... Water Surface Height: –  10 cm accuracy for lakes larger than 1 km2 and 25... assessment of fresh water elevations with accuracy <10 cm and extent for... will enable calibration and validation of the SWOT ocean-surface and hydrologic feature heights... swath (at 35kft) over ocean and terrestrial water bodies - Traditional altimeter height retrieval... mission design) SWOT Ice Sheet Topography Sea Ice Freeboard Sea ice... importance to climate change and societal applications. Ocean Bathymetry The melt of... of SWOT measurement of sea surface height coupled with the full... knowledge of ocean bathymetry with advances in both science and applications. (from...: water body mask useful for planning & climatology •  Jason-series altimeters, : complementary ocean data •  SAR missions : Sentinel-series (1, 3), others •  IceSat •  High resolution SST, ocean... •  The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission provides for a quantum improvement for oceanography and hydrology... global determination of the ocean circulation, kinetic energy and dissipation at high resolution. - Hydrology: First global inventory of fresh water storage changes, river discharge and flux on a global...



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0.26/5
...: I. Panet (France) JWG 2.6: Ice melting and ocean circulation from gravimetry (joint with... is partially inside the Earth’s topography. In today’s satellite age, satellite... sea surface observed by satellite altimetry. • Studies on airborne, shipborne gravimetry and..., and on global and regional vertical datum realization. • Studies on ocean, solid-Earth and... definition and unification, dynamic ocean topography estimation, geophysical modelling, and navigation. • Regional gravity and geoid... and GPS/levelling for geoid determination • Geoid applications: GPS heights, sea surface topography... datum definition and unification, dynamic ocean topography estimation, etc. SC 2.4b: Gravity and Geoid... ocean topography, levelling and vertical datums. Of particular interest will be relating geoid and ocean topography models to ocean topography and tidal bench marks, taking advantage of the recent satellite altimetry and... Activities • Promoting the collection of surface and airborne gravity data in Antarctica.... airborne gravimetry) and data analysis • Evaluation of existing and new surface and airborne gravity...-2, Altika, and Sentinel-3) have made and will continue to monitor ocean surface height globally. Missions of the CryoSat-2 InSAR/SAR altimetry and... near future. The future planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide-swath synthetic aperture... spatial resolution oceanic submesoscale variability and surface water hydrology. Another potential technology under... in coastal zones including coastal ocean, estuaries, and coastal land; • To promote... of the shapes and temporal variations of land/ice/ocean surfaces, such... and ice-shelf ocean tides, vertical displacements at major tectonic-active zone and... ocean topography, temporal variations induced by solid Earth processes and global terrestrial water cycle; and... coupling and in particular interactions between atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface and the solid Earth. Nowadays the gravity field, derived from terrestrial and...’s interior, and mass flux such as within the oceanland water cycle. It... of the gravity field, shape, surface and atmosphere of these celestial bodies... and beneath a body’s surface, the detection of variations in its rotational behaviour and... gravity field and orbit determination, topography, physical shape (geoid), interior structure and rotation... heights from GPS and spirit levelled heights, airborne and surface gravity measurements, marine geoid heights from mean oceanographic sea surface topography models and altimetry observations, orbits from other geodetic and altimetry... from surface contributions, in the case of static gravity. • to review and... methods and propose approaches for the joint use of seismic and surface/satellite... satellite gravity data combined with surface displacement measurements, • to address the... Pollitz (USA) JWG 2.6: Ice melting and ocean circulation from gravimetry (Joint with... global and regional sea level. Specifically observation of the Earth's ocean- water and ice sheet variations at all spatial and temporal scales..., InSAR and GPS. Furthermore the fate of the melt-water in the ocean, its distribution and impact on ocean circulation will be studied. Goals • to estimate individual mass and... sea water from the estimates of volume change in land ice and ocean • use estimates of land storage of water from JWG 2.7 to close the global water cycle and to improve removal of leakage of land signals into ocean estimates • close the ocean's regional volume budget... sea water from ocean measurements and ocean modelling and mass change from a combination of GRACE and other observations (e.g. GPS, tide gauges, ocean bottom pressure recorders... melt-water into the ocean on ocean circulation, sea level and mass/heat transports • and finally describe and understand trends and... and data from complimentary sensors in the understanding of the terrestrial water cycle. This includes the development of tools and products..., application and validation of GRACE to investigate water storage changes and the improvement of model reliability and predictability... and complementary data sets (super-conducting gravimeters, ground water observation,…) • to review and develop strategies to compare and combine heterogeneous... topography versus mass loading). • Create a database on methodology of gravity forward and...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-25
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0.08/5
... monthly project status reports; and interviewed NASA and contractor officials. What GAO... Surface Water and Ocean Topography Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Replenishment Commercial Crew Program Agency Comments and... Probe Plus Surface Water and Ocean Topography Southwest Research Institute to be determined Tracking and Data... practices for design stability and technology maturity, and providing more transparency into... Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight); (2) Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT); and (3) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment... cost and schedule data to previously established cost and schedule baselines and characterized... Projects partner and NASA generated information and partner milestone performance and schedules and NASA information on program risks and... NASA’s most technologically advanced and costly projects, and assessed NASA’s efforts to... projects develop and define requirements and the cost/schedule basis and design for... requirement changes, staffing demands, and mass and power growth. The formulation phase..., test, and launch activities. Phases E and F consist of operations and sustainment and project closeout... and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN), and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Replenishment (TDRS K and L)—successfully launched during 2013 and... System $7.65 – $8.59 billion SWOT Surface Water and Ocean Topography $642 – $752 million Latest estimate... that were recently confirmed and established cost and schedule baseline estimates. Therefore..., sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes in collaboration with... verification and validation plans at the preliminary and critical design reviews; and the... to have credible and reliable integrated cost and schedule estimates and to provide... scientific understanding of the global water cycle and the accuracy of precipitation... provide insight into water movement on and beneath the Earth’s surface over a 5-year... expected to impact the lunar surface on or around April 21...’ atmosphere, climate history, liquid water, and habitability and provide the first direct measurements... correction maneuver, instrument activations and checkouts, and observations of the comet ISON... the spacecraft, and the guidance, navigation, and control light detection and ranging (GNC... cameras and development of the natural feature tracking algorithms and software and system... and applications. These measurements will improve understanding of regional and global water cycles and climate changes, and improve the accuracy of weather, flood, and... much hotter than the visible surface. In order to achieve its... 1980s technology and software and are becoming obsolete and unsustainable. Updated systems and equipment... of Selected Large-Scale Projects Surface Water and Ocean Topography Project Challenges • Development Partner (new...: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT) is a joint project between NASA and the French... possible to estimate water discharge into rivers more accurately, and help improve... measurements of ocean surface topography which will improve prediction of weather and climate as well as variations in ocean currents. SWOT... of Selected Large-Scale Projects Surface Water and Ocean Topography common name: SWOT project update... user satellites and orbiting vehicles. TDRS K and L are the 11th and 12th satellites... acquisition management processes and performance, and will continue to identify and address the... both partner and NASA generated information and partner milestone performance and schedules and NASA..., relationship between cost growth and schedule slippage and knowledge maturity attained both..., funding, workforce, design, technology, and test and integration. These challenges do not... (Orion), Solar Probe Plus (SPP) and Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Page 80 GAO-14... Cost: $7.65 - $8.59 billion Project: Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Launch Readiness Date: October... estimate water discharge into rivers more accurately, and help improve flood and weather... scientific understanding of the global water cycle and the accuracy of precipitation... increased insight into water movement on and beneath the Earth’s surface over a 5year... Mars’ atmosphere, climate history, liquid water, and habitability. Latest Estimate of Total... and global water cycles and climate changes, and improve the accuracy of weather, flood, and... much hotter than the visible surface. Latest Estimate of Total Project... and analysis). None. 3. Analytical and experimental Active research and development is critical function and... cost, schedule, and quality targets and have demonstrated its reliability, and the design...; evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses, recommendations, and other assistance to...



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0/5
... from EBUS to the open ocean are reduced by 12% Supporting... the transport of water masses and therefore in the setting and maintenance of... isopycnal diffusion [Lee and Williams, 2000] and generating advective transport across... 1% of the global ocean [Pauly and Christensen, 1995; Chavez and Messié, 2009]. The... products (“two-sat” and “ref” in the revised and former AVISO nomenclature...-track and, finally, gridded sea level topography (e.g., new sensor-specific instrumental and atmospheric corrections, revised intercalibration, a new ocean... the EBUS domains (bold) and the 300 and 600 km cross-shore... to the coast. 4. Comparison With Surface Drifter Data In this section... from absolute dynamic topography (adding the mean dynamic topography [Rio et al... the Pearson correlation coefficient and 𝜎sat and 𝜎drift the standard deviation... )∕vdrift , where vdrift and vsat are respectively drifter and corresponding satellite velocities...) obtained for S14 and S10 (respectively PB14 and PB10 ) never overlap (Figure... are able to transport isolated water bodies over long distances. Highly... U and its translation velocity c, it can be considered that the water mass... of water transported within eddy cores and/or the corresponding physical and biogeochemical... and associated geometric characteristics within all the EBUS by applying a sea surface... the productive coastal upwelling and the oligotrophic open ocean is precisely where... = −13.8, −10.5, −16.1, and −9.6% for California, Canary, Humboldt, and Benguela). This counterintuitive... of half ellipsoids with circular surface section and fixed vertical extent Z . Figure... transport of upwelled water masses (i.e., of subsurface origins) and the latter controlling the net horizontal cross-shelf surface transport and extending... (finite size Lyapunov exponents) surface diagnostics) and the magnitude of the eddy... be expected in the open ocean where DT14 depicts high EKE... structure of physical and biogeochemical export toward the open ocean. Previous observation-based studies of the relationship between mesoscale activity and... in other coastal and open areas of the world ocean, and it might... altimeter resolution granted by the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) project will greatly clarify..., and J. F. Shriver (2012), Effects of stencil width on surface ocean geostrophic velocity and vorticity..., R. Escudier, A. M. Doglioli, A. A. Petrenko, A. Pascual, P.-M. Poulain, and D. Elhmaidi (2014), Lagrangian analysis of..., and P. Marchesiello (2008), Eddies in eastern boundary subtropical upwelling systems, in Ocean Modeling in an Eddying Regime, in Ocean Modeling in... eastern South Pacific Ocean: A composite analysis from altimetry and Argo profiling... global ocean circulation, Science, 264(5162), 1123–1125. Dencausse, G., M. Arhan, and S. Speich.... Dong, C., J. C. McWilliams, Y. Liu, and D. Chen (2014), Global heat and salt transports by... Traon, and G. Reverdin (2000), Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and-2, J. Geophys. Res..., E. Rodriguez, and D. Esteban-Fernandez (2010), The surface water and ocean topography mission: Observing terrestrial surface water and oceanic submesoscale eddies, Proc. IEEE, 98(5), 766–779. Early, J. J., R. Samelson, and D. B. Chelton (2011), The evolution and propagation of quasigeostrophic ocean eddies, J. Phys... global ocean surface topography, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31(2), 560–568. Gaube, P., D. Chelton, P. Strutton, and..., H. Frenzel, P. Marchesiello, M. Münnich, J. C. McWilliams, T. Nagai, and G.-K. Plattner (2011), Eddy-induced reduction.... Keating, S. R., A. J. Majda, and K. S. Smith (2012), New methods for estimating ocean eddy heat...(6), 895–917. Marchesiello, P., and P. Estrade (2009), Eddy activity and mixing in upwelling...–308. Mason, E., A. Pascual, and J. C. McWilliams (2014), A new sea surface height–based code... ocean, Rev. Geophys., 23(2), 165–182, doi:10.1029/RG023i002p00165. Oschlies, A., and... Atlantic Ocean, Nature, 394(6690), 266–269. Pascual, A., Y. Faugère, G. Larnicol, and P.-Y. Le Traon (2006), Improved description of the ocean mesoscale variability..., and B. Hamann (2013), A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution global ocean... by drifting buoys and altimetry over the world ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 108..., M.-H., S. Guinehut, and G. Larnicol (2011), New CNES-CLS09 global mean dynamic topography computed from the combination of GRACE data, altimetry, and in...ía, J. Sudre, V. Garçon, and Y. Morel (2009), Surface mixing and biological activity in the.... Stammer, D. (1997), Global characteristics of ocean variability estimated from regional TOPEX..., and R. X. Huang (2013), Universal structure of mesoscale eddies in the ocean, Geophys...