Спутник ФКИ. Surface Water and Ocean Topography. [Редактировать]

Спутник фундаментальных космических исследований. Предназначен для решения задач: гидрологии, океанографии. По своей сути является спутником дистанционного зондирования Земли в высоком разрешении. Должен предоставить информацию о перемещении больших водных объемов по океану и рекам. Запуск аппарата планируется в 2020 году. Предварительно в качестве средства выведения выбрана ракета-носитель Фалькон 9. На аппарате планируется установить две антены Ka диапазона размером по 5 метров каждая. Антены будут расположены на штангах длиной 5 метров. Таким образом, аппарат сможет работать как интерферометр. Помимио этого на него будет установлены радиометр и GPS приемник. НАСА финансирует около двух третей от потребного объема ассигнований (затраты на интерферометр). Доля Франции в финансировании состаляет $300 млн (на высотометр, платформу и сборку аппарата). Великобритания планирует потратить 9 млн евро (затраты на часть оборудования радара).

 

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1SWOTНайтиНайти

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-01-07. Космическое агенство Франции подписало первый из планируемых трех контрактов на создание космического аппарата SWOT. Данный контракт заключен с Thales Alenia Space of France и содержит работы по платформе и интеграции оборудования.Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean Topography
22015-09-30. Thales Alenia Space получила заказ на поставку радарного альтиметра.
Thales Alenia Space подписала контракт с космическим агентством Франции на разработку и поставку радарного альтиметра Посейдон-3С. В качестве космического аппарата, на который будет установлен прибор обозначен космический аппарат SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography).
При этом, компания поставит агентству не только надирный высотометр, но и осуществит разработку и поставку принципиально нового широкозахватного радара Ка-диапазона. В целом данный контракт является развитием научно-технического задела который был получен в ходе работ над космическим аппаратом Jason-3 (на него был установлен Посейдон 3Б). Рабочие частоты нового прибора будут составлять 13.6 и 5.3 ГГц. Тэги: Thales Alenia SpaceJason 3Surface Water and Ocean TopographyКосмическое агентство Франции
32016-11-23. Компания SpaceX выиграла контракт НАСА.
Космическое агентство США выбрало компанию SpaceX в качестве поставщика услуг по запуску космического аппарата Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Сроком запуска объявлен 2021 год. Стоимость запуска объявлена в размере 112 млн. долл. В рамках контракта оператор окажет следующие услуги:
1. Осуществит адаптацию РН к ПН.
2. Обеспечит поступление телеметрии в процессе выведения.
3. Обеспечит производство и запуск РН.
Местом запуска выбрана пусковая база ВВС США Ванденберг.Тэги: Фалькон 9 (вер 1.2)SpaceXКосмическое агентство СШАSurface Water and Ocean Topography
42017-01-17. Космическое агентство Канады заключило новый контракт.
Космическое агентство Канады объявило о заключении 3.8 млн. долл. контракта с Communications & Power Industries Canada (CPI) на разработку компонентов для миссии Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Целевой задачей разрабатываемого в рамках проекта КА будет являться съемка около 90 процентов поверхности океанов, морей,рек и озер. Полученные в ходе эксплуатации КА данные планируется использовать для построения моделей круговорота воды и прогноза погоды. Запуск аппарата планируется в апреле 2021 года. Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean TopographyКосмическое агентство КанадыCommunications and Power Industries

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2000
2Мощность, Вт2000

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата (пуска)октябрь 2020

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (работ по платформе аппарата и интеграции на нее оборудования), млн. долл.2015-01-0794
2Стоимость (интерферометра), млн. долл.2015-01-07300
3Заказчик Космическое агентство США
4Заказчик Космическое агентство Франции
5Производитель (платформы и интеграции оборудования)Thales Alenia Space
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (предварительная, проекта), млн. долл.642 – 742
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-01-071100
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24647 – 757
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2016-02-01647 – 757

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Surface Water and Ocean Topography». [Перейти к поиску]


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... advance and societal benefit. Among the recommended tiertwo missions is the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. After the release of the decadal survey, NASA and... oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT... oceanography (e.g., currents and oceanic mesoscale processes) and a large number of surface water bodies on land (lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and rivers... circulation and ecosystems in a changing climate. In contrast to ocean observations, land surface water... oceanography and land surface hydrology, high-resolution satellite measurements of the ocean surface topography and the elevation of water... developing a new mission named SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) based on the concept of... and mission design trade-offs. 8 References Alsdorf, D.E., E. Rodriguez, and D. Lettenmaier, 2007: Measuring surface water...) 12 ocean circulation. Figure 3-3 illustrates the features of sea surface temperature and ocean color at the various scales observed by infrared and... the ubiquitous ocean eddies of Figure 3-3. Sea surface temperature (upper row) and ocean color...–1254. Gille, S. T., E. J. Metzger, and R. Tokmakian, 2004: Sea floor topography and ocean circulation, Oceanography, 17(1), 47–54. Herrmann, M., J. Bouffard, and K. Béranger... for better observations and understanding of surface water distribution globally (e.g., Marburger and Bolten, 2004... fundamentally different approaches to measuring surface water storage and rates of change. Hydraulic... surface and subsurface storage (summed from soil moisture, snow water content, surface water storage, vegetation water content, ground water, and glaciers (e.g., Lettenmaier... latter approach precludes consideration of surface water dynamics, and even over long periods.../2007GL029447. Alsdorf, D. E., E. Rodriguez, and D. Lettenmaier, 2007b: Measuring surface water from space. Reviews of.... Birkett, C. M., L. A. K. Mertes, T. Dunne, M. H. Costa, and M. J. Jasinski, 2002: Surface water dynamics in the Amazon..., H.-C. Jung, D. Alsdorf, C. K. Shum, and Y. Sheng, 2010: Characterization of surface water storage changes in... basis for quantifying river discharge and surface water storage globally (Alsdorf et al... prediction and water resource management. References Alsdorf, D. E., E. Rodriguez, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2007: Measuring surface water from... lake water storage will provide an unprecedented global perspective of surface water availability and the terrestrial water balance. Lakes are... changes in water level. With measurements of both surface water area and lake level... between changes in ocean and atmosphere water circulation with changes in surface water storage in... mission, repeat observations of surface water elevation and impounded area of the reservoirs... gather information on surface water and the effectiveness of operational water resources management, particularly... of floodplain and wetland surface water dynamics. Satellite observations of inundation extent and water level... the global terrestrial, nonagricultural surface water area; and more than half of all..., and inundation extent, SWOT will fundamentally improve understanding of Arctic surface water hydrology and associated climatic and biogeochemical processes. 4.5.1 Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of... and interannual variability. In the case of Arctic surface water storage in lakes and... surface, and hydrology models in Arctic environments (Rouse et al., 1997). Because surface water... measurements, and commencing high-resolution surface water level measurements over hydrologic basins and land..., (4) saltwater intrusion in surface water bodies and aquifers, and (5) rising water tables (Nicholls, 2010). In... ocean, may counteract the observed increased freshening of the north Atlantic surface water, and... rise and regional and global trends, geodetic observations of ocean surface topography, ocean currents, ocean mass, and ocean volume changes. Proc. OceanObs09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information..., 27(1– 2), 299–318. SWOT, 2009: Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission Science Requirements Document. Initial... the validation of SWOT elevation and surface water extent on a continental basis. This... SWH Significant Wave Height SWOT Surface Water and Ocean Topography TanDEM-X TerraSAR-X add-on for... TOPEX (Ocean) Topography Experiment T/P TOPEX/Poseidon UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural...



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... The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission is being jointly developed by NASA and CNES... and variability of water stored in global lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and river channels and... D-79129 SWOT Applications Plan Earth's surface water. The SWOT mission with its... cover most of the world's ocean and major freshwater bodies with repeated... fine details of the ocean's surface topography, and measuring how water bodies change over time... measurements of water elevation at high resolution over both ocean and land. This measurement would address challenges and shortcomings of... society: freshwater on land. And fine scale ocean processes. For more detailed... water resources, including transboundary (across international borders) rivers, lake and reservoir storage and river dynamics. 2.1.2 Fine scale ocean processes The ocean is Earth’s largest reservoir of heat and carbon dioxide. Ocean... that powers the mixing and transport of water. These factors are important... surface height with sufficient resolution to calculate the speed and direction of ocean currents to address the following objectives: • Measure ocean currents and... of heat, carbon and nutrients in the ocean. Currents and eddies affect global climate through modulation of sea surface temperature and... project future climate change. • Ocean currents and eddies at these short scales... for the low resolution (LR) ocean data and approximately 50 m for the... the science requirements of • Ocean L2: Sea surface height in fixed, geographically... and then uses a height reconstruction program to generate the heights of surface water... included. Modules for land/water classification and correction of included errors are... pass files of sea surface height in swath and most error terms... and enhancement of water resources management tools and improved understanding of fresh water resources and ocean... and oceanography. In workshops convened with water resources managers and others responsible for and interested in assessing freshwater transport and... and reservoir levels, • Flood assessments and potential mitigation measures and water storage, • Climatic and ecological impacts on water resources • Water demands for agriculture and agricultural impacts from changes in water resources, • Sustainable use of water, • and many other application areas and societal... the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation scientists can review and assess how SWOT and...: • Ocean and Coastal regional circulation modeling and improved storm surge models • Global and regional... as Jason-series of ocean altimeter missions, and of data portals such... of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere and ocean. The primary objectives... relevant to SWOT: disasters, water resources, and ecological forecasting. Future focus areas... Earth's surface water. The hydrology community will turn another corner and much remains... data necessary for water quantity evaluation and ocean prediction products and services that are... as marine safety and security, water management, environmental monitoring and northern Canada. The... River Delta complex and; Assimilation of surface water into climatic models and; The themes... level variability, ocean currents, fronts, upwelling and productivity; Eddies and anomalous features; Coupling... support hydraulic and hydrologic modeling and water management, and the high-resolution sea surface height... of water demands from agriculture, potential agricultural impacts from water resource changes, and from potential climate impacts on water resources... groups and communities: hydrology, ocean, ice and drought, agricultural impacts, operational oceanography, and others... are; • Development of real-time surface water forecasting tools for large river... thematic topics (i.e., hydrology or ocean objectives) and will leverage opportunities to combine... sensing and relevant scientific meetings, and participation in other organized hydrology-, ocean- and remote... Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) • European Geosciences Union (EGU) • Ocean Surface Topography Science...  National  Weather  Service   OSTM  Ocean  Surface  Topography  Mission   OSTST  Ocean  Surface  Topography  Science  Team   PODAAC  Physical...  Mission  Directorate   SMOS  Soil  Moisture  and  Ocean  Salinity  (ESA)   SPOT  Satellite  for...  Earth  (France)   SSH  Sea  surface  height   SWOT  Surface  Water  and  Ocean  Topography   UKSA  United  Kingdom  Space...



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... SENTINEL-3 A WORLD OF APPLICATIONS climate, water resources, marine resources, biodiversity, melting... HYDROLOGY, optimizing the stewardship of water resources CLS in brief Media... and mission performance center for the topography component, - and also the data processing and archiving center for land surface topography. MERCATOR OCEAN..., calibration, validation and dissemination of altimetry data (sea surface height, winds, waves). On the basis of this raw ocean topography data, CLS is developing new value-added products and services... machine. The ocean is the planet's main carbon pump and has the... and is warming the atmosphere. Sea level is related to ocean warming and ice cap melting, and is therefore a key... ocean dilates the water, resulting in higher sea level. Melting mountain glaciers and... in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Certain coastal regions are therefore... ocean warming, 45% by melting of continental ice and 10% by pumping water from underground sources, since this water ultimately ends up in the ocean...**, uses the sea surface height data calculated and qualified by CLS. He... it possible to map the topography of the Poles, assess the... snow pack and find out more about the subglacial water networks. on... the surface brightness temperature, which is related to the ice surface's emissivity and therefore its age. Give me your roughness, and I'll... arrive. The water temperature is beginning to fall. And you know there... it infers from ocean topography (e.g. using data from Sentinel-3). CLS and Sentinel-3 thus..., in time and space, depending on the ocean's physical and biogeochemical conditions, as well as fishing effort, pollution and..., immature and adult fish). The Sentinel-3 data (ocean temperature, water color and altimetric fronts... entire planet, and through the ARGOS data collection system and ocean observation satellites... of location and knowledge of the physical conditions of the ocean, have really revolutionized understanding, study and informed decision...-3 data: currents, eddies, water color, temperture, winds and waves will soon be... and distributed to the international scientific community from CLS headquarters. Water color... effects of changes in ocean temperatures. Damien Chevallier and his teams are... accurate and will provide researchers with information on even smaller ocean structures... and preserving our natural heritage. 27   HYDROLOGY Optimizing the stewardship of water resources and land management 28   HYDROLOGY Water has become... challenges of the 21st century. Water resources occupy a central place on... environmental resources and ecosystems, and universal access to water (mainly for drinking) and sanitation... applications and services in the field of water, in particular. These products and... relevant data on water. This currently includes Sentinel-1,2,3 Pleiades and Meghtropiques. For the future, the SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) mission is... waters and provide spatio-temporal variations in the water height of rivers and... powerful observation solutions for managing water resources or mitigating extreme weather... use and our expertise in altimetry (measuring the height of water), when... of the water located upstream had already flowed downstream, and that the... of solutions and will be introducing a service dedicated to water services related to the management of water and snow issues, to be coordinated by CLS resources and the... Continental produced is the water height of rivers and lakes Environment Programs... on water and industrial/service companies. They respond height derived from JASON and... PLATFORM water and environmental management." 32   HYDROLOGY INCREASING KNOWLEDGE OF THE LOCAL WATER CYCLE FOR BETTER MANAGEMENT OF THE RESOURCES AND RISKS... of the water cycle. Today, CESBIO1 and its partners LEGOS2 and GET3 are... better understand the water cycle in these regions and better estimate the... water cycles is an indispensable condition for the optimal management of water resources and the risks associated with water flows. Satellites..., and associate them with the time elapsing between when the water falls on the ground and when it reaches the ocean at... to determine the state of water resources available for populations (supply... (animals' water needs), etc. This information will also quantify the water reserves supplying the water cycle at the..., and in the management of risks to populations. Estimate of open water areas seen by SMOS between 2010 and 2015. These...



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Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT§) Project Science Requirements ... PRODUCTS AND DATA PRODUCT DELIVERY ......................................................................... 15 2.7 OCEAN SCIENCE PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS .......................................................................................... 19 2.8 SURFACE WATER SCIENCE PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................ 24 v This document has been reviewed and determined... Document SWOT Mission Objectives The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission has been recommended... of the elevation of land surface water and ocean surface topography. The SWOT mission will provide... characterize the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation determined from the ocean surface topography at spatial resolutions of 15 km (for 68% of the ocean... provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and will provide... measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle... inventory of all terrestrial surface water bodies whose surface area exceeds (250m)2 (goal... change in terrestrial surface water bodies at submonthly, seasonal, and annual time scales... temporal and spatial scales of the hydrologic processes controlling surface water storage and transport... surface water, for example through water impoundment behind dams, withdrawals and releases to rivers and...- to global-scale sensitivities of surface water storages and transport to climate, antecedent... evapotranspiration and Q is the net of all surface water discharges and groundwater flows into and... global inventory of the surface water components in ∆S and Q. The scientific value of... discharge, yet the magnitude of surface water storage change remains unknown leaving... and methane) evasion directly from the water into the atmosphere. The water surface area and... to estimate the global ocean mean sea surface and surface slopes. These data can be used to improve estimates the ocean... land/ice topography, its changes and potential land-cover classifications. 7. SWOT water surface elevation... be possible to use profiling ocean topography measurements from other missions flying... sample seasonal and inter-annual variability for both the ocean and surface water height changes... of ocean tidal signals. Tidal signals must be removed from the ocean topography data in order to meet the mesoscale and submesoscale measurement requirements and.../Jason-2 and better than the GEOSAT and GFO ocean altimeter missions. For surface water, an..., including ice or snow covered surface water; surface water in regions of extreme topographic... the surface water requirements, certain rivers and lakes in regions of extreme topography will..., including (1) ice or snow covered surface water; surface water in regions of extreme topographic... the surface water data: • For each pass, a geolocated water mask of all water bodies... surface water elevations with the same sampling as the water mask. Estimated surface water elevation uncertainties (1σ) with the same sampling as the water mask. Estimated surface... be produced for all water bodies where surface water is detected by SWOT... surface water hydrologic environments that are not well represented by the river and... science results for high-frequency ocean mesoscale and surface water studies. The key contribution... KaRIN for observing ocean variability at all scales. 2.8 Surface Water Science Performance Specifications In order to achieve the surface water science objectives, the following measurement science requirements and goals...: 2.8.1 [Requirement] The post separation for surface water Level-2 data shall be consistent.... 2.8.2.a [Requirement] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a... average and length exceeds 10 km. 2.8.2.b [TSM Requirement] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a... m on average and length exceeds 10 km. 2.8.2.c [Goal] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a... surrounding topography or vegetation and arriving at the same time as the water... the water return. 2.8.11 [Requirement] SWOT shall provide flagging of frozen surface water in both the pass-by-pass and global data... of the frozen water flag. 2.8.12 [Requirement] The SWOT surface water elevation shall... SWOT surface water discharge equations shall be calibrated for unknown bathymetry and roughness...



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... and of liquid water within, knowing that on Earth, where there is water and... and biogeochemical cycles, including the global carbon cycle, land cover, and biodiversity; Water and Energy Cycle: quantifying the key reservoirs and fluxes in the global water... measurements of ocean surface temperature, tropical rainfall, and terrestrial forest fire intensity and extent...) and develop and validate fundamental theories (e.g. the interactions between atmosphere, land and ocean). The Computing and... understanding of surface water fluxes, soil moisture storage, cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent... water, energy and carbon cycles; Estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface... Request Earth Systematic M ission Research Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Estimate FY 2011... system. OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY MISSION (OSTM) OSTM, or Jason-2, measures sea surface height, enabling scientists to assess climate variability and change and water and energy cycles. This mission is a follow-on to Jason, and... measure global radar backscatter and ocean surface wind speed and direction under nearly all... projects in Earth Science. OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY SCIENCE TEAM Ocean Surface Topography Science Team uses scientific data received from the OSTM and... climate variability and change carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry water and energy cycles, and weather..., ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate variability and change; Earth’s surface and interior; water and energy cycles; and weather. Terra is a joint mission with Japan and... international science and space sea surface salinity variation, mass water movement, and the organizations...-surface salinity and how these variations relate to changes in the water cycle and ocean... include climate variability and change and water and energy cycles. GRAVITY RECOVERY AND CLIMATE EXPERIMENT... enable a better understanding of ocean surface currents and ocean heat transport. The mission is... measures and monitors ice sheets and changes in the storage of water and snow... of how much water and ice are in Earth’s clouds, and estimates how... patterns of rainfall and evaporation over the ocean, river outflow, and ocean circulation. Aquarius will monitor how these features change and... and change; atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water and energy cycles; weather; and Earth surface and interior. NASA’s principal..., ozone, aerosols, and atmospheric gas columns for air quality and ocean color for coastal ecosystem health and climate emissions... the rugged topography and complex textures of the asteroid Vesta’s surface. Soon other... cameras and instruments will photograph the asteroid and measure its surface topography, composition, and thermal emissions. Radio science will provide mass and... sub-surface water from orbit. NASA contributed components for the MARSIS and ASPERA... the geology, atmosphere, surface environment, history of water, and potential for life on..., multipurpose spacecraft identify surface minerals and study how dust and water are transported in... repeatedly formed and evaporated. The sands were subsequently reworked by water and wind, solidified into rock, and soaked by groundwater... as water and oxygen require thorough planning to make sure a sufficient and safe... 70 to 80 percent water and air recycling, and over 30 million students... and cleanup of ground water and soil contamination at KSC. $6.7 million for operating and... Structure (JPL) --- 18.0 --- Revitalize Water and Waste Water Systems, Various Locations (KSC) --- 27... cooling system; repairs and modifications to the potable water and fire-suppression piping systems; modifications to the ignition overpressure and... and cleanup of ground water and soil contamination at KSC; and $6.7 million for operating and... mission success criteria for the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM). HPPG: Study Earth... ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS DORIS Doppler Orbitography by Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (Ocean Surface Topography... and Mission Assurance OSP Orbital / Suborbital Program (of the USAF) OSTM Ocean Surface Topography Mission OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy OSTST Ocean Surface Topography Science... SWIR Short Wave Infrared SWOT Surface Water and Ocean Topography SwRI Southwest Research Institute SXS...



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National Aeronautics and Space Administration Why SWOT? The ... completely covering the world’s oceans and freshwater bodies with repeated high.... . Hydrology Key Personnel How Much Water? - SWOT will provide the very... and will allow scientists to determine the height and area of fresh water... rate of water gained or lost in lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands as... key for knowing surface water availability and for understanding important water related hazards such....gov Oceanography Ocean Circulation, Weather and Climate -SWOT will measure ocean features with... current technologies. Most of the ocean’s energy is in currents that... features and compute the velocity and energy of ocean circulation. Small-scale ocean features are key components in the exchange of heat and carbon between the ocean and atmosphere, a major factor... heat storage in the upper ocean is also important to prediction....jpl.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory... global ocean Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) A NASA - CNES Mission Concept Mission Overview The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT... world’s oceans and its terrestrial surface • waters. U.S. and French oceanographers and hydrologists have joined... Earth’s surface water, observe the fine details of the ocean’s surface topography, and measure how water bodies... fresh water, hydrologic observations of the temporal and spatial variations in water volumes stored• in rivers, lakes, and wetlands... • global dynamics of terrestrial surface waters and their interactions with coastal oceans... measuring water storage changes in all wetlands, lakes, and reservoirs and making it... the global water cycle. SWOT will also map wetlands and nonchannelized flow. Science Goals Provide sea surface heights (SSH) and terrestrial water... with a posting every 2 km x 2 km, and a precision better than 0.5 cm when... ground processing and produce a water mask able to resolve 100-m rivers and 1-km2... be water level elevations with an accuracy of 10 cm and a slope... exceed 10 percent of Earth’s surface. Instrument The Ka-band Radar... boom with both antennae transmitting and receiving the emitted radar pulses... all Earth’s lakes, rivers, reservoirs and oceans at least twice every... Where most of the ocean’s kinetic energy and its dissipation takes place... the heat and carbon from the upper ocean to the deep ocean. Knowing..., global measurements of ocean surface topography. These measurements will improve ocean circulation models leading to better prediction of weather and climate as well as variations in ocean currents important for navigation, fisheries, and offshore commercial...), and Laboratoire d’Études en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales (LEGOS). Southern Ocean near-surface current speed from ECCO2



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... Aeronautics and Space Administration NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Poseidon Positioning, Ocean... with ARGOS and AltiKa SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SWOT Surface Water and Ocean Topography TFDD Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database TOPEX TOPography Experiment... a changing climate and increasing water scarcity due to population growth and economic development... forecasting water supply and flooding in some downstream nations a challenging task (Hossain and..., reservoirs, and rivers was developed. Which water bodies are observed and at what..., and, over land, the size of the water bodies and their surrounding topography (Crétaux and Birkett 2006... overlapping periods: TOPEX/Poseidon (TOPography Experiment/Positioning, Ocean, Solid Earth, Ice Dynamics... better discrimination of water in small lakes and reservoirs and in anastomosed rivers... provide information only about the water surface height, and not extent, both of... for water management. For this reason, a new satellite mission, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, is under development jointly by the U.S. (NASA) and France... globe, the surface elevations and extents of water bodies with surface areas larger than... open ocean and near coastal waters that will help to resolve ocean circulation... tracks from nadir altimeters) of water surface elevations. Methods have been proposed... on SWOT observations of water surface elevation, water surface slope, and river width; these approaches... the surface to improve the image’s resolution, and as a result, if the surface changes very quickly (i.e., short decorrelation time due to a choppy water surface... in surface water area, in accuracy of at least 10 cm in water surface elevation (Rodríguez 2012). The relative error in surface extent using the SWOT water mask will be.... 3: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite antennas and instruments. Image courtesy of C. Lion and B. Reinier... will globally and freely available reservoir storage, streamflow, and water level information produced by SWOT affect the management of water resources... transboundary water resources in a basin-wide manner, and equitable allocation of water resources... and sovereign in their ability to forecast and manage water resources flowing from and... nations to gather surface water information and the effectiveness of operational water resources management... al. 2012), and swath altimetry from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM... its surface water from nations upstream in the GBM (Nishat and Rahman 2009.... This project proposes to divert surface water from humid northern regions to... of discharge at Hardinge Bridge and Bahadurabad and water levels at the virtual... observed water levels at Bahadurabad and Sirajganj on the Brahmaputra River and Hardinge... of SRTM-derived elevations and water surface slope, Landsatderived water mask, and in situ measurements... water surfaces, SWOT will be able to provide concurrent measurements of water surface elevation and a water mask, which should minimize... and surface area (hence volume) changes of each reservoir, as well as water elevation and slope variations for the Indus and its tributaries... estimates of river width, slope, and surface height, critical variables for discharge... m, the surface area of the reservoir should be several km2 and thus... mountains, which could “mask” the water surface (this effect is called layover..., and water extent. This issue is currently being studied at NASA and CNES... attempts to build and maintain an observation network and comprehensive water management modeling... and Amazon Rivers. Based on relationships between water height changes, SRTM topography, and the water mask, they were able to identify fundamentally different processes and... and reservoir height measurements from past and current nadir altimeters for transboundary water... India and Pakistan will leverage this information on storage changes and water levels of the impounded Indus basin for adaptation, mitigation and... for model development and has potential for improved flood and water supply forecasting, flood mapping, model calibration and other water management... Severn from measurements of river water surface elevation and slope. J Hydrol 511:92... of spatial and temporal water level variations in the Amazon, Congo, and Brahmaputra... transboundary water law: Internal, external, and implications. In: International workshop on African Water.... 3: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite antennas and instruments. Image courtesy of C. Lion and B. Reinier...



Дата загрузки: 2017-01-16
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0.11/5
... Fu, Ernesto Rodriguez, Shannon Brown, and Richard Hodges Jet Propulsion Laboratory... recommended SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Mission is to measure the water elevation of the... as terrestrial water bodies (such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands), to... ocean circulation, the spatial and temporal variability of the world's surface freshwater storage and discharge, and to..., coastal zone management, flood prediction, and water resources management. Radar altimetry has...-2005), and its follow-on Jason (2001-present), and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM... data record of the global ocean surface topography has been obtained, which will... the ocean that contains 90% of the kinetic energy of ocean circulation, and (2) the variability of water storage and discharge over... global water cycle. SWOT will use a new technique to measure water elevation that will provide an order-ofmagnitude improvement in resolution and... to address these scientific questions and to further our current knowledge of oceanography and land hydrology, while establishing a reference... efforts of the Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter (WSOA) [1], [2]. The KaRIn instrument..., a dual-frequency nadir altimeter, and a multi-frequency water-vapor radiometer dedicated to... are transmitted from each antenna, and the radar echoes from each... on the topography. Therefore, the knowledge of the range and the phase... for the ocean (after on-board processing), and 50 m for land water. Figure... on-board interferometric SAR processor, and the internally calibrated high-frequency... next-generation missions to map water elevation for studying Earth. The...-waveguide feed arrays (one V-pol and the other H-pol) illuminate each... processor with interferometric SAR processing and multi-looking capabilities will decrease... the ocean before download. The microwave radiometers carried by previous and on... to resolve the small-scale water vapor features near coastal regions..., without periodic views of hot and/or cold loads), has, to... as the scientific rational, objectives and development status of the technology... contract with the National Aeronautic and Space Administration. REFERENCES [1] Fu, L.-L. (Ed...), “Wide-swath altimetric measurement of ocean surface topography”, JPL Publ., 03-002, 67....pdf) [2] Fu, L.-L., and E. Rodriguez (2004), “High-resolution measurement of ocean surface topography by radar interferometry for oceanographic and geophysical applications... State of the Planet: Frontiers and Challenges in Geophysics, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 150, edited by R. S. J. Sparks and C. J. Hawkesworth, pp. 209–224, AGU...,” IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Ontario, Canada, June 1991...



Дата загрузки: 2017-01-23
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... 4.5 Provincial and Territorial Polices and Measures and their Effects 4.5.1 Provinces 4.5.1.1 Newfoundland and Labrador 4.5.1.2 Prince... Resources 6.6.3 Water Resources 6.6.4 Coastal Zone Management 6.6.5 Municipalities and Infrastructure 6.6.6 Agriculture and Food Production... 8.4.3 Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks 8.4.3.1 Agricultural Ecosystems 8.4.3.2 Forest Ecosystems 8.4.3.3 Ocean systems 8.4.3.4 Observation... and Cryosphere 8.4.4.2 Oceans 8.4.4.3 Biophysical Sensitivities 8.4.4.4 Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry 8.4.5 Climate Modelling and Applications 8.4.5.1 Ocean Modelling 8.4.5.2 Global Climate Models 8.4.5.3 Regional Climate Modelling and Scenarios... agricultural products, energy (electricity and oil and gas) and many resource-based commodities... policies and measures by both federal and provincial and territorial Canadian governments and actions by businesses and consumers... and take advantage of opportunities. Between 1948 and 2012, the annual average surface... cover, changes in timing and amount of surface water availability, increased evaporation contributing..., including land, air, oceans and fresh water, and space-based Earth observations. Monitoring... Observing System, the Global Ocean Observing System, and the Global Terrestrial Observing... the climate system: land surface, forests, cryosphere, atmosphere and oceans. The Global...; trade and commerce, navigation and shipping, seacoasts and fisheries, criminal law, and the power... a country of physical extremes and contrasts. Its surface area is 9,984,670... for 9,093,507 km² and fresh water for 891,163 km². The... 2010 and 2012.15 Canada’s climate is warming. The annual average surface... of agriculture, energy (electricity and oil and gas) and many resource-based commodities..., and propane. Due to Canada’s relatively cold climate, space heating and water heating... for space heating, cooling, lighting and water heating, as well as for... Production, Production and Consumption of Halocarbons and SF6, and Other and Undifferentiated Production. The... \Vaste Disposal on Land B . Waste-water Handling C. \Vaste Incineration D. Other 7. Other... capture and storage projects, and renewable energy and clean energy systems demonstration and research and... other environmental priorities such as water conservation. The 2011 Saskatchewan budget... 0.29 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water and sanitation Support to the University... community-based ecodevelopment and environmental health in connection with water and sanitation. Caribbean... Grant Adaptation Water and sanitation Building capacities in community-based ecodevelopment and environmental health in connection with water and sanitation. Burkina... Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Agriculture and Water Support to the Sokoine University... climate change adaptation in agriculture and water resources (irrigation) in the Greater... climate change adaptation in agriculture and water resources (irrigation) in the Greater... Adaptation Water Support to the Fondacion Bariloche for adaptation to water stress..., trinidad and tobago† 1.50 1.48 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water Support to... West Indies, Barbados, for sustainable water management under climate change in... 0.43 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water and sanitation Support to the Universit... communitybased eco-development and environmental health in connection with water and sanitation. Bolivia† 1.08 1.07 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water Support... Water Support to the Cambodia Development Resource Institute for improving water governance and... and manage natural disasters. Chile† 1.30 1.29 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water... carbon and methane. China† 1.50 1.48 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water Support... water resources and adaptation to climate change research in North China Plains and... 1.51 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water Support to the Kunming Institute... Sciences, China, for building effective water governance in the Asian Highlands... 1.46 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water Support to the Centro Agron... on the adaption of communitybased water supply to a changing climate. Costa... 1.47 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water Support to the Centro del...á, for water security and climate change research in Central America and the Caribbean... and the Dominican Republic. Honduras† 0.15 0.15 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water... Adaptation Water Support to the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and... 1.22 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water Support to the Faculty of... 1.41 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water Support to the Thailand Development... 0.70 Provided ODA Grant Adaptation Water and sanitation Support to the Universit... communitybased eco-development and environmental health in connection with water and sanitation. 1.11... mitigation and forest management. Adaptation: software training and scientific and technical mentoring and guidance...



Дата загрузки: 2017-01-04
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... and Biodiversity Weather (incl. space weather and chemical weather) Climate Variability and Change Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle Human Health and Security.... Above not in priority order Water Panel priorities Mission Ranking Mission... Parameters Measured RFI Source Mission(s) 1 Surface Freeze/Thaw Soil Moisture Hydros... 2 River and Lake Elevation Ocean Circulation WaTER Hydrosphere Mapper or OOLM Surface Water and Ocean Topography 3 Snow Water Equivalent CLPP Snow and Cold Land processes 4 Water Vapor Wind Speed and Direction AIRS, GPS RO WOWS Water vapor transport 5 Sea-Ice Thickness, Glacier Surface Elevation Glacier Velocity ICESAT++ InSAR ICESAT 2 6 Ground Water Glacier Mass Balance Ocean Mass Distribution GRACE follow-on, ICESat++ GRACE 2 7 Inland and Coastal Water Quality FLORA, SAVII Inland and coastal water quality FINAL... operations – Vector ocean winds – GPS radio occultation temperature, water vapor and electron density profiles – Total solar irradiance/and Earth Radiation (NPP) and.../ water vapor profiles GPSRO Launch 2010-2013 Changes in aquifers and deep ocean currents GRACE-II Launch 2016-2020 Temperature and humidity... and Snowmelt extent Snow water equivalent, snow depth, and snow wetness Dynamics of water... and drought forecasts to improve water resource management Linkage between terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycle SMAP Launch 2010-2013 Pressure/ temperature/ water vapor profiles GPSRO Launch 2010-2013 Cloud and aerosol height ACE Launch 2013-2016 High resolution ocean vector winds XOVWM Launch 2013-2016 Temperature and humidity profiles Sea surface... High resolution ocean vector winds XOVWM Launch 2013-2016 Ocean eddies and currents SWOT Launch 2013-2016 Changes in Earth’s surface and movement of magma Nutrients and water status of vegetation, soil type and health DESDynI Launch 2010-2013 Pressure/ temperature/ water vapor profiles... 2013-2016 Global high resolution topography Detection of active faults LIST... Temperature and humidity profiles Three dimensional tropospheric wind profiles Sea surface temperature... eruption and landslide warnings to enable effective evacuation planning. Nutrients and water status of vegetation, soil type and health HyspIRI Launch... vegetation SMAP Launch 2010-2013 Ocean eddies and currents SWOT Launch 2013... sources and sinks ASCENDS Launch 2013-2016 Organic material in surface ocean layers Improved estimates of coastal upwelling and nutrient availability..., agricultural, and ocean productivity forecasts to improve planting and harvesting schedules and fisheries management... resolution ocean vector winds XOVWM Launch 2013-2016 Ocean eddies and currents SWOT Launch 2013-2016 Pressure/ temperature/ water vapor profiles GPSRO Launch 2010-2013 Temperature and humidity profiles... profiles Hurricane wind fields Sea surface temperature 3D-Winds Launch 2020... and intensification predictions to enable effective evacuation planning Linkage between terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycle SMAP Launch 2010-2013 Pressure/ temperature/ water vapor profiles GPSRO Launch 2010-2013 Ocean eddies and currents Sea...-2016 Temperature and humidity profiles High resolution ocean vector winds Sea surface temperature... Launch 2010-2013 Pressure/ temperature/ water vapor profiles GPSRO Launch 2010... temperature, water vapor, and electron density profiles for weather, climate, and space weather... – 2016 XOVWM Sea surface wind vectors for weather and ocean ecosystems MEO, SSO... M SMAP Soil moisture and freeze/thaw for weather and water cycle processes LEO... M DESDynI Surface and ice sheet deformation for understanding natural hazards and climate; vegetation... by cost HyspIRI Land surface composition for agriculture and mineral characterization; vegetation... $400 M SWOT Ocean, lake, and river water levels for ocean and inland water dynamics LEO, SSO...; ocean color for coastal ecosystem health and climate emissions GEO High and low... Aerosol and cloud profiles for climate and water cycle; ocean color for open ocean biogeochemistry... by cost LIST Land surface topography for landslide hazards and water runoff LEO, SSO... for fresh water availability LEO, SSO Ku and X-band radars K and Ka-band...