Спутник ФКИ. Surface Water and Ocean Topography. [Редактировать]

Спутник фундаментальных космических исследований. Предназначен для решения задач: гидрологии, океанографии. По своей сути является спутником дистанционного зондирования Земли в высоком разрешении. Должен предоставить информацию о перемещении больших водных объемов по океану и рекам. Запуск аппарата планируется в 2020 году. Предварительно в качестве средства выведения выбрана ракета-носитель Фалькон 9. На аппарате планируется установить две антены Ka диапазона размером по 5 метров каждая. Антены будут расположены на штангах длиной 5 метров. Таким образом, аппарат сможет работать как интерферометр. Помимио этого на него будет установлены радиометр и GPS приемник. НАСА финансирует около двух третей от потребного объема ассигнований (затраты на интерферометр). Доля Франции в финансировании состаляет $300 млн (на высотометр, платформу и сборку аппарата). Великобритания планирует потратить 9 млн евро (затраты на часть оборудования радара).

 

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-01-07. Космическое агенство Франции подписало первый из планируемых трех контрактов на создание космического аппарата SWOT. Данный контракт заключен с Thales Alenia Space of France и содержит работы по платформе и интеграции оборудования.Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean Topography
22015-09-30. Thales Alenia Space получила заказ на поставку радарного альтиметра.
Thales Alenia Space подписала контракт с космическим агентством Франции на разработку и поставку радарного альтиметра Посейдон-3С. В качестве космического аппарата, на который будет установлен прибор обозначен космический аппарат SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography).
При этом, компания поставит агентству не только надирный высотометр, но и осуществит разработку и поставку принципиально нового широкозахватного радара Ка-диапазона. В целом данный контракт является развитием научно-технического задела который был получен в ходе работ над космическим аппаратом Jason-3 (на него был установлен Посейдон 3Б). Рабочие частоты нового прибора будут составлять 13.6 и 5.3 ГГц. Тэги: Thales Alenia SpaceJason 3Surface Water and Ocean TopographyКосмическое агентство Франции
32016-11-23. Компания SpaceX выиграла контракт НАСА.
Космическое агентство США выбрало компанию SpaceX в качестве поставщика услуг по запуску космического аппарата Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Сроком запуска объявлен 2021 год. Стоимость запуска объявлена в размере 112 млн. долл. В рамках контракта оператор окажет следующие услуги:
1. Осуществит адаптацию РН к ПН.
2. Обеспечит поступление телеметрии в процессе выведения.
3. Обеспечит производство и запуск РН.
Местом запуска выбрана пусковая база ВВС США Ванденберг.Тэги: Фалькон 9 (вер 1.2)SpaceXКосмическое агентство СШАSurface Water and Ocean Topography
42017-01-17. Космическое агентство Канады заключило новый контракт.
Космическое агентство Канады объявило о заключении 3.8 млн. долл. контракта с Communications & Power Industries Canada (CPI) на разработку компонентов для миссии Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Целевой задачей разрабатываемого в рамках проекта КА будет являться съемка около 90 процентов поверхности океанов, морей,рек и озер. Полученные в ходе эксплуатации КА данные планируется использовать для построения моделей круговорота воды и прогноза погоды. Запуск аппарата планируется в апреле 2021 года. Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean TopographyКосмическое агентство КанадыCommunications and Power Industries
52017-05-29. GAO обнародовала данные о состоянии разработки КА Surface Water and Ocean Topography.
Согласно представленному отчету:
1. Целью миссии Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) будет являться использование широкозахватного альтиметра, который должен будет обладать высокой скоростью съемки и улучшенной точностью. Целевыми объектами для съемки выбраны поверхности океанов, крупных озер и морей. В дальнейшем эти данные должны будут позволить уточнить модели изменения уровня воды в реках и помочь в предсказании изменений климата. SWOT является совместным проектом между CNES и НАСА.
2. В рамках планирования участники проекта предприняли ряд действий, которые направлены на снижение риска разработки КА. В частности, при оценке сроков создания агентства предусмотрели достаточные резервы по срокам запуска. Вместе с тем, согласно текущим оценкам, срок запуска спутника сдвинулся на шесть месяцев вправо. Причиной переноса срока являются технические проблемы с созданием Ка диапазонного радарного интерферометра (KaRIn). Также GAO отметило, что данный инструмент создается в рамках широкого привлечения международной кооперации, а следовательно он может быть не готов в заданные сроки.
3. Стоимость проекта составляет $754.9 млн., в том числе:
- стоимость предварительной проработки - $136.8 млн.
- стоимость разработки - $571.5 млн.
- стоимость работы с КА - $46.7 млн. Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean Topography

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2000
2Мощность, Вт2000

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата (пуска)октябрь 2020

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (работ по платформе аппарата и интеграции на нее оборудования), млн. долл.2015-01-0794
2Стоимость (интерферометра), млн. долл.2015-01-07300
3Заказчик Космическое агентство США
4Заказчик Космическое агентство Франции
5Производитель (платформы и интеграции оборудования)Thales Alenia Space
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (предварительная, проекта), млн. долл.642 – 742
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-01-071100
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24647 – 757
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2016-02-01647 – 757
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2017-05-20754.9
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (предварительная проработка проекта), млн. долл.2017-05-20136.8
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработка), млн. долл.2017-05-20571.5
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (работа с КА), млн. долл.2017-05-2046.7

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Surface Water and Ocean Topography». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Surface Waves on SWOT’s Projected Ocean Accuracy Eva Peral *, Ernesto Rodríguez and... / Published: 4 November 2015 Abstract: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission being considered by... its main objectives, to measure ocean topography with centimeter scale accuracy over... decorrelation, aliasing of ocean waves, backscattering modulation, and the so-called surfboard sampling. Keywords: SWOT; radar interferometry; ocean waves... the proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission [1–4] is to characterize the ocean mesoscale and sub... Sea Surface Height (SSH) for spatial wavelengths of 15 km and larger...-dimensional ocean variability at scales shorter than 300 km, the mesoscale and... and 300 km are essential for quantifying the kinetic energy of ocean circulation and the ocean uptake of climate relevant tracers such as heat and... the impact of surface waves on SWOT’s projected ocean accuracy. Since radar... problem of surface layover in interferometry is well known [7,8], and leads to... examining the case when the ocean surface wavelength is not smaller than... plane sampling will intersect the surface at irregular spatial intervals, but... effect, SWOT assumes that the ocean’s surface is flat enough so that... radiation into the water. However, the scatterers follow the surface topography, which in... by Rodriguez and Martin [7], we model the statistics of the ocean surface height... height at a given point, and 𝜎ℎ is the ocean height standard deviation, which... the convolution of the ocean wave height, ℎ(𝑥, 𝑦), and KaRIn’s interferometric point target... surface height can be written as: 1 ℎ(𝑥) = ∫ 𝑑𝑘 ℎ̃(𝑘)𝑒 𝑖𝑘∙𝑥 (5) 2𝜋 where k is the ocean wave-number, and... (blue) and Blackman-Harris (red) windows in comparison to ocean wave energy... by the intersection of the surface and a set of parallel planes, or... radar incidence angle, SWH, and the ocean wave peak wavelength. The second... surface height is underestimated and severely distorted by the averaging of surface heights... ocean wave field (U10=10m/s) propagating in the range direction (blue) and... a system with finite resolution bandwidth (surface impulse response), plotted as a function... range coordinate with the mean surface. (c) Estimated height as a function of... surface wave slope variance, 𝜃𝑖 is the incidence angle for the mean surface, and... large-scale surface wave determines the local incidence angle and results in... tilt and hydrodynamic modulations to take into account non-linear ocean features in modulation and slope [10,19... this and the following sections illustrate the magnitude of this error. Ocean... deviation (a) and bias (b) as a function of SWH for unidirectional ocean wave field... simulations for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) geometry, radar parameters and on board radar... standard deviation (a) and mean bias (b) for a 3 m SWH unidirectional ocean wave field with... ocean wave spectrum; not only its magnitude, but also its orientation and.... 6. Impact of Surface Waves on Projected SWOT Performance Ocean waves degrade the... height variance, 𝜎ℎ2𝑚 , due to the surface waves (not including volumetric decorrelation... and Future Work We have presented the various phenomena related to surface... Chapron and Fabrice Ardhuin for fruitful discussions on simulating the ocean waves and... of the surface reflectivity, 𝜎0 (𝑥, 𝑦), and the interferometric phase, 𝑒 𝑗𝛷(𝑥,𝑦) , with the range, 𝜒𝑟 and azimuth... interferogram is flattened using a reference surface. For an interferometric phase much... of the ocean wave height, ℎ(𝑥, 𝑦), modulated by the brightness, and the interferometric... azimuth angle and 𝜃𝑖0 is the incidence angle for the mean surface at... the instrument range and azimuth point target responses and 𝑍ℎ , the surface impulse response: 𝒉𝒎 (𝒙𝟎 , 𝒚𝟎 ) ≈ 𝝌𝒙 ⊗ 𝝌𝒚 ⊗ 𝒁𝒉 (16) where ⊗ represents convolution [30] and 𝑍ℎ is... the ocean wave spectrum, 𝑆ℎ , as follows: 2 𝛽̃ 𝑘𝑥 2 𝑆ℎ𝑚 (𝑘𝑥 , 𝑘𝑦 ) = |𝜒 ̃(𝑘 ̃(𝑘 +𝑗 | 𝑆 ⊗ 𝑆ℎ ) 𝑥 𝑥) 𝜒 𝑦 𝑦 )| (𝑆ℎ + 2 |−4 𝜎ℎ tan 𝜃𝑖0 ℎ (23) Equations (17) and (18) indicate that, even when the ocean wave spectrum... the ocean wave spectrum, we take the average of Equation (15) and... ocean wave spectrum for SWH = 3 m with no brightness modulation (see Section 4), and..., T. The SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Mission: Spaceborne Radar Interferometry for Oceanographic and Hydrological Applications..., E.; Esteban-Fernandez, D. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission: Observing terrestrial surface water and oceanic submesoscale eddies Proc.... SWOT: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission: Wide-Swath Altimetric Measurement of Water Elevation on...: Active and Passive, Volume II, Radar Remote Sensing and Surface Scattering and Emission Theory...-Stellenfleth, J.; Horstmann, J.; Lehner, S.; Rosenthal, W. Sea surface imaging with an across-track..., J.; Crescenti, G.; Graber, H. Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters...



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... and Sensor Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 7825 Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, and Large Water Regions 2010 . . . . . . . . . . 23 7834 Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and...: Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, and Large Water Regions 2009 (Bostater..., and Next-Generation Satellites and Conference 7225, RS of the Ocean, Sea Ice, and Large Water Regions... innovative concepts (e.g. CFOSAT for sea surface characterization), and a number of these projects...), thermal management (heat sinks and water coolers) and high voltage electronics (RF reed..., and Hydrology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 7825 Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, and Large Water....40: Quantification and assessment of urban surface reflection ratios and their effect on...: Surface flux processes and evolution of characteristic eddy scales over dry land and...: Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing and geographic information system... (Cyprus). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7824-31] 14.40: Water and energy balance modelling of agricultural...-75] Estuarine and Coastal Applications Spectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated... Balance and Evapotranspiration Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing and geographic... normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) and land surface temperature(LST) in arable... using MODIS and Ground truth data, Xueliang Cai, International Water Management Institute... model for soil water content retrieval using thermal and multispectral images, Antonino... Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, and Large Water Regions 2010 Conference... to 11.20 Water Column Properties & SST Imaging and Algorithms Session Chair... on surface salinity distribution along the Louisiana-Texas coast from ocean color and... (EOF) analysis of sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll in the eastern Bering...). . . . . . . . . . . . [7825-02] Radar and optic investigations of surface wave variability in Black... for geostationary ocean color instruments using coupled multi-layer ocean and atmospheric models...] 14.50: Simulation and evaluation for measuring directional ocean wave spectrum from.... 15.40 to 17.30 Water Surface and Subsurface Sensing Session Chair: Xavier...: Integration, testing and calibration of airborne imagers for land & water applications, Charles...] 16.50: Image analysis for water surface & subsurface features in shallow waters... and Technology Ctr. (Netherlands). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7826-20] 10.05: Status of the Ocean and... Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT): a mission concept to study the world’s oceans and fresh water... Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT): the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) for water level...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7826-85] 09.10: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT): KaRIn error budget...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7826-38] 09.50: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT): results of a multi... Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, and Large Water Regions 2010 09.00...: Integration, testing and calibration of airborne imagers for land & water applications, Charles...-42] Interpolating MERIS and GPS measurements of precipitable water vapor (PWV) to... the computer modeling and field measured for different optics surface properties, Jun... spatial resolution UltraCamX airborne imagery and Digital Surface Models for classification in...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7831-03] Metadata research and design of ocean color remote sensing data... of Ecology and Geography (China). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7831-09] Zhejiang coastal water quality monitoring... Surveying and Planning Institute (China). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7831-45] A improved algorithm for land surface...] Quantitative and qualitative coastal water quality parameters monitoring using field data and aerial...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7831-64] Water volume change detection using remote sensing and GIS (case... correction issues for water quality assessment from multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing....40 to 12.20 Water vapor, Aerosol and Clouds Session Chairs: Eduardo.... of Science and Technology (China). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [7832-34] Raman water vapor lidar calibration... 1550 and ~500 nm for submarine communication above the surface and at speed and... Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation). . . . . . . . . . . [7838B-39] 11.50: Dry etching and surface... Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, and Large Water Regions 2010 (C. R. Bostater...



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... in the deep ocean: An upward revision J. Aucan1 and F. Ardhuin2 Received 12.... [1] Ocean infragravity waves are surface gravity waves with periods of several minutes and... propagating freely in the deep ocean, these waves are typically small... global climatology and variability of infragravity waves in the deep ocean using data from over 40 open ocean locations, with... Surface Water Ocean Topography mission. Citation: Aucan, J., and F. Ardhuin (2013), Infragravity waves in the deep ocean... [2] Wind-generated surface gravity waves are ubiquitous at the ocean surface. Their dominant period typically varies between 2 and 25 s, with... these wind-waves. Longer and lower frequency surface gravity waves, called infragravity... windwaves and do not follow the dispersion relationship of linear surface gravity... other hand, disperse like linear surface gravity waves. The shoreline boundary... tens of kilometers in deep water. The liberation of bound IG... energy leaks into the open ocean as free waves [e.g., Webb et... levels and variability of free infragravity energy in the open ocean. Despite this poor knowledge, open ocean infragravity have..., and despite their small amplitude, free IG waves in the open ocean... the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission [SWOT, see Alsdorf et al., 2007]. The temporal and... the Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) program and other programs to document the open ocean temporal and spatial variability... energy in both the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. 2. Data Preparation [5] The DART... composed of a bottom package and a nearby surface buoy. The bottom package holds... AND ARDHUIN: INFRAGRAVITY WAVES IN THE DEEP OCEAN mitted acoustically to the surface... back up to the surface for servicing, and the continuous full resolution... Electromagnetic and Pressure Experiment (1986–1987), courtesy of D. Luther (School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology). At some stations... and most bound IG components is strongly attenuated from its surface value and... infragravity waves, that satisfy the surface gravity wave dispersion. For a free... surface elevation amplitude a, by a transfer function M that is a function of the water depth D pb = aM = a g , cosh(kD) (1) where is the water density... then applied to obtain the surface elevation spectral density E( f ), E( f ) = M2 Fp... shape of the bottom pressure and inferred surface elevation spectra are shown... the Pacific Ocean (Figure 2), six stations in the Atlantic Ocean (Figure 3), one station in the Gulf of Mexico, and one station in the Indian Ocean, off Australia... energy can disperse over a wider ocean region. Filloux et al. [1991... in the Atlantic ocean than in the Pacific ocean, and they are con.../Hz AUCAN AND ARDHUIN: INFRAGRAVITY WAVES IN THE DEEP OCEAN 10−4 10... bottom pressure spectra pb and (top panel, right) surface corrected pressure spectra a, during the summer (red), the winter (green), and... less energetic in the Atlantic Ocean than in the Pacific, we... North-West Europe Shelf and passage between Iceland and Ireland is the... IG waves of the world ocean, but the model has to... Pacific Ocean included in this study may experience similar sheltering, and as... order to illustrate the estimated surface elevation contribution to satellite altimeter.... 3437 AUCAN AND ARDHUIN: INFRAGRAVITY WAVES IN THE DEEP OCEAN 60°W 0° 30... the Gulf Stream, Agulhas, and Kuroshio regions, and of the order of... the noise level for the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. [16] At the... surface elevation spectrum E( f ) at the DART station 46405, for frequencies 0.0097 and... to East in the Pacific Ocean, consistent with higher incident wave... sea level measurements expected from Surface Water Ocean Topography. Hence, free IG waves cannot... 3438 AUCAN AND ARDHUIN: INFRAGRAVITY WAVES IN THE DEEP OCEAN ocean. At present... by the U.S. National Ocean Data Center, V. Ballu (IPGP) and the Australian Bureau... U.S. National Ocean Partnership Program, under grant N00014-10-1-0383 and Labex Mer... circulation and tides in a global ocean model, Ocean Modell., 32, 175–187. Ardhuin, F., and T. H. C. Herbers (2013), Double-frequencynoise generation by surface gravity waves in finite depth: Gravity, acoustic and seismic... the open ocean floor over a broad frequency range: New program and early..., J. H., D. Luther, and A. Chave (1991), Long-term seafloor measurement of water pressure: Normal modes and infragravity waves, in.... Harmon, N., T. Henstock, M. Srokosz, F. Tilmann, A. Rietbrock, and P. Barton (2012), Infragravity wave source... or surface quasigeostrophic theory? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1137–1142. Webb, S., X. Zhang, and W. Crawford (1991), Infragravity waves in the deep ocean, J. Geophys. Res... of earth normal modes by ocean waves, Geophys. J. Int., 174(2), 542...



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... ` ENGINYERIA ELECTRONICA May 2013 Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Massachusetts... A KA-BAND RADAR INTERFEROMETER DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING A Thesis Presented by BRUNO... to style and content by: Paul R. Siqueira, Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering... in NASA’s Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, that will map the water elevation on... OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 1.2 History and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Summary of Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. RADAR... Temperature Control Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 6. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6.1 6.2 Summary of... Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 5.4 Temperature Sensors (ADC 2) and Temperature Control Resistors . . . . . . 38 5.5 Phase... errors) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5.7 Estimated Frequency, Mean and Amplitude (with errors) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5.8 Phase... xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 History and Motivation The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission was recommended... ocean level at high resolution and over wide swath to characterize the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation, and (ii) measure the elevation of water on land (rivers, lakes, wetlands) to characterize the storage and discharge of surface waters [4]. This will allow a better study of the climate change and understanding of flood processes. The ocean surface temperature can... the different measured heights, because water expands when the temperature increases... the topographic height, transmitting a signal and measuring the phase difference of... to achieve the required resolution and accuracy, and also allows to reduce... cost. However, the design, manufacturing and evaluation of the 1 Figure 1.1. SWOT... radar interferometry and different types of interferometers. The geometry and phase estimation... height. Chapter 3 describes the downconverter and upconverter of the interferometer. A detailed description and some simulations are provided for... made to test the downconverter and upconverter. Chapter 5 discusses the performance... can be used to measure topography and topographic change, depending on the... interferometer. A radar interferometer transmits a signal and measures the reflected wave with... two antennas separated by a baseline and takes both measurements simultaneously. A repeat...-track interferometer and the phase difference is related to the topography. The... 4 A2 B Δr α– r α A1 H Figure 2.1. Interferometric Antenna and using the far-field approximation...(θ) . (2.3) Assuming the far-field approximation and r very large, the next equation... determined from Figure 2.1, sin(α − θ) = ∆r . B (2.4) Joining (2.1) and (2.4), and rearranging terms, the look angle... angle γ can be expressed as, π 2 − α, and the angle ϑ as, π 2 − θ + α. The absolute..., allows to reduce the size and weight, and achieves good resolution. This... baseband inputs, qin and iin , separated by 90➦ and it has a maximum... used for RF signals, and for telemetry and power. Figure 3.3 shows the... the rejection of image bands 1 and 2, and to avoid to transmit power... 4 dB lower. 30 iin (0◦ ) and qin (−90◦ ) iin (0◦ ) and qin (0◦ ) 5 0 −25 Image...-likelihood algorithm was previously developed and implemented to measure the phase... channels. Figure 5.4. Temperature Sensors (ADC 2) and Temperature Control Resistors 38 Figure... [minutes] Figure 5.7. Estimated Frequency, Mean and Amplitude (with errors) 40 5.3.2 May... measure surface water and ocean topography. The upconverter and L-band to baseband downconverter were modified and built... the required inputs (qin and iin ) and with the same input in... isolation and phase difference. Some errors were found and fixed manually, and documented... relation using different fitting polynomials and different temperature sensors of the... using the oscilloscope, the microcontroller and a computer. ❼ The full system should... 92 % plot phase difference, temperatures and residual power figure(h); subplot(3,1,1); plot... 34 % plot phase difference, temperatures and residual power figure(); subplot(3,1,1,'FontSize... phase difference, est. frequency, mean and amplitude figure(); subplot(4,1,1,'FontSize',11... − temperature) obtained with phase temperature.m and find the coefficients of a polynomial... error with different sensors and polynomials p(x) of degrees n, and choose the best...



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... ECV: Product A.1 Surface wind retrievals Benefits • Forcing of ocean-wave and ocean-circulation models... for numerical weather prediction (NWP) and ocean forecasting; • Transport sector, construction sector..., such as provided by Surface Moisture/Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius, hold the... validation for precipitation estimates via surface-water budget estimates, i.e. evaporation minus precipitation... (clear-sky water vapour radiances and ocean and terrestrial products). 3.1.5. ECV Water Vapour Water vapour is... sampling), temperature and water vapour profiles, aerosols, trace gases, and surface properties are required...), temperature and water vapour profiles, aerosols, trace gasses, and surface properties, required for surface ERB... satellite instruments measuring temperature and water vapour profiles and surface and ocean properties. 3.1.10. ECV Aerosol... in observations of land and ocean surface properties (e.g. SST, ocean colour); • Furnishing of Aerosol...-surface salinity and sea-surface temperature control the density and stability of surface water. Thus, ocean mixing (of heat and gases) and water-mass formation processes are intimately related to variations of surface salinity. Ocean modelling and analysis of water-mass ventilation should... changes in temperature and salinity and in surface winds. At ocean-basin scale, mass redistributions due to past and... variability and the temporal variations in spatial trend patterns, satellite ocean surface topography 47... water reservoirs and the ocean; and o Argo and other in situ elements to capture the ocean... and two medium-precision, higher-inclination altimeters. Other applications • Operational oceanography: ocean surface topography... to derive climate-quality sea-surface topography And,as such, is an essential... (comprising navies and ocean forecast modellers); • Near-real-time altimetric and SAR data... the atmosphere, ocean, and ice. However, efforts to determine surface fluxes at high... observing the biological and light-field variables in the surface ocean (separate configurations... (precipitation, evaporation-energy) and hydrological (surface-water recharge, discharge and ground-water) conditions. Target Requirements... conditions for vegetation, and other parameters that influence surface water and energy balance. Moreover, changes in the timing, rate and magnitude..., surface roughness, boundary layer stability and other processes. Snow depth and snow-water equivalent... in mass of water and ice on land. Calibration, validation and data archiving...-based water storage and ocean currents. 3.3.5. ECV Albedo The albedo of a land surface is... modifying water and energy exchanges with the atmosphere and by changing greenhouse gas and....) and the surrounding air and is the locus of mass (water and carbon) and energy (radiation and heat) exchanges between the biosphere and the... value in determining surface energy and water fluxes and interpretation of surface characteristics – some of... turbulent surface fluxes from satellites is challenging and a subject for ongoing research. Ocean-surface... atmosphere and ocean, these are based on the equations of fluid dynamics and... (without aliasing) at the ocean surface and not within the ocean. Moreover, the period... sea-surface temperature and land-surface products as prescribed boundary fields. Ocean-data assimilation and reanalysis activities, which utilize inter alia altimetry and satellite measurements of ocean-surface... surface moisture because of the relatively high dielectric constant over water. Surface roughness and... Leader Systematic observations of Land and ocean European Commission – JRC Via E. Fermi... through the CEOS Constellation for Ocean Surface Topography, CGMS and the WMO Space Programme...: Submit weekly surface and sub-surface water temperature, date of freeze-up and date of... and direction; water vapour; pressure; precipitation; surface radiation budget. Temperature; wind speed and direction; water... OCEAN OBSERVATIONS PANEL FOR CLIMATE OCEAN SURFACE VECTOR WINDS PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION POLARIZATION AND... MOISTURE AND OCEAN SALINITY (ESA) SHIP OF OPPORTUNITY PROGRAMME STRATOSPHERIC PROCESSES AND THEIR... SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT SHORTWAVE INFRARED SPECTRAL RANGE SURFACE WATER AND OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY SATELLITE MISSION (NASA) TOTAL COLUMN CO2 AND CH4 INSTRUMENTS...) TERRESTRIAL OBSERVATION PANEL FOR CLIMATE OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ALTIMETER EXPERIMENT (NASA/CNES) TIROS...



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... OBSERVATIONS OF THE OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY, GEOID, CURRENTS, AND CHANGES IN OCEAN MASS AND VOLUME C.K. Shum..., and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and... of absolute surface geostrophic currents, which are necessary to quantify ocean’s heat...-variable surface geometry (including ocean, hydrologic, land, and ice surfaces), gravity field, and Earth rotation/orientation into a consistent system for measuring ocean surface topography, ocean currents, ocean mass and... directly related to water mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and hydrosphere [55... technique for observing ocean surface height (or shape), its variability, and sea level... of the cryosphere and ice-covered oceans, and the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide... resolution oceanic sub-mesoscale variability and surface water hydrology. Satellite gravimetry is complementary... of sea surface height will enable quantification of general ocean circulation. GRACE... and ocean, changes in land hydrology, deglaciation, glacial isostatic adjustment, co-seismic and post-seismic earthquake deformations. 2. Much Beauty is Skin Deep: Sea surface topography, circulation, and sea level rise Satellite altimeters..., and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure changes, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, atmosphere and... and spaceborne gravity sensors to measure time series of sea surface slope and ocean bottom pressure variations and thus infer ocean circulation and mass... global mesoscale variabilities and ocean circulations throughout the icefree ocean [64] and has been... the surface geostrophic circulation is provided via the mean dynamic ocean topography (MDOT) determined from an altimetry-derived mean sea surface (MSS) minus the geoid. The geoid is an equipotential surface and a unique reference from which to determine the absolute topography, compared with the relative topography that comes from... altimetry in coastal areas [11], and global surface water hydrology [1]. The observations of... the absolute water storage exchange between the land/ice surface and the ocean, are critically important to quantify the freshwater budget and... monitoring changes in sea surface height and land surface height. Such observations provide... of Things: Ocean bottom pressure, intermediate-depth circulation, and ocean heat storage A basic... of density from the surface to the ocean floor. It may therefore... ocean currents reflect a balance between pressure gradients and the Coriolis force. While surface geostrophic currents, which have both baroclinic and barotropic components, are defined by the dynamic surface topography, below the sea surface... GNSS satellites, reflected at the ocean surface and received in airplanes or low... satellites due to atmosphere loading and ocean tides. This will open the... and surface geostrophic current velocities, GRACE-derived ocean bottom pressure and GRACE-observed land and ice melt water mass fluxes... strait and inter-ocean transport using the combined altimetry sea surface height and GRACE ocean... mass variations and global water cycles and their impact on ocean freshening and circulation. There... of the sea surface and ocean bottom pressure to infer circulation and mass distribution... the ocean observing system. These include: (1) independent observations of sea surface height... Systems, Geodetic observations of ocean surface topography, ocean currents, ocean mass, and ocean volume changes, Ocean09 Community... [1] Alsdorf, D., Rodriguez, E, & Lettenmaier, D. (2007). Measuring surface water from space, Rev. Geophys., 45..., J. Vaze, P. & Lafon, T. (2009). The SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Mission, Ocean09 Community White Paper...). Mean dynamic topography of the ocean derived from satellite and drifting buoy data... level of the global ocean derived from near-surface velocity observations, Geophys... dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and... height, heat storage, subsurface temperature, and sea-surface temperature variability. J. Geophys. Res... Ocean Surface Topography Constellation Strategic Workshop, Assmannshausen, Germany, 29–31 January. [61] Wilson, S. and... and temporal variations of land/ice/ocean surface (plates, intraplates, volcanoes, earthquakes, glaciers, ocean... GRACE gravity and satellite altimetry mean sea surface (top panel) and with added...



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... – TOSCA CALL FOR SURFACE WATER AND OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY (SWOT) SCIENCE TEAM 1. Introduction Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is a satellite mission being jointly developed by NASA and CNES... in terrestrial hydrology and create breakthroughs in mapping ocean surface topography. Technical and scientific challenges... Ocean TOPography EXperiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon and Jason. The systematic measurement errors (e.g., baseline roll and metrology, water-vapor... effects of vegetation, target layover, and water mask accuracy over land are... collected over land surface waters and over the ocean water surface (i.e., the ocean surface topography, OST). These elevation... changes in the amount of water stored and flowing through the world... for studying OST and mesoscale and submesoscale processes in the ocean. On land... height and area variations of water bodies such as lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands... to monitoring and understanding the shifting freshwater resources. Over the ocean, the... the study of energetic ocean currents, eddies, and fronts that contain most... to "characterize the spatial and temporal variations in surface waters, globally." In... in lake and wetland water storage and river discharge at submonthly, seasonal, and annual... consistent database of surface water storage and fluxes from space and will substantially advance... Water stored in lakes and reservoirs represents a key term in global and regional water balance studies, as well as an important source of water..., including lakeshore characteristics, water surface roughness, lake shape, and water surface height dynamics. The Science... SWOT measurements of lake water storage into global and regional hydrologic models... primary transfer of surface water from terrestrial to oceanic reservoirs, and existing in... Models While direct observation of surface water storage and fluxes during the lifetime... surface, and climate models. More accurate representation of lake and wetland water storage and flux through rivers will improve representation of the water.... 2.1.4 Wetland Water Surface Elevation, Storage, and Connectivity Because they are generally vegetated and often... critical roles in the global water and carbon cycles, observation of wetlands... address interlinked problems of carbon, water, and climate in wetland environments. In... wetlands to rivers, lakes, and other water bodies. JOINT ROSES TOSCA CALL 2015_SWOT.docx 3/6 2.1.5 Calibration/Validation Calibration and... methods and new partnerships for validating water surface heights, inundation extents, river slopes, water storage in lakes and reservoirs, river discharge, and other relevant... with scientists and hydrologic measurement agencies from around the world. 2.1.6 Water/Land...-band radar returns to measure water surface elevation and inundation extent. As such..., and other tools to develop robust algorithms for classification of water vs... presence of water under a range of vegetation types. 2.1.7 Measurement Phenomenology and Corrections... to optimize measurements of floodplain topography, with and without vegetation, are encouraged... discharge and lake water storage products based directly on SWOT observations and, in... combination with hydrologic, hydrodynamic, land surface, and climate models will also represent... characterize the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation determined from the ocean surface topography at spatial resolutions of 15 km (for 68% of the ocean)." The potential advancement in ocean dynamics and societal benefits from.... 2.2.1 Mesoscale and Submesoscale Processes Most of the kinetic energy of ocean circulation... upward and downward in spatial and time scales, a key challenge in making ocean... transports of heat and chemical properties of the ocean are critically tied... knowledge of ocean dynamics at short wavelengths. Both modeling and observational studies... and waves have certain effects on the accuracy of the Sea Surface... estimate surface current features; the detection of land, ice, and rain contamination; and... complex water flow and its affects on this important environment. Understanding coastal and... and circulation models. 3.2 Terrestrial and Marine Cryosphere SWOT is required to identify water... of snow surface elevation, especially during snowmelt when liquid water is present... allow better determination of ocean surface topography in the polar ocean in the midst... polar ice sheet topography. Water cycles involving melting of glaciers and ice sheets... through their TOSCA (Earth, Ocean, Continental Surfaces and Atmosphere committee; http://www... designed for SWOT over selected ocean and land targets. The objectives of...



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... under which pre-fire vegetation and topography conditions this instrument works. We... protic and aprotic solvents is small; 84.4% and 85.6% in water and DMSO respectively... Composed primarily of collagens, proteoglycans, and water, and deposited by cartilage-specific cells... conserved: the surface envelope glycoprotein gp120 CD4 binding site and surface envelope glycoprotein... information about the distribution of water and ammonia gas in Jupiter’s atmosphere... infrared spectroscopy, surface recombination velocity, XPS, water contact angles, ellipsometry, and atomic force... surface. We have designed, prototyped, and tested a robot to transport the retroreflector and... laser tracker and then set down on the surface. The distance and angle... and the graphitic surface. The electrodes are prepared on a roughened basal-plane surface... present existence of water. One indication of a wet, conductive surface is cloud... was once lightning, and thus water, on the Martian surface, we must examine... of dynamic sea-level, variable water, and sediment discharges. This study aims... of accretion created a magma ocean on the surface, which upon solidification, is... of a large amount of water on the surface. If so, Mars’ steam... hypothesized that the oxidation of water and the concomitant acidification of the... rhodium and platinum onto the surface of the LSM. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and... of water were decomposed into layers using a novel definition which takes surface.... Elucidating the structure of the water surface has not only fundamental theoretical... and compression-torsion at different temperatures and measuring strains on sample 78   surface... as making oxygen and hydrogen from water and sunlight, offers a clean and sustainable way... at the surface, catalyst mass loading, film thickness and morphology, and compared across... anomalous precipitation events, wind patterns, and surface warming. It is also predictable... the date, phase, and amplitude of MJO events, and ocean wave data from... and various aspects of the MJO, particularly the atmospheric circulation and near-surface... water mass transformation, nutrient fluxes and ecosystem dynamics. In January 2012, 40 surface... biological productivity and the surface circulation. 2V287L Mutation Increases Sensitivity of 42 and 542 nAChRs Through Altered Assembly and... and Surface Reaction Constant Michael Forsuelo Mentors: Sossina Haile, Chirranjeevi Balaji Gopal, and... wavefront distortion from thermal lensing and surface deformation. A finite element model of... Pt-Zr surface layers, with Co, being leached from the surface, and/or reconstructing below the upper surface. The ozone... to pick up and place SEIS and HP3 on the surface of Mars... symmetry and slope angle. The basemap and supplemental images detail the associated surface features, ridge and trough linearity, and... and data querying has become far more complicated and demanding than previous surface... transported, and what effects it will have on the atmosphere and surface albedo... a reaction between ocean crust and water that generates energy, hydrogen gas, and ions. Hydrothermal... recognize other ships in the water and react in accordance with the... Sampling and Surface System Field Testbed Kearney Lackas Mentors: Brett Kennedy and Tony... U.S.-French mission between oceanographers and hydrologists, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite plans to... first global survey of Earth’s ocean and inland surface water. The Ka-band Radar... Case Bradford The Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission developed by JPL and slated for launch... on the globe's in-land and ocean water reserves. The quality of the... and Analysis of Low Gravity Soil Mechanics Hardware and Software for Comet Surface Sampling Chris Miller Mentor: Brian Trease Collecting and... Index (NDVI), and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM.... It measured ocean sea-surface wind, sea-surface temperature, wave height, ocean surface topography, and more. The... Surface Sampling and Science team requested a report summarizing all the tilt and terrain... crucial to mission success, and understanding surface age and surface processes is essential in... pixel) and CTX (8 m per pixel) imagery, terrain types were mapped and surface ages... Surface Sampling System (SSS), Mobility, Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), and Collection and... Williamson, and Dennis Wai Mentors: Paul G. Backes and Eric Kulczycki Comet Surface Sample... tensile and compressive strength, density, abrasivity, fracture toughness, brittleness, surface hardness, and thermal... visualization and stitching of these matched images. Remote Identification of Atmospheric and Surface... Smith, and Michael Williamson Mentors: Paul G. Backes and Eric Kulczycki Comet Surface Sample... Smith, and Dennis Wai Mentors: Paul G. Backes and Eric Kulczycki Comet Surface Sample...



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... 13, 2017 Evaluation of different water surface ranging technologies for lightweight UAVs... different water surface ranging technologies for lightweight UAVs. Abstract from Drones and Hydraulics, Paris, France. General rights Copyright and moral rights... by the authors and/or other copyright owners and it is a condition... accessing publications that users recognise and abide by the legal requirements... immediately and investigate your claim. Drones And Hydraulics, At The Service Of Water Professionals SHF organizer Paris-Cachan, April 2015 Evaluation of different water surface... 1 1. Background and Motivation Surface water is one of the components of the water cycle... and freshwater wetlands. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of open water... of open water surfaces include the elevation of the water surface of wetlands, rivers, lakes, reservoirs (h), the temporal and spatial derivatives (∂h/∂t , ∂h/∂x) and the surface water area extent (Alsdorf et al., 2007) . Ground-based measurements of water level in terrestrial water bodies are restricted to... to both political and economic issues, is making water resource management problematic..., the understanding of flood processes and of the interaction between floodplains and rivers is limited by the lack of water measurements in floodplain areas and across river courses... accurately model the water cycle, with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Indeed, although precision altimetry missions, such as Ocean Surface Topography... the water level of terrestrial surface water bodies and its variation with time and space. To overcome these limitations, the forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT... combine the concept of WATER (Water and Terrestrial Elevation Recovery) and the Hydrosphere Mapper... sensors, able to accurately measure water level, would open up for... Vehicles (UAVs): high spatial accuracy and coverage, quick turn-around time... allows for more flexible operations and shorter response times. From this... retrieving the orthometric height of water surfaces using sensors that comply... constraint, the need of accuracy and a reasonable price necessary for more... market (a sonar, a radar and a time-of-flight laser) and a laser-based technology... water surface is carried out by illuminating the water surface with the laser pointers and taking a picture of the illuminated water surface. When light emitted by laser pointers hits the water surface, dots are formed at the contact spot on water surface. Due to the scattering processing of water surface, the reflected... camera and thus it is possible to estimate the range to water surface... distance A between the laser source and the camera, i.e. H=A/tan(θ1). The angular... integrated with the accurate vertical and horizontal position retrieved by RTK... the orthometric height of the water surface. Figure 1, geometrical configuration of the... (and from the laser pointers in case of horizontal frame) to water surface... for a few seconds (around 10) and then calculating a weighted average. Through... internal temperature compensation, noise tolerance and clutter rejection. The time of... Time of flight (TOF) laser Water surface doesn’t exhibit sufficient reflection of..., beam divergence and maximum range for the four different water level rangers... show satisfactory results because the water surface does not exhibit sufficient reflection... measurements. However, also beam divergence and maximum measuring range must be... to fly a few meters above water surface, in particular above vegetation canopy... different water conditions in terms of different measuring ranges, water turbidity, waviness and... atmosphere scatters, adsorbs and transmits electromagnetic radiation and this this affects the... and speed, which are mainly disturbed by changes in temperature profile. Water... respect to Rayleigh scattering) when water is clear. Furthermore, waviness is... reflections from the water surface will be intermittent and several acquisitions will be.... Moreover, water waviness also affects measurements from the radar, sonar and the TOF laser causing additional noise and disturbance. Lastly... record the laser dots on water surface, in particular in the case... the best technology to retrieve water level from UAVs in different... Alsdorf, D. E., Rodriguez, E., & Lettenmaier, D. P. (2007). Measuring surface water from space. Reviews of Geophysics...-Fernandez, D. (2010). The surface water and ocean topography mission: Observing terrestrial surface water and oceanic submesoscale eddies. Proceedings..., D. (2013). Earth observations for global water security. Current Opinion in Environmental....009 Reyna Gutierrez, J. A. (2013). Monitoring and modeling of regional groundwater flow...



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... Rosetta, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) missions. Rosetta is a robotic... to rendezvous, follow, and deploy a lander to the surface of a comet. The... of Earth’s surface water, observe the details of ocean surface topography, and measure how water bodies change...: (1) the variability of fresh water resources and (2) how ocean circulation affects climate. Crewed... Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Aerosol-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Precision and All-Weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) Gravity Recovery and Climate... and Earth radiation $200 Soil moisture and freeze thaw for weather and water cycle processes Ice sheet height changes for climate change diagnosis Surface and ice sheet deformation for understanding natural hazards and climate Fiscal Years 2013–2016 Land surface composition for agriculture and... for climate emissions Ocean, lake, and river water levels for ocean and inland water dynamics Atmospheric gas columns for air quality forecasts; ocean color for coastal ecosystem health and climate emissions Aerosol and cloud profiles for climate and water cycle Fiscal Years 2016–2020 Land surface topography for landslide hazards and water runoff High frequency, weather temperature, and humidity... into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and... system and measuring the increase in activity as the comet’s icy surface... understanding of the Earth’s water and energy cycles and improve forecasting of extreme... mass and location of water as it moves around on the surface of the Earth, cycling between the land, oceans, and polar... the regional and global processes that link variations in ocean salinity to climatic changes in the global water cycle and how these variations influence ocean Budget In... changes and freshwater courses throughout the territory, including South Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic... and global atmospheric changes. Cycle IV also refers to soil, air, and water pollution.  Cycle V. Remote sensing and processing of relevant..., MWIR, and LWIR  Global ocean observation using satellite altimetry  Climate monitoring and modelling... Curiosity’s surroundings and investigate the processes that formed the surface of Mars... Module, which provides electricity, water, oxygen and nitrogen for the crew. Orion... Budget Based on Work Type Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT). The joint NASA-CNES... of the world’s oceans and terrestrial surface waters by using wide-swath... spatial fields of surface elevations for inland waters and oceans. This data... the dynamics of water and improve estimates of deep-ocean and nearcoastal marine circulation... relevant to habitability, and characterizing the broad spectrum of surface radiation. CNES... and characterizing a range of rocks and soils for clues to past water activity and... life by analyzing the climate and water histories at sites on Mars... and abundance of iron-bearing minerals and examined the magnetic properties of surface... was to explore and observe Mars surface features, mineralogy, and the Martian atmosphere... of rain and snow to advance the understanding of Earth’s water and energy cycles, improve climate prediction, and advance weather prediction... used to study the surface and atmosphere of Ceres and Vesta. Mars Reconnaissance... potential landing sites for future surface missions, and provide a high data-rate... Earth’s water and energy cycles and improve weather forecasting including extreme events and flood... by JAXA that collected and returned to Earth a surface sample of material... the lunar surface to search for evidence of water and ice and provide measurements... the amount and distribution of chemical elements and minerals on the surface of... distribution at the surface of Mars and search for water on the planet..., and ultraviolet radiation at the Martian surface; wind speed and direction; air temperature; and... and direction, pressure, relative humidity, and dust size and shape on the Martian surface. INTA Capabilities INTA has demonstrated and... landers, autonomous surface mobility systems, advanced imaging systems, and orbit launch vehicle... a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit... State Space Agency of Ukraine Surface Water Ocean Topography Technology Transfer Control Plan U.S. Code...