Спутник ФКИ. Surface Water and Ocean Topography. [Редактировать]

Спутник фундаментальных космических исследований. Предназначен для решения задач: гидрологии, океанографии. По своей сути является спутником дистанционного зондирования Земли в высоком разрешении. Должен предоставить информацию о перемещении больших водных объемов по океану и рекам. Запуск аппарата планируется в 2020 году. Предварительно в качестве средства выведения выбрана ракета-носитель Фалькон 9. На аппарате планируется установить две антены Ka диапазона размером по 5 метров каждая. Антены будут расположены на штангах длиной 5 метров. Таким образом, аппарат сможет работать как интерферометр. Помимио этого на него будет установлены радиометр и GPS приемник. НАСА финансирует около двух третей от потребного объема ассигнований (затраты на интерферометр). Доля Франции в финансировании состаляет $300 млн (на высотометр, платформу и сборку аппарата). Великобритания планирует потратить 9 млн евро (затраты на часть оборудования радара).

 

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1SWOTНайтиНайти

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-01-07. Космическое агенство Франции подписало первый из планируемых трех контрактов на создание космического аппарата SWOT. Данный контракт заключен с Thales Alenia Space of France и содержит работы по платформе и интеграции оборудования.Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean Topography
22015-09-30. Thales Alenia Space получила заказ на поставку радарного альтиметра.
Thales Alenia Space подписала контракт с космическим агентством Франции на разработку и поставку радарного альтиметра Посейдон-3С. В качестве космического аппарата, на который будет установлен прибор обозначен космический аппарат SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography).
При этом, компания поставит агентству не только надирный высотометр, но и осуществит разработку и поставку принципиально нового широкозахватного радара Ка-диапазона. В целом данный контракт является развитием научно-технического задела который был получен в ходе работ над космическим аппаратом Jason-3 (на него был установлен Посейдон 3Б). Рабочие частоты нового прибора будут составлять 13.6 и 5.3 ГГц. Тэги: Thales Alenia SpaceJason 3Surface Water and Ocean TopographyКосмическое агентство Франции
32016-11-23. Компания SpaceX выиграла контракт НАСА.
Космическое агентство США выбрало компанию SpaceX в качестве поставщика услуг по запуску космического аппарата Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Сроком запуска объявлен 2021 год. Стоимость запуска объявлена в размере 112 млн. долл. В рамках контракта оператор окажет следующие услуги:
1. Осуществит адаптацию РН к ПН.
2. Обеспечит поступление телеметрии в процессе выведения.
3. Обеспечит производство и запуск РН.
Местом запуска выбрана пусковая база ВВС США Ванденберг.Тэги: Фалькон 9 (вер 1.2)SpaceXКосмическое агентство СШАSurface Water and Ocean Topography
42017-01-17. Космическое агентство Канады заключило новый контракт.
Космическое агентство Канады объявило о заключении 3.8 млн. долл. контракта с Communications & Power Industries Canada (CPI) на разработку компонентов для миссии Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT). Целевой задачей разрабатываемого в рамках проекта КА будет являться съемка около 90 процентов поверхности океанов, морей,рек и озер. Полученные в ходе эксплуатации КА данные планируется использовать для построения моделей круговорота воды и прогноза погоды. Запуск аппарата планируется в апреле 2021 года. Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean TopographyКосмическое агентство КанадыCommunications and Power Industries
52017-05-29. GAO обнародовала данные о состоянии разработки КА Surface Water and Ocean Topography.
Согласно представленному отчету:
1. Целью миссии Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) будет являться использование широкозахватного альтиметра, который должен будет обладать высокой скоростью съемки и улучшенной точностью. Целевыми объектами для съемки выбраны поверхности океанов, крупных озер и морей. В дальнейшем эти данные должны будут позволить уточнить модели изменения уровня воды в реках и помочь в предсказании изменений климата. SWOT является совместным проектом между CNES и НАСА.
2. В рамках планирования участники проекта предприняли ряд действий, которые направлены на снижение риска разработки КА. В частности, при оценке сроков создания агентства предусмотрели достаточные резервы по срокам запуска. Вместе с тем, согласно текущим оценкам, срок запуска спутника сдвинулся на шесть месяцев вправо. Причиной переноса срока являются технические проблемы с созданием Ка диапазонного радарного интерферометра (KaRIn). Также GAO отметило, что данный инструмент создается в рамках широкого привлечения международной кооперации, а следовательно он может быть не готов в заданные сроки.
3. Стоимость проекта составляет $754.9 млн., в том числе:
- стоимость предварительной проработки - $136.8 млн.
- стоимость разработки - $571.5 млн.
- стоимость работы с КА - $46.7 млн. Тэги: Surface Water and Ocean Topography

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2000
2Мощность, Вт2000

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата (пуска)октябрь 2020

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (работ по платформе аппарата и интеграции на нее оборудования), млн. долл.2015-01-0794
2Стоимость (интерферометра), млн. долл.2015-01-07300
3Заказчик Космическое агентство США
4Заказчик Космическое агентство Франции
5Производитель (платформы и интеграции оборудования)Thales Alenia Space
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (предварительная, проекта), млн. долл.642 – 742
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-01-071100
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2015-03-24647 – 757
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2016-02-01647 – 757
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2017-05-20754.9
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (предварительная проработка проекта), млн. долл.2017-05-20136.8
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработка), млн. долл.2017-05-20571.5
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (работа с КА), млн. долл.2017-05-2046.7

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Surface Water and Ocean Topography». [Перейти к поиску]


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... environmental scenario (above water, under water, sea surface, ground and air). The focus is... coastal and offshore operations. This research follows a layered approach utilizing above water and... source and pipeline of petrol, water and gas, it is difficult to collect and... providers are members of RAs and Ocean Observing Systems (OOSs). The number... direction-finding HF radar. Surface currents and ocean swell are measured using an... sensing system to monitor ocean surface currents, waves and wind direction. This long... is coupled to the conductive ocean surface and follows the curvature of the... to the measurement of coastal ocean currents and ocean wave spectra, examples of... Machine). The characteristics of water and non-water regions are distinctively depicted by..., identify agricultural practices and determine water cycle and waterlevels. [457] Surface current retrieval from... overestimates the amount of open water and thin ice as well the... between snowmelt input from land and ocean Chi a as well as TSM... cross-pol signal reached the water surface and scattered back to the satellite... Level 2 Ocean Salinity processing and first results. SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), launched... topography which may be due to differences in volume scattering, surface motion, and surface... near surface currents and their interaction with the spatial and temporal varying bottom topography... to the shallower fen subsurface water and this makes possible the separation... area, low contrast with surrounding water and smeared edges. The entrance to...) presents a powerful and useful technology for remote sensing, ocean surface monitoring and oceanography. Many... applications such as ocean surface altimetry, wave height, surface current measurements, and current direction... the Lidar simulations is that surface topography would be captured at sufficient...) measurements, and they provide the major source of global ocean surface winds observations for scientific and operational applications. A major... recommended SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Mission is to measure the water elevation of the... ocean circulation, the spatial and temporal variability of the world’s surface freshwater storage and... if these towns and the university campus became more water and energy conscious... ocean surface can be significant, and for extreme rain rates the atmospheric scattering and... the calibration and validation activities for the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS... (SNR). Retrieval algorithms for ocean surface roughness and reflectivity that were derived originally... surface topography and velocities. Then we compute the travel time between transmitter, receiver and...) and long (from aircraft) distance remote sensing applications for water surface, soil and land snow cover’s microwave reflective and emissive characteristics simultaneous and... types such as urban, vegetation, and ocean. [790] Support vector machines regression... enable more efficient observations of topography and surface properties from space. The instrument...’s measurement performance and capabilities, demonstrating differentiation of open water and several ice cover...) from the ESA’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The data... remote sensing of ocean surface winds for monitoring tropical storms and hurricanes, especially... types such as urban, vegetation, and ocean. [905] Сборник рефератов публикаций электронной... CO 2 exchange between atmosphere, land and ocean. To measure CO 2 globally NASA... temperature over ocean and surface temperature over land from the GMAO GEOS-4, and cloud... abundant information about ocean waves. Sea state parameters and surface currents can be... ocean surface, broad beam HF bistatic cross sections of the ocean surface were presented and... of the ocean surface were the superposition of narrow beam and were broadened... oil have different behavior in water and may affect the decisions about... a couple of hours and the rest stayed in water surface. In the case... in to the water column and emerge on the surface in time to... monitor ocean surface currents, waves and wind direction. This very reliable long range and... the real-time ocean surface current data can help Search and Rescue (SAR... hours to years, changes in surface topography can be measured. Due to... rain layer profile without losing surface topography information. An adaptive IF-digital... spaceborne radars for imaging ocean surface features is explained and some of the... to investigate and describe the spatial and temporal development of 3D ocean surface waves... of the water column leads to anomalous warming of the surface water. Сборник... the water column and thus confine heat due to insolation at the ocean surface... were made over continental surfaces and ocean. Results show a good quality of... manage the user’s purchase of water and control the user’s machine by... level accuracy of topography for ocean and meter-level accuracy of topography for land...



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..., ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gasses, ice and..., Ecosystems, and Hydrology 8531-7, Session 2 Possibility of use of surface water resource in an arsenic contaminated region, Prubasthali I and II... of holding lots of water and can supply water for the villagers at least for drinking purpose. Arsenic of surface water is harmless and it can be suggested that the villagers can use surface water... water. The villagers must be provided purified alternative safe drinking water from surface water bodies. 8531-94, Session 2 Combined X- and L-band PSI... of surface processes, such as water and carbon balances, vegetation growth and energy budget... and saturation value. Furthermore thermal inertia was measured using a KD2Pro probe, and surface water content of soil was measured using FDR and TDR probes... an important role in water cycle. Water and vegetation is the key characteristics... penetrates water columns and the water cools, P. rubescens filaments float up to the surface... the water column. The discharge of the warm water further increases the surface water temperature, which enhances stratification. Variation of surface water... to its higher water temperature than the ambient coastal water, and affects the... properties and density etc) and surface properties (roughness, snow cover, distribution of water etc). Salinity of ice and... bottom reflection, varying water depth and effects on the water surface (e.g. sun glint, waves... monsoon region and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The QL water and the abundant grass... and atmospheric phenomena, including underwater bottom topography, oceanic internal waves, meso-scale ocean circulation, structures of ocean eddies and ocean currents, ocean surface waves, oily slicks, sea surface wind field, atmospheric internal waves and some other ocean surface features. In... cloud-free and date-continuous MODIS ocean color (CHL-a) and sea-surface temperature (SST) images were selected and then.... Since the upwelling water is colder than the surface water that it displaces... bottom topography, which, for different reasons, manifests itself in surface heaving and the... surface waves and multiple scattering in water is constructed. The lidar limiting longitudinal and... 500km and 2,000km mesh spatial resolution over the land and ocean, respectively and 1 month..., GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate), and three generations to achieve global and long-term... launch vehicle. 8533-15, Session 4 Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission Steven P. Neeck, Eric... Propulsion Lab. (United States) The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission was recommended in... provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and will provide... the water cycle measurements by directly measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle... ocean suite (sea surface temperature, sea surface winds, integrated cloud liquid water and integrated water vapor... and ocean surface properties. The enterprise system developed to calibrate a multisensor platform and generate... observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year   62A Conference 8533: Sensors, Systems, and... for ‘meteorological observation and ocean monitoring’ and the satellite orbit and attitude control mission... water, ice water and wind components. Eight global datasets in the four seasons and... laser sensing of the atmosphere and ocean and corresponding methods of statistical modeling... high on ocean surface or bare soil where surface scattering is dominant and volume... clean water and oil in the slick is predominantly from a single surface scatterer... vegetation, bare soil, and different types of water; and each area led to.... Time-series profiles of Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), Enhanced Vegetation Index... detecting surface water changes. This technique is referred to as Normalized Difference Surface Water... Management and Production Control” and deputy speaker of the business unit “Energy, Water and... identify water masses by their signature physical characteristics of sea surface temperature and ocean color, as well as, the water masses’ coherent... and meteorological data for producing applied operational and research products showing ocean currents and ocean...



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... missions--Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) for insight into the movement and distribution of fresh surface water, and Active Sensing of Carbon dioxide Emissions over Nights, Days and... assessment and initial instrument refurbishment; - The Tier II missions Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) and Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and... mission success criteria for the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM). Earth Systematic Missions... and direction in storms and on the ocean's surface, air pressure, humidity, lightning, aerosols, and water vapor. The data both complement and... level change, water and energy cycle impacts of biomass burning, and integrated Earth... and change; atmospheric composition; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water and energy cycles; weather; and Earth surface and interior. Additionally, the... missions GRACE FO and PreAerosol, Clouds, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE), and SWOT, a Tier II... areas of climate variability and change, water and energy cycles, and weather. Additional GPM...; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate variability and change; and water and energy cycles. Additional... in the Earth surface and interior, and carbon cycle, ecosystems, water cycle, and biogeochemistry focus...; climate variability and change; carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water and energy cycles; and weather... balance and land surface topography to quantify the contribution to the current and recent... Earth Science Earth Systematic Missions Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) The SWOT mission is... the surface water inventory on the continents by precisely measuring of water levels... and water bodies and the discharge of all major rivers. Likewise, SWOT sea surface topography data will illuminate ocean circulation as never before, aiding climate modeling and... FY 2012. Other Missions and Data Analysis Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) (also known as Jason-2) - OSTM measures sea surface... and change and water and energy cycles. This mission is a follow-on to Jason, and..., ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate variability and change; earth surface and interior; water and energy cycles; and weather. Terra is a joint mission with Japan and... cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; climate variability and change; water and energy cycles; and weather. Aqua is a joint mission with Brazil and... TRMM include: climate variability and change; water and energy cycles; and weather. TRMM is... by ACRIMSat include: climate variability and change; and water and energy cycles. Because ACRIMSAT... measures global radar backscatter and ocean surface wind speed and direction under nearly all... Jason missions include: climate variability and change; and water and energy cycles. The Jason... composition, climate variability and change, and water and energy cycles. Instrument and mission Science Teams... the QuikSCAT mission is managed. Ocean Surface Topography Science Team (OSTST) - This project... Continuity Mission (LDCM) SMAP ICESat-2 Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) NPOESS Preparatory Project... and sea surface temperatures, humidity profiles, land and ocean biological productivity, cloud and aerosol properties, and... and sea surface temperatures, humidity soundings, land and ocean biological productivity, cloud and aerosol properties, and... understanding of surface water fluxes, soil moisture storage, cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent... ICESat-2 include climate variability and change, Earth surface and interior, and water and energy cycles. The...-surface salinity and how these variations relate to changes in the water cycle and ocean... Aquarius will include: climate variability and change; and water and energy cycles. Aquarius is... water cycle, ocean circulation, and climate. It will observe and model variations of sea surface salinity, and how these relate to changes in the water cycle and ocean... natural, distributed CO2 sources and sinks and ocean/atmosphere and land/atmosphere CO2 exchange... and change; atmospheric composition; (carbon cycle, ecosystems, and biogeochemistry; water and energy cycles; weather; and Earth surface and interior. Facilities involved..., ocean topography, tropospheric winds, thermal land imaging, Earth radiation balance, precipitation, ocean color..., ozone, aerosols, and atmospheric gas columns for air quality and ocean color for coastal ecosystem health and climate emissions...



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... into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance... into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance... into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance... into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance... into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance... measure near-surface ocean wind speed and direction; new Rodent Research Hardware; and a three... (troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere) and from pole to pole. Surface temperatures in the... (the visible surface of the Sun) using surface magnetic field and extreme-ultraviolet... by the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft of... the surface and spread across the crater floor. This process was widespread and... sunrise, as the Moon’s surface cools and argon is released through desorption... ice and gases push upward until the surface becomes locally unstable and overturns... Enceladus harbors a large underground ocean of liquid water, furthering scientific interest in... polar jets are venting salty water and organic molecules, the basic chemical... water once flowed across its surface several billion years ago. For the water... Mars from the surface down to several meters and served both to... radiation, buried under the surface by soil and ice, the more likely... and climate, liquid water, and planetary habitability. FY 2014 Annual Performance Report and FY... the signatures of water and the prevalence of clouds and hazes. Discoveries of... insights into the ubiquity of water and the presence of clouds on... a star where liquid water might exist on the surface. The discovery of...’s surface and interior, improving the capability to assess and respond to natural hazards and... Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT). Conduct the Sustainable Land...’s surface and interior, improving the capability to assess and respond to natural hazards and... and extreme and biogeochemical management of better understanding surface and interior, Readiness Level. quality, and the weather events. cycles, including land water... ocean, atmosphere, and respond to customer in atmospheric cycle. how the global water... Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant... of carbon dioxide and methane with surfaceatmosphere carbon fluxes and surface state control variables (soil moisture, freeze-thaw state, inundation state, surface soil temperature) and elucidating the sensitivities of... Reporting and Planning A modeling study developed a coupled land surface and routing model and real... integrates satellite and surface observations related to anthropogenic, oceanic, terrestrial, and atmospheric carbon...’s water and energy cycle focus area has continued to enable better assessment and... between land and ocean basins, with less than a 10 percent water residual. On... is the flux of water from the ocean surface to the atmosphere. NASA.... Consistent with Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) FY 2014 Annual Performance Report and FY 2016... solve the shallow water equations to estimate river water surface elevation and slope. The algorithm was tested for the River Severn and... (e.g., bathymetry and roughness). NASA scientists combined satellite altimetric observations and land surface modeling... role of the land surface in drought and differentiated this from larger... changes in characteristics of the ocean surface and deep waters. Mass loss from... Greenland’s mass loss. Surface melt has been spreading and intensifying in Greenland, with the highest ever surface area melt and runoff recorded in 2012. How surface meltwater reaches the ocean, and... topography beneath the Greenland ice sheet controls the flow of ice and... work has inferred ice thickness and bed topography along the entire periphery...’s surface and interior, improving the 2.1.6.1 2.1.6.1 capability to assess and respond to natural hazards and... characterizing the dynamics of Earth’s surface and 9ES17 10ES13 ES-11-15...’s surface and interior, improving the capability to assess and respond to natural hazards and...’s surface and interior, improving the capability to assess and respond to natural hazards and...-2, Aqua, and other satellite data of sea surface height, temperature, and chlorophyll to... the understanding of Earth’s water and energy cycles and improve the forecasting of..., will make frequent and accurate measurements of ocean surface winds throughout the life cycle of tropical storms and hurricanes...: ES-15-14: Complete the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission Ka-band Radar...: ES-16-14: Complete the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission Preliminary Design Review... Satellite System (CYGNSS) will measure ocean surface winds to improve hurricane forecasting...



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..., altimetry and DEM data for surface water modelling, mapping and parameter estimation Z. N. Musa1 , I. Popescu1 , and... in surface water modelling, mapping and parameter estimation is presented, and its limitations for surface water... target areas (Fig. 1) and measure target surface changes and therefore provide information needed..., river basin management, water hazard/disaster monitoring/prevention and water management, etc. Through... in surface water modelling, mapping and parameter estimation. The review limits itself to water flowing within channels and coastal areas, and therefore excludes..., altimetry and DEM data for estimation of surface water parameters, modelling and mapping. The... utilizing satellite-derived data in surface water applications and the future directions aimed..., HiRDLS, HSB, MODIS Surface temperatures of land and ocean (flood mapping) CryoSat DORIS..., MIPAS Physical oceanography, ice and snow (ocean/river water level altimetry) ERS1 AMI...-2 (SSALT-2), TRSR Physical oceanography (ocean/ river water level altimetry) Jason2 AMR, DORIS..., CERES Physical processes, surface temperatures of land and ocean (surface water mapping) Topex/Poseidon DORIS... of satellite data applications for surface water studies SAR data applications SAR... data which enabled classification of water and dry land pixels. SOM produces... the interferogram and includes signatures from topography, noise, displacement, atmospheric effects and baseline... to heights and derived the flood water depth. Assuming a horizontal water height at... a direct relationship with water stage and therefore flooding extent and timing is the... and reflected from the surfaces of open water. The height of the water surface is extracted from the distance between the satellite and the water... within river water bodies as water levels for the river and compared with... map the water surface areas using the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI... water bodies from optical data (Zhang et al., 2006). The calculated water surface... estimated water surface areas and the WLALL as A = f (WLALL) = aWLALL2 + bWLALL + c; where a, b, and c, are... flood mask water points were used to interpolate a water height surface which was... inundation map. To check for water surface change, satellite microwave data from... and calibrated dry areas (Khan et al., 2012). The AMSRE detected water surface... model calibrated with AMSR-E detected water surface signal showed good agreement with... model calibrated with AMSR-E detected water surface signal showed good agreement with... delineate water-only areas, and show the range of shoreline data and water levels. The model results calculated the water depth and gave the estimated 3-D topography..., nodal avulsions and delta plains. SRTM data measure surface level which over river channels is equivalent to water levels... and cross-sectional) data and SRTM DEM water levels to derive water surface slope and to... heights between minimum and maximum water levels are classified as water, and all those... applications have been in estimating surface water parameters, the measurements come with... altimeter and gauge measurements also increases with distance between the points, topography and... empirical relationship between satellite-derived surface water extents (including flooded areas) with... Cryosat2 data to obtain river water levels and topography, the use of drifting.../2015/ 3765 water surface topography mapping, derivation of river profiles and building of pseudo..., 50 and 100 m (CSA, 2015). Other upcoming satellite missions like Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) made especially to survey global surface water have specifications... fine details of the ocean’s surface topography and measure how water bodies change over time... measurement of sea surface height, waves, and wind speed, and will provide useful... on surrounding water bodies or water management are easily analysed and depicted. Consequently... 2015. Duan, Z. and Bastiaanssen, W.: Estimating water volume variations in lakes and reservoirs from... of spatial and temporal water level variations in the Amazon, Congo, and Brahmaputra..., M.-P., Cauhopé, M., Frappart, F., and Fraizy, P.: Rating curves and estimation of average water depth at... Oceanography and Hydrology from the Next Generation Altimeter Mission, retrieved from: Surface Water and Ocean Topography..., M., Birkett, C., Carton, J., and Crétauxc, J.-F.: Intercomparison and validation of continental water, J. Appl. Remote... and radar altimetry, in: Improving Integrated Surface and Groundwater Resources Management in a Vulnerable and..., W., Ishidaira, H., and Bastola, S.: Estimating discharge by calibrating hydrological model against water surface width..., A., Siddique-E-Akbor, A., and Hossain, F.: Role of Land–Water Classification and Manning’s Roughness www... data for flood modelling: topography, flood extent and water level, Hydrol. Process., 29...



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... ECV: Product A.1 Surface wind retrievals Benefits • Forcing of ocean-wave and ocean-circulation models... for numerical weather prediction (NWP) and ocean forecasting; • Transport sector, construction sector..., such as provided by Surface Moisture/Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius, hold the... validation for precipitation estimates via surface-water budget estimates, i.e. evaporation minus precipitation... (clear-sky water vapour radiances and ocean and terrestrial products). 3.1.5. ECV Water Vapour Water vapour is... sampling), temperature and water vapour profiles, aerosols, trace gases, and surface properties are required...), temperature and water vapour profiles, aerosols, trace gasses, and surface properties, required for surface ERB... satellite instruments measuring temperature and water vapour profiles and surface and ocean properties. 3.1.10. ECV Aerosol... in observations of land and ocean surface properties (e.g. SST, ocean colour); • Furnishing of Aerosol...-surface salinity and sea-surface temperature control the density and stability of surface water. Thus, ocean mixing (of heat and gases) and water-mass formation processes are intimately related to variations of surface salinity. Ocean modelling and analysis of water-mass ventilation should... changes in temperature and salinity and in surface winds. At ocean-basin scale, mass redistributions due to past and... variability and the temporal variations in spatial trend patterns, satellite ocean surface topography 47... water reservoirs and the ocean; and o Argo and other in situ elements to capture the ocean... and two medium-precision, higher-inclination altimeters. Other applications • Operational oceanography: ocean surface topography... to derive climate-quality sea-surface topography And,as such, is an essential... (comprising navies and ocean forecast modellers); • Near-real-time altimetric and SAR data... the atmosphere, ocean, and ice. However, efforts to determine surface fluxes at high... observing the biological and light-field variables in the surface ocean (separate configurations... (precipitation, evaporation-energy) and hydrological (surface-water recharge, discharge and ground-water) conditions. Target Requirements... conditions for vegetation, and other parameters that influence surface water and energy balance. Moreover, changes in the timing, rate and magnitude..., surface roughness, boundary layer stability and other processes. Snow depth and snow-water equivalent... in mass of water and ice on land. Calibration, validation and data archiving...-based water storage and ocean currents. 3.3.5. ECV Albedo The albedo of a land surface is... modifying water and energy exchanges with the atmosphere and by changing greenhouse gas and....) and the surrounding air and is the locus of mass (water and carbon) and energy (radiation and heat) exchanges between the biosphere and the... value in determining surface energy and water fluxes and interpretation of surface characteristics – some of... turbulent surface fluxes from satellites is challenging and a subject for ongoing research. Ocean-surface... atmosphere and ocean, these are based on the equations of fluid dynamics and... (without aliasing) at the ocean surface and not within the ocean. Moreover, the period... sea-surface temperature and land-surface products as prescribed boundary fields. Ocean-data assimilation and reanalysis activities, which utilize inter alia altimetry and satellite measurements of ocean-surface... surface moisture because of the relatively high dielectric constant over water. Surface roughness and... Leader Systematic observations of Land and ocean European Commission – JRC Via E. Fermi... through the CEOS Constellation for Ocean Surface Topography, CGMS and the WMO Space Programme...: Submit weekly surface and sub-surface water temperature, date of freeze-up and date of... and direction; water vapour; pressure; precipitation; surface radiation budget. Temperature; wind speed and direction; water... OCEAN OBSERVATIONS PANEL FOR CLIMATE OCEAN SURFACE VECTOR WINDS PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION POLARIZATION AND... MOISTURE AND OCEAN SALINITY (ESA) SHIP OF OPPORTUNITY PROGRAMME STRATOSPHERIC PROCESSES AND THEIR... SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT SHORTWAVE INFRARED SPECTRAL RANGE SURFACE WATER AND OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY SATELLITE MISSION (NASA) TOTAL COLUMN CO2 AND CH4 INSTRUMENTS...) TERRESTRIAL OBSERVATION PANEL FOR CLIMATE OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ALTIMETER EXPERIMENT (NASA/CNES) TIROS...



Дата загрузки: 2017-10-09
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... Properties and Ocean Biogeochemistry (Invited): H Maring, P S Bontempi 0817h IT11B-02 Ocean Photobiogeochemical Cycling and... IT11C-08 Surface-wave effects on porewater nutrient profiles and water-column and benthic...-08 Surface Wave Processes Affecting Light Transmission and Imaging Through the Ocean Surface: P J Sutherland... for Data Management and Quality Control Collaboration in the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas... Topography and Surface Circulation in the Western Labrador Sea and Newfoundland Offshore: Satellite Observations and Ocean... of Equatorial 13C Water and its impact on sea surface temperature in the... 1730h BO15I-15 POSTER Surface Ocean Temporal and Spatial Variability of the South... the Temporal Variability in Productivity and Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange in Hawaiian... decadal variations of fresh water content and sea surface height in Beaufort: C C Tang... polarization distribution and short-term fluctuation induced by nonlinear ocean surface waves: M Shen... Between Surface Wind Stress and Sea Surface Temperature over Major Mid-Latitude Ocean Currents... PO24D-06 Tracing Surface Flow Patterns and Upwelling Rates from Ocean Color Features... of Adaptation Rates, Natural Variability and Ocean Acidification: J A Kleypas, L Bianucci, J C Currie, M Karnauskas... 1730h Climate Change and Ocean Biology: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Experimental Approaches to... Density Stratification in the Surface Ocean on Physical, Biogeochemical, and Ecosystem Processes Posters... and dissolved inorganic carbon to temperature and salinity in surface waters of the ocean... of Surface Heat Flux and Ocean Heat Transport in Four Decades of Atlantic Ocean... Detection of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in Beach Water and Sand & the Performance... PA31A E145 Wednesday 0800h Calcification and Ocean Acidification: From Laboratory to Geological... Institute of Ocean Sciences; J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences 1530h CO34A...-Sea CO2 Fluxes and Ocean Acidification Impacts in the Arctic Ocean: N R Bates, J T Mathis... POSTER Seasonal Intrusion of Indian Ocean Surface Water into the Persian Gulf: F Yao... Poster Hall E Wednesday 1730h Calcification and Ocean Acidification: From Laboratory to Geological... and cycling: F C Batista, C Ravelo, M McCarthy 1730h PA35B-06 POSTER Variability in Surface Water Nutrients And Physical Properties From Elemental And Isotopic Ratios... deep water ventilation and surface water productivity over the last 4 Ma from benthic and planktic... distribution and fate of surfaceactive substances in the sea-surface microlayer and water column and their effect on the near surface light... of breaking waves and Langmuir circulation on the ocean surface mixed layer: S Li... Institute of Ocean Sciences; J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences 0800h CO41A... Water Tracers To Improve Our Understanding Of Surface Ventilation In The Arctic Ocean... 1530h Climate Change and Ocean Biology: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Experimental Approaches to... Underrepresented Students to Coastal Margin and Ocean Science: A Multi-offering Partnership Approach... of future elevated atmospheric pCO2 and ocean acidification on benthic foraminifera: A McIntyreWressnig... of Mexico Surface Water via a Comprehensive Microarray for Biogeochemical, Ecological and Environmental Processes...) Presiding: J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences; S R Alin, NOAA/PMEL; G A McKinley... seasonal cycle of surface ocean pCO2 off the Oregon and Washington coast: W W Evans... Participation Facilitates Student-Centered Inquiry and Ocean Literacy: T Haste 1730h ED45A-02...-10 POSTER USING DYNAMIC OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY TO PROBE SOUTHERN OCEAN CIRCULATION: A Griesel, S T Gille... POSTER Topography and the 3D structure of irreversible mixing in the Southern Ocean... Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water in the southern Pacific Ocean: T G Casal, M O Baringer... the Southern Ocean CO2 sink with surface water measurements of CO2 and C-14 of... Water and The Role of Lateral Oceanic Fluxes in the Eighteen Degree Water..., past sea level reconstructions and ocean re analyses and observed steric sea level... Niño-3 SST to atmospheric fields and ocean state: X Zhang, B D Cornuelle, D H Roemmich 1730h... between interior-driven and surface-driven dynamics flow in baroclinic ocean turbulence: K Smith... Combined Impacts of Climate Warming and Ocean Carbonation on Eelgrass (Zostera marina...) Presiding: J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences; S R Alin, NOAA/PMEL; G A McKinley... atmospheric and ocean interannual variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic Ocean: E K Demirov...-02 On eddy propagation and the anisotropy of ocean surface kinetic energy: B Conley... Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission (Invited): E Rodriguez 1415h PO53D-06 Synergy Between Glider and...) Presiding: J T Mathis, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences; S R Alin, NOAA/PMEL; G A McKinley... for Ocean and Coastal Management: Examples from the California Ocean Protection Council and Ocean Science...



Дата загрузки: 2017-10-09
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Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT§) Project Science Requirements ... Products and Data Product Delivery ………………………..14 2.7 Ocean Science Performance Specifications ……………………………….19 2.8 Surface Water Science Performance Specifications ……………………….23 v This document has been reviewed and determined... Document 1- SWOT Mission Objectives The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission has been recommended... of the elevation of land surface water and ocean surface topography. The SWOT mission will provide... characterize the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation determined from the ocean surface topography at spatial resolutions of 15 km (for 68% of the ocean... provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and will provide... measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle... inventory of all terrestrial surface water bodies whose surface area exceeds (250m)2 (goal... change in terrestrial surface water bodies at sub-monthly, seasonal, and annual time... temporal and spatial scales of the hydrologic processes controlling surface water storage and transport... surface water, for example through water impoundment behind dams, withdrawals and releases to rivers and...- to global-scale sensitivities of surface water storages and transport to climate, antecedent... evapotranspiration and Q is the net of all surface water discharges and groundwater flows into and... global inventory of the surface water components in ΔS and Q. The scientific value of... discharge, yet the magnitude of surface water storage change remains unknown leaving... and methane) evasion directly from the water into the atmosphere. The water surface area and... to estimate the global ocean mean sea surface and surface slopes. These data can be used to improve estimates the ocean... land/ice topography, its changes and potential land-cover classifications. 7. SWOT water surface elevation... be possible to use profiling ocean topography measurements from other missions flying... sample seasonal and inter-annual variability for both the ocean and surface water height changes... of ocean tidal signals. Tidal signals must be removed from the ocean topography data in order to meet the mesoscale and submesoscale measurement requirements and.../Jason-2 and better than the GEOSAT and GFO ocean altimeter missions. For surface water, an..., including ice or snow covered surface water; surface water in regions of extreme topographic... the surface water requirements, certain rivers and lakes in regions of extreme topography will..., including (1) ice or snow covered surface water; surface water in regions of extreme topographic... entire measurement swath and the nadir gap: 1. Ocean sea surface heights (SSH) (including... the surface water data: • • For each pass, a geolocated water mask of all water bodies... surface water elevations with the same sampling as the water mask. Estimated surface water elevation uncertainties (1σ) with the same sampling as the water... all water bodies where surface water is detected by SWOT. 2.6.3.b [Requirement] A global water mask... rivers, lakes, wetlands, reservoirs and all surface water bodies at a spatial resolution as... science results for high-frequency ocean mesoscale and surface water studies. The key contribution... KaRIN for observing ocean variability at all scales. 2.8- Surface Water Science Performance Specifications In order to achieve the surface water science objectives, the following measurement science requirements and goals...: 2.8.1 [Requirement] The post separation for surface water Level-2 data shall be consistent.... 2.8.2.a [Requirement] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a... average and length exceeds 10 km. 2.8.2.b [TSM Requirement] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a...] on average and length exceeds 10 km. 2.8.2.c [Goal] The surface water areas estimated using the Level-2 water mask (requirement 2.6.3a... total water body area for water bodies whose surface area is between (100m)2 and... water bodies whose surface area exceeds 1 km2 and (2) 25 cm or better for water bodies whose surface... surrounding topography or vegetation and arriving at the same time as the water... the water return. 2.8.11 [Requirement] SWOT shall provide flagging of frozen surface water in both the pass-by-pass and global data... of the frozen water flag. 2.8.12 [Requirement] The SWOT surface water elevation shall... SWOT surface water discharge equations shall be calibrated for unknown bathymetry and roughness...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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... OBSERVATIONS OF THE OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY, GEOID, CURRENTS, AND CHANGES IN OCEAN MASS AND VOLUME C.K. Shum..., and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and... of absolute surface geostrophic currents, which are necessary to quantify ocean’s heat...-variable surface geometry (including ocean, hydrologic, land, and ice surfaces), gravity field, and Earth rotation/orientation into a consistent system for measuring ocean surface topography, ocean currents, ocean mass and... directly related to water mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and hydrosphere [55... technique for observing ocean surface height (or shape), its variability, and sea level... of the cryosphere and ice-covered oceans, and the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide... resolution oceanic sub-mesoscale variability and surface water hydrology. Satellite gravimetry is complementary... of sea surface height will enable quantification of general ocean circulation. GRACE... and ocean, changes in land hydrology, deglaciation, glacial isostatic adjustment, co-seismic and post-seismic earthquake deformations. 2. Much Beauty is Skin Deep: Sea surface topography, circulation, and sea level rise Satellite altimeters..., and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure changes, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, atmosphere and... and spaceborne gravity sensors to measure time series of sea surface slope and ocean bottom pressure variations and thus infer ocean circulation and mass... global mesoscale variabilities and ocean circulations throughout the icefree ocean [64] and has been... the surface geostrophic circulation is provided via the mean dynamic ocean topography (MDOT) determined from an altimetry-derived mean sea surface (MSS) minus the geoid. The geoid is an equipotential surface and a unique reference from which to determine the absolute topography, compared with the relative topography that comes from... altimetry in coastal areas [11], and global surface water hydrology [1]. The observations of... the absolute water storage exchange between the land/ice surface and the ocean, are critically important to quantify the freshwater budget and... monitoring changes in sea surface height and land surface height. Such observations provide... of Things: Ocean bottom pressure, intermediate-depth circulation, and ocean heat storage A basic... of density from the surface to the ocean floor. It may therefore... ocean currents reflect a balance between pressure gradients and the Coriolis force. While surface geostrophic currents, which have both baroclinic and barotropic components, are defined by the dynamic surface topography, below the sea surface... GNSS satellites, reflected at the ocean surface and received in airplanes or low... satellites due to atmosphere loading and ocean tides. This will open the... and surface geostrophic current velocities, GRACE-derived ocean bottom pressure and GRACE-observed land and ice melt water mass fluxes... strait and inter-ocean transport using the combined altimetry sea surface height and GRACE ocean... mass variations and global water cycles and their impact on ocean freshening and circulation. There... of the sea surface and ocean bottom pressure to infer circulation and mass distribution... the ocean observing system. These include: (1) independent observations of sea surface height... Systems, Geodetic observations of ocean surface topography, ocean currents, ocean mass, and ocean volume changes, Ocean09 Community... [1] Alsdorf, D., Rodriguez, E, & Lettenmaier, D. (2007). Measuring surface water from space, Rev. Geophys., 45..., J. Vaze, P. & Lafon, T. (2009). The SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Mission, Ocean09 Community White Paper...). Mean dynamic topography of the ocean derived from satellite and drifting buoy data... level of the global ocean derived from near-surface velocity observations, Geophys... dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and... height, heat storage, subsurface temperature, and sea-surface temperature variability. J. Geophys. Res... Ocean Surface Topography Constellation Strategic Workshop, Assmannshausen, Germany, 29–31 January. [61] Wilson, S. and... and temporal variations of land/ice/ocean surface (plates, intraplates, volcanoes, earthquakes, glaciers, ocean... GRACE gravity and satellite altimetry mean sea surface (top panel) and with added...



Дата загрузки: 2017-10-09
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OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY Lee-Lueng Fu Jet Propulsion ... ocean surface from the geoid is known as the ocean surface topography. The geoid is a surface on which the Earth’s gravity field is uniform. The ocean surface topography is caused by ocean waves, tides, currents, and the loading of atmospheric pressure. The main application of ocean surface topography is for the determination of large-scale ocean circulation... spatial and temporal scales. We all have the experience of watching ocean surface and being awed by the ever-changing waves and their... current at ocean surface can be computed from the pressure at ocean surface as...=h-hg-hT-ha h=H-R Sea Surface Reference Ellipsoid Bottom Topography Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 1 Schematic illustration... Chelton et al., 2001). 456 OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY 80′N 40′N 0′ 80′S 80′S 160... Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 2 OST derived from a combined analysis of satellite altimeter data, surface drifter data, and a geoid model (From Rio and Hernandez, 2004... water, and u and v are the zonal and meridional velocity components, respectively. The large-scale ocean... ocean surface topography (denoted by OST hereafter), defined as the deviation of the ocean surface from the geoid, and g is the Earth... geoid is defined as the ocean surface on which the Earth’s gravity... absence of any motions, the ocean surface would be conformed to the... for ocean currents is thus equivalent to the role of atmospheric surface pressure for winds. The speed and direction of large-scale wind blowing at the Earth’s surface... atmospheric surface pressure; similarly, the speed and direction of large-scale ocean surface currents... heat content of the water column of the ocean. OST is also influenced by other factors such as OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY... −5 0 5 10 15 20 330 360 Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 3 A snapshot (May 30, 2007... from a satellite to the surface of the ocean allows the determination of the distance between the satellite and the ocean surface... of the sea surface is determined in this coordinate and so is... channels, which are used 458 OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY 65 55 45 35 25... 25 300 330 360 30 Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 4 The standard deviation of... of sea surface height and OST by providing enhanced spatial and temporal resolutions... of applications. Ocean general circulation The measurement of sea surface height from... ocean current systems, we have to supplement the satellite-derived result OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY... gases (e.g., CO2), and nutrients around the global oceans. Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 5 Maps of... the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean in Figure 3. In the Pacific Ocean, the... of the ocean that expands the volume of sea water, and the other... circulation and the heat content of the ocean finds many practical 460 OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY... 5 270 300 330 360 10 Ocean Surface Topography, Figure 6 The linear trend of... surface temperature reflects the heat only in a thin layer of the ocean surface, the heat stored below the ocean surface estimated from... of ocean energy and the associated stirring and mixing of ocean properties like temperature and... Shuttle Radar Topography Mission OCEAN SURFACE VELOCITY for mapping the land topography (Farr et... to monitoring and mitigating its consequences. Such a satellite mission called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT..., M., Oskin, M., Burbank, D., and Alsdorf, D., 2007. The shuttle radar topography mission. Reviews of... the north Atlantic ocean from altimetry and the gravity recovery and climate experiment.... Rio, M.-H., and Hernandez, F., 2004. A mean dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and... Data Records Geodesy Ocean Modeling and Data Assimilation Ocean, Measurements and Applications Radar, Altimeters Sea Level Rise 461 OCEAN SURFACE VELOCITY Bertrand Chapron1, Johnny Johannessen2 and Fabrice Collard3... absolute surface currents as well as ageostrophic processes including convergence and divergence... are rare. To derive global ocean surface current estimates from space, the... indeed measuring the oceanographic surface topography with good precision. Ocean surface current estimates are... the gradient of the sea surface topography and surface geostrophic current. Satellite altimetry is..., repeat, and long-term sampling, the estimation of sea surface height (SSH... in several ocean modeling and forecasting systems. As such the availability and continuity...