Спутник ДЗЗ. Swarm A. [Редактировать]

22 ноября 2013 года в 16:02 по московскому времени (12:02 UTC) с космодрома «Плесецк» ракетой-носителем «Рокот» с разгонным блоком «Бриз-КМ» осуществлён запуск трёх европейских спутников Swarm A, Swarm B и SwarmC. Swarm – является очередным проектом Европейского космического агентства, предусматривающим создание серии спутников Earth Explorer, задача которых – изучение важнейших параметров Земли и их изменений под воздействием деятельности человека. Космические аппараты предназначены для измерения магнитных сигналов, исходящих из ядра, мантии, коры, океанов, ионосферы и магнитосферы Земли.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - Франция
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг468

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град87.4
2Апогей, км475.2
3Перигей, км470.6
4Период, минут93.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км6843

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2013-067B

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2013-11-22 at 12:02:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm B
3Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm A
4Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm C
5Ракета-носитель 1xРокот

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Swarm A». [Перейти к поиску]


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0.21/5
... address this lack of realistic swarm statistics by providing our measurement results revealing real live BitTorrent swarm characteristics. 1 Introduction Overlay traffic resulting.... We have measured the swarm size, swarm dynamics in terms of number... example that real-life BitTorrent swarm distributions are highly skewed (i.e., 90... of the swarm holds a large fraction of the whole swarm and the... of a swarm and the AS-fraction of a swarm (i.e., x-largest AS of a swarm – #peers in AS/#peers in swarm) follows... of forming a larger cluster within a swarm, and give a probabilistic approach how... downloading the file. For each swarm, a centralized component, the so-called... in each experiment the swarm size, the swarm dynamics, and the AS... in the swarm at a single time instant, i.e. a snapshot of the swarm. In... time dynamics of a swarm, several samples of the swarm size and the... a decimal number, while a snapshot of a swarm always returns an integer value... metho#torrents index criteria content swarm dology TV 96 samples website... 24 hours ing observed swarm size swarm size swarm size meas. date Jun... AS topology May 2009 swarm size swarm size swarm size AS topology Mar... X ∼ BIN O(n, q), when the tracker of a swarm of size N is requested n times... X ∼ BIN O(b, q), when the tracker of a swarm of size N is requested b times... observing the AS topology of a swarm. Figure 2 shows the cumulative distribution... where the results for specific swarm types contradict the accepted knowledge.... 0.4 0.3 Pop. 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 1 2 10 10 3 10 swarm size Figure 3: CDF of the... in a swarm. Each dot represents (#seeder,#leecher) of an individual swarm for... for the topological characteristics of a swarm, which also depend on the content shared. In general, the swarm size distribution is heterogeneous with.... The result is a fully meshed swarm. Consequently, accepted solutions using Biased... 0.73 0.65 4.2 Time-Dynamics within a Swarm While a snapshot of the number... that a swarm can be treated as static. The population of a swarm varies... [h] 60 70 80 Figure 5: Total swarm size of exemplary swarms (measurement.... While swarm D), which is 13 standard deviation si of swarm size measurement (mi, si) theoretical minimum 1 10 0 10 −1 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 average swarm... the size of swarm i vs. average size of swarm i for measurement experiment... peer population, the size of swarm C) exhibits a periodic behavior. We attribute... South America, and therefore the swarm population increases during the daytime... regions and decreases again afterwards. Swarm G), sharing a German movie, shows a similar... of the peer population of swarm B) is a superposition of a continually increasing... like for swarms C) and G). While swarm D) distributes content that seems not... seeder and leecher population of a swarm distributing a German version of OpenOffice... deviation si for a given average swarm size mi ∈ [a; a + 1[ is obtained when... locality-awareness much better than a swarm that is highly dispersed topologically...[ 0.04 [2000; ∞[ 0.01 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 0.5 increasing swarm size 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 1 2 10 10 average... size, cf. Table 3. 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 0.5 increasing swarm size 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 1 10 10 average number... data with. 17 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 increasing swarm size 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 −1 0 10 10 coefficient of... AS’s per swarm Figure 13: Number of AS’s per swarm (Mus.,Mov.). Another important characteristic of a swarm is the... of the swarm in single AS’s. For the largest swarm A, the most... swarm Figure 16: Relative number of peers in a swarm’s top AS (Reg.). Swarm.... 4.2 that the peer populaton within swarm D remains almost constant over time... swarm distributes content that seems not to be preferred regionally. However, swarm... largest AS of a swarm CDF 0.6 0.5 0.4 top AS of a swarm 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25... the suitability of the according swarm for locality promotion, something previously... mechanism under study – these relevant swarm characteristics have to be considered... to get a snapshot of the swarm. Application layer traffic optimization mechanisms... peers currently participating in the swarm. However, the problem remains that... for this observation regarding the swarm Ele. (1) The tracker always returns... the k-th largest AS in swarm i for k = 1, 2, · · · , n. Then, we compute the... number n of different AS’s in a swarm vs. the coefficient of determination... number n of different AS’s in a swarm vs. the coefficient of determination... traffic optimization mechanisms. Considering the swarm statistics according to the offered... topology of a swarm, i.e., the AS affiliations of peers within a swarm. However, also the observed number of different AS’s of a swarm increases significantly with the swarm size. As a result... number of different AS’s within a swarm follows a log-normal distribution. Further... significant fractions of the total swarm, applying locality awareness here may...



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... algorithm; binary space partitioning; BSP; swarm intelligence. Reference to this paper... benefits. In this paper, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm, namely history-driven... In standard firefly algorithm, the swarm consists of a population of the... algorithm In this section, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm, namely HdSFA is... future. HdSFA is a real-coded swarm intelligence algorithm. For a D-dimensional landscape... different populations – discoverer and tracker swarm – and also two different explicit..., change identification, discoverer and tracker swarm processing and also fine 6 B. Nasiri...() 5 call change_identification() 6 /*----discoverer swarm process begin------*/ 7 if discoverer swarm is active then...(Discoverer) 10 call Discoverer_Convergence_Checking() discoverer swarm is configured somehow to explore... and efficiently. Once the discoverer swarm converged to a local optima, the... tracker swarm, and the discoverer swarm should be re-initialised. The tracker swarm... first. Specie_identification() Algorithm 6 input: [tracker swarm sw, rexcl] 1 2 begin Calculate distance... if 4 12 /*------ discoverer swarm process end------*/ 5 13 /*------ tracker swarm process begin------*/ Create... one specie. 14 foreach active swarm si in tracker S do 6 Return... 17 call Specie_Freezing() 18 /*------ tracker swarm process end------*/ 19 call fine_Tuning...)old then 2 Initialise the discoverer swarm Sdiscoverer = [xi] 7 /*------ change happened ------*/ 3 for...-term memory. 4 Initialise the tracker swarm Stracker = [xi] 5 end 9 Reinitialise short... Activate the discoverer swarm. 12 foreach Firefly i in discoverer swarm F do 7 13... all the fireflies in tracker swarm by adding a random value to the GBestPosition of each swarm between [-Vlength*P, Vlength*P] 15 f(xi... firefly by inspiration from particle swarm optimisation. 1 foreach firefly I in SW 3 1 Algorithm 10 discovererConvergenceChecking() Input: [swarm sw] 1 7 end for end for... swarm process if this swarm is active in the environment. The discoverer swarm process includes three actions including swarm moving, exclusion and convergence checking. The swarm moving, as... the discoverer swarm to the tracker swarm 4 re-initialise the discoverer swarm 5 6 end end Based on Algorithm 10, the discoverer swarm is... swarm, the m best fireflies in it will move to the tracker swarm and the discoverer swarm will be re-initialised. After discoverer swarm process, the tracker swarm will begin by swarm moving, freezing and fine-tuning process. The swarm moving for the tracker swarm uses the same algorithm as discoverer swarm...() 1 2 begin foreach specie i in tracker swarm if (f(Gbesti)t–3–f(Gbesti)t) < rconv) or... number of fireflies in discoverer swarm is 10 and in the... each species in the tracker swarm. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm.... Blackwell, T. and Branke, J. (2004) ‘Multi-swarm optimization in dynamic environments’, Applications... swarms for dynamic optimization problems’, Swarm Intelligence, pp.193–217. Branke.... (2011) ‘Enhanced speciation in particle swarm optimization for multi-modal problems..., B. (2008) ‘Multi-strategy ensemble particle swarm optimization for dynamic optimization’, Information...) ‘A comprehensive review of firefly algorithms’, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation. Fister, I., Yang...) ‘A new particle swarm optimization algorithm for dynamic environments’, Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic..., A.B. and Meybodi, M.R. (2010b) ‘A hibernating multi-swarm optimization algorithm for dynamic environments..., C. and Yang, S. (2009) ‘A clustering particle swarm optimizer for dynamic optimization’, IEEE... Yang, M. (2014) ‘An adaptive multi-swarm optimizer for dynamic optimization problems..., X., Branke, J. and Blackwell, T. (2006) ‘Particle swarm with speciation and adaptation in..., L., Yang, S. and Wang, D. (2010) ‘Particle swarm optimization with composite particles in... the state of the art’, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 6, pp... particle swarm optimization algorithm for dynamic environments’, Advances in Swarm Intelligence, Vol... using firefly algorithm: performance study’, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 1, No..., S. and Li, C. (2010) ‘A clustering particle swarm optimizer for locating and tracking... al. (2012) ‘A new artificial fish swarm algorithm for dynamic optimization problems... a novel method based on particle swarm optimization’, International Journal of Artificial..., A. et al. (2013b) ‘A novel multi-swarm algorithm for optimization in dynamic environments based on particle swarm optimization’, Applied Soft Computing, Vol... dynamic environments with global changes’, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 18... dynamic environment based on particle swarm optimization’, Proceedings of the 16th...



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.... 4. C. Li and S. Yang. A clustering particle swarm optimizer for dynamic optimization. Proceedings... 1.5 Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.6 Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.2 2 Particle Swarm Optimization 17 2.1 Global Optimization Algorithms... Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5 Self-learning Particle Swarm Optimizer 5.1 67 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6 Clustering Particle Swarm Optimizer 99 6.1 Difficulties for... operator at different iteration in a swarm of 10 particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5.5 Flow... xv List of Algorithms 2.1 Particle Swarm Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2 Adaptive Mutation PSO... 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION Algorithm 2.1 Particle Swarm Optimizer 1: Generate the initial swarm by randomly... own experience. 22 CHAPTER 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION vi v ’i 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 gbest 1 0 0i 1 x pbest... swarm that can create a sub-swarm once a niche is identified. The main swarm..., a charged swarm is used for maintaining the diversity of the swarm, and...], a fast multi-swarm optimization (FMSO) 32 CHAPTER 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION algorithm was.... In FMSO, a parent swarm is used as a basic swarm to detect the... 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION Algorithm 2.2 Adaptive Mutation PSO 1: Generate the initial swarm by... component algorithms. 40 CHAPTER 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION 2.8 Summary This chapter introduced... 87 CHAPTER 5. SELF-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 5.3 UpdateLearningOpt(particle k) 1: if.... 89 CHAPTER 5. SELF-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER 1 Learning probability (Pl) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10... 5.4. 91 CHAPTER 5. SELF-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 5.5 Repel(particle k) ⃗ 1: for... to a new swarm. In Figure 5.5, SLPSO starts with a main swarm s1 with... are split off from swarm s1 and form a new swarm s2. It should be noticed that a new swarm is created only from the youngest swarm, which is... swarm s2 at stage 93 CHAPTER 5. SELF-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER C2, swarm... its old swarm to the next young swarm or a new swarm. Together with...-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 5.6 The SLPSO Algorithm 1: Generate initial swarm and... for initial swarm t:=0; 3: while f es < T Fes do 4: for each swarm S[q] do 5: for each particle k in swarm S[q] do 6: Select... the 104 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.2 Clustering(C, slst) 1: Create... two 105 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.3 FindNearestPair(G, r, s) 1: f ound := FALSE... formulated as: M(r, s) = min d(i, j) i∈r,j∈s (6.2) Given a cradle swarm C, the clustering method works as... peak. 107 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.4 LocalSearch(S, evals) 1: for.... (2.1) as 108 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.5 LearnGBest(particle i, gbest... for a sub-swarm, which starts from 0 when a sub-swarm is newly created...(s) = 1 ∑ d(i, scenter ), |s| i∈s 109 (6.4) CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.6 CheckSubswarms(C, slst, clst... a sub-swarm is within the search radius of another sub-swarm, then... see whether a sub-swarm has converged. A sub-swarm convergence list clst is..., the converged sub-swarm is removed from the sub-swarm list: slst. The removal of converged sub-swarm and... the new sub-swarm list. 112 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm... the initial swarm and the maximum size of each sub-swarm on... M is the initial swarm size of the cradle swarm and N is the... size of the cradle swarm, only one sub-swarm may be obtained... each sub-swarm is also automatically calculated. When a sub-swarm is created... the sub-swarm or the overcrowded particles from the sub-swarm. Hence... [1] P. Angeline, “Evolutionary optimization versus particle swarm optimization: Philosophy and performance di... a standard for particle swarm optimization,” in IEEE Swarm Intel. Symp., 2007, pp...] S. Janson and M. Middendorf, “A hierachical particle swarm optimizer for dynamic optimization problems...] M. Lovbjerg, and T. Krink, “Extending particle swarm optimisers with selforganized criticality,” in.... [87] A. Passaro and A. Starita, “Particle swarm optimization for multimodal functions: A clustering..., W. B. Langdon and O. Holland, “Extending particle swarm optimization via genetic programming,” in..., and T. Blackwell, “Particle swarm optimization: An overview,” Swarm Intell., vol. 1, no. 1, 2007... H. C. Watson, “Self-organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration..., Singapore, 2005. [107] P. N. Suganthan, “Particle swarm optimizer with neighborhood operator,” in..., A. P. Engelbrecht,“A Cooperative approach to particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput...



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0.38/5
...:3, 2016 Optimized Algorithm for Particle Swarm Optimization International Science Index, Mathematical.../10003928 Fuzhang Zhao Abstract—Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is becoming one of the most important swarm intelligent paradigms for solving global... search, optimal weighting, particle swarm optimization. I. I NTRODUCTION P ARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO), originally... swarm intelligence paradigms [3]. PSO adopted the cognitive and social behaviors of a swarm... (1) and (2) by PSO, particle i of a swarm can be described by a position... , · · · , viD )T . The cognitive behavior of a swarm is transformed into tracking the... , · · · , piD )T . The social behavior of a swarm is interpreted by defining... 10(3) 2016 particle in the swarm and by choosing the global... algorithms, velocities and positions of a swarm are updated by the following... control the maximum velocity of a swarm, a constriction factor has been introduced... between two consecutive iterations per a swarm size, M , satisfies a designated allowable... Euclidean distance averaged by a swarm size measures swarm convergent behaviors. In addition... 10(3) 2016 Fig. 1 Comparisons of swarm convergency between canonical and optimal... decimal places, total iteration numbers, swarm convergent behaviors, and best fitness... with the swarm size of M = 6 × 6 = 36 and the allowable swarm convergent tolerance... iterations. Typical simulation results for swarm convergency and best fitness are... Jong function Fig. 3 Comparisons of swarm convergency between canonical and optimal... with the swarm size of M = 8 × 8 = 64 and the allowable swarm convergent tolerance... iterations. Representative simulation results for swarm convergency and best fitness are... with the swarm size of M = 5 × 5 × 5 = 125 and the allowable swarm convergent tolerance... IV. D ISCUSSION Fig. 5 Comparisons of swarm convergency between canonical and optimal... of simulations, selected results for swarm convergency and best fitness are... cases in which particles of a swarm need to escape from local... PSO algorithm, exhibits more stable swarm convergent behaviors in all three... more oscillation on both the swarm convergency and best fitness. The.... R EFERENCES [1] J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Optimization,” in Proc. IEEE Int... J. Kennedy, “A New Optimizer Using Particle Swarm Theory,” in Proc. 6th Int...–43. [3] J. Kennedy, R. C. Eberhart, and Y. Shi, Swarm Intelligence. San Francisco, CA: Morgan... and R. C. Eberhart, “A Modified Particle Swarm Optimizer,” in Proc. IEEE Inter.... [5] M. Clerc and J. Kennedy, “The Particle Swarm–Explosion, Stability, and Convergence in..., and T. Blackwell, “Particle swarm optimization–An overview,” Swarm Intell., vol. 1, no. 1, pp... Global Optimization Problems through Particle Swarm Optimization,” Nat. Comput., vol. 1, no..., and C. Anyakoha, “A Review of Particle Swarm Optimization. Part I: Background and Development..., and C. Anyakoha, “A Review of Particle Swarm Optimization. Part II: Hybridisation, Combinatorial..., S. Mohagheghi, J.-C. Hernandez, and R. G. Harley, “Particle Swarm Optimization: Basic Concepts, Variants and... optimization methods, particularly in Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms. V. C ONCLUSION Ratios of...



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0.05/5
SSC12-I-5 EDSN: A Large Swarm of Advanced Yet Very Affordable, ... of EDSN are to demonstrate a swarm of small, inexpensive satellites with... demonstrate the unique capabilities that a swarm of nanosatellites has to offer... operations, and efficient downlink of swarm data. EDSN will support a science... other members of the satellite swarm, can yield spatially and temporality... addressed in order for such a swarm of spacecraft to be deployed... needs. EDSN will demonstrate a large swarm of advanced, yet affordable, consumer... in detail. a) Why a Satellite Swarm? Consider a “swarm” of satellites as an array.... The ability to operate a coordinated “swarm” of satellites in low earth... by a single conventional, “monolithic” satellite. A swarm of satellites can make synchronized... antenna would need to do. A swarm of satellites offers another advantage... of building, deploying and operating a swarm. The COSMIC space weather mission... and Operations Challenges Posed by a Swarm Launch and deployment of a large..., such as deployment sequence and swarm geometry over time, that must... the eventual geometry of the swarm over time. Merely scaling up... sustainable method to fly the swarm. Some level of automation and... paradigm. EDSN is comprised of a swarm of CubeSat nanosatellites made of... University. Details of the EDSN swarm design, communications solution, cost savings.... a) EDSN Deployment and Swarm Solution The EDSN satellite swarm is 8 to 12..., 1.5U in size. The EDSN swarm is loosely arranged – that is... link. In the EDSN network swarm, all satellites have the same... Intra-swarm link allowing communications between EDSN Sats within the swarm, further... Kbps. Its use for Intra-swarm communications will conform to this.... c) EDSN Low-Cost Solution EDSN swarm is affordable because: • design and... eye on affordability • the entire swarm will be launched on one... development of the ESDN satellite swarm. EDSN fleet of spacecraft is... the utility of the EDSN swarm as a platform for multipoint space... 1. Swarm Characterization Characterize swarm: •  Health, status, OD, and flight dynamics •  Intra-swarm and... and model the spacecraft and swarm relative and absolute orbital properties... first intra-cluster and intra-swarm com. links (with necessary spacecraft... 2. Intra-Swarm Communications Characterization and Optimization •  Characterize the intra swarm communications capability... data migration strategies. •  Optimize overall swarm communications performance and aggregate data... to the ground. •  Manage the swarm to data collection orientation and... multiplied with the numbers of a swarm. Using conventional command and data... the data aggregators of each swarm cluster for highly efficient operations...) passes and for scheduled Intra-swarm communication intervals. Furthermore, these passes... sets for providing autonomous Intra-swarm communications and for managing the... adjustments will all fed into a swarm management ground software tool, where... sequences are uploaded to the Swarm, with the MPS keeping track... in Order of Priority: 1) Swarm Characterization 2) Intra-Swarm Communications Characterization and Optimization...



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... Space, 65, 1309–1317, 2013 Swarm SCARF equatorial electric field inversion... near real-time studies. The Swarm satellite mission offers a unique opportunity... for recovering the EEF from Swarm geomagnetic field measurements. The equatorial... are an official Swarm level2 product developed within the Swarm SCARF (Satellite... ionosphere, electric fields, space magnetometry, Swarm. 1. Introduction Electromagnetic fields in the... near real-time each time a Swarm satellite crosses the magnetic equator... whole algorithm. This so-called “Swarm SCARF equatorial electric field inversion... processing chains developed by the Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application Research... will further contribute via the Swarm SCARF dedicated ionospheric and lithospheric.... (2013)). General information about the Swarm mission can otherwise be found... chain will come from the Swarm absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) instrument... (Leger et al., 2009). The Swarm ASM is expected to provide... the algorithms used in the Swarm EEF inversion chain (L¨uhr et... during the development of the Swarm EEF processor for the Level 2 processing facility. 3. Coordinate Systems The Swarm scalar magnetic measurements will contain... in the mission the official Swarm core and lithospheric field models... the ASM instrument on the Swarm satellite. The residuals F (1) are primarily... 12 and 2 respectively by the Swarm EEF processor. Only field model...(1) − bˆ i · M(ri , θi , φi , gnm ) each orbit, since Swarm will not vary significantly in... default to 0.001 by the Swarm EEF processor. electrojet current for... scalar magnetometer measurements on-board Swarm, we project Bi j onto the... profile solution. By default, the Swarm EEF processor sets the damping... currents: JφSAT (θ j ) = Sj d (17) The Swarm EEF processor defines a latitudinal spacing... this same convention for the Swarm EEF chain when files agree... an output in the Level 2 Swarm EEF data files, and is...-day variability. Periodically throughout the Swarm mission, we plan to validate... detail the algorithm for the Swarm Level 2 Equatorial Electric Field inversion... (ASM) instrument on-board each Swarm satellite. The chain then subtracts... carried out periodically throughout the Swarm mission to ensure the algorithm... et exploitation de la mission SWARM” project, and from the European.../NL/JA “Development of the Swarm Level 2 Algorithms and Associated Level..., E. Th´ebault, O. Sirol, and G. Hulot, Swarm SCARF Dedicated Ionospheric Field Inversion.... Friis-Christensen, E., H. L¨uhr, and G. Hulot, Swarm: A constellation to study the Earth..., M. Le Prado, I. Fratter, and J.-C. Lalaurie, Swarm absolute scalar and vector magnetometer..., The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF) and Swarm data... magnetic field models from the Swarm data set, Earth Planets Space... the Comprehensive Inversion method for Swarm satellite data analysis, Earth Planets..., S. Maus, A. Chulliat, O. Sirol, and G. Hulot, Swarm SCARF Dedicated Lithospheric Field Inversion...



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0.09/5
...   Sunburst   9th Level Gate   Meteor  Swarm   Power  Word  Kill   Time  Stop...  Projection   Foresight   Gate   Imprisonment   Meteor  Swarm   Power  Word  Kill   Prismatic  Wall...  such   an  object.   Message Meteor Swarm 9th-­‐‑level  evocation   Casting  Time...  1  to   3  charges,  calling  forth  one  swarm  of  rats  with  each   expended...  aren’t  enough   rats  to  form  a  swarm,  the  charge  is  wasted.  Called...  charges   daily  at  dawn.     Whenever  a  swarm  of  rats  that  isn’t  under...  the  swarm’s  Wisdom  check.  If   you  lose  the  contest,  the  swarm  behaves...  round  as   an  action.  A  friendly  swarm  obeys  your  commands.  If   you  issue  no  commands  to  a  friendly  swarm,  it   defends  itself  but  otherwise  takes  no  actions.  If  a   friendly  swarm  starts  its  turn  and  can...  control  over  that  swarm  ends,  and   the  swarm  behaves  as  it  normally...   last  charge,  roll  a  d20.  On  a  1,  a  swarm  of  insects   consumes  and  destroys...  and  expend  1  charge  to  cause  a  swarm  of   harmless  flying  insects  to...  creatures   other  than  you.  The  swarm  moves  with  you,   remaining  centered...   miles  per  hour  disperses  the  swarm  and  ends  the   effect.   Staff...  in  swarms;  the  statistics  for  a  swarm  of   quippers  appear  later  in...  a  successful  one.     Swarm  of  Bats   Tiny  beast,  unaligned   Medium  swarm  of  Tiny...  1/4  (50  XP)       Spider   Echolocation.  The  swarm  can’t  use  its  blindsight  while...  Class  12   Keen  Hearing.  The  swarm  has  advantage  on  Wisdom   (Perception...   make  an  ability  check.   Swarm.  The  swarm  can  occupy  another  creature’s   space  and  vice  versa,  and  the  swarm  can  move  through   any  opening...  enough  for  a  Tiny  bat.  The  swarm   can’t  regain  hit  points  or...  0  ft.,  one   creature  in  the  swarm’s  space.  Hit:  5  (2d4)  piercing   damage...  the  swarm  has   half  of  its  hit  points  or  fewer.     Swarm  of  Insects   Medium  swarm  of  Tiny  beasts,  unaligned...  0  ft.,  one   creature  in  the  swarm’s  space.  Hit:  7  (2d6)  piercing   damage...  ft.,  passive  Perception  8   Swarm  of  Quippers   Languages  —   Medium  swarm  of  Tiny  beasts,  unaligned   Challenge  1/2  (100  XP)   Armor  Class  13       Swarm.  The  swarm  can  occupy  another  creature’s   space  and  vice  versa,  and  the  swarm  can  move  through   any  opening...  enough  for  a  Tiny  insect.  The  swarm   can’t  regain  hit  points  or...  0  ft.,  one   target  in  the  swarm’s  space.  Hit:  10  (4d4)  piercing...  Perception  8   Languages  —   Blood  Frenzy.  The  swarm  has  advantage  on  melee   attack...  0  ft.,  swim  40  ft.       Medium  swarm  of  Tiny  beasts,  unaligned   STR...  28  (8d8  −  8)   Challenge  1  (200  XP)   Swarm  of  Poisonous  Snakes       WIS   CHA...  Resistances  bludgeoning,  piercing,  slashing   Swarm.  The  swarm  can  occupy  another  creature’s   space...  enough  for  a  Tiny  quipper.  The   swarm  can’t  regain  hit  points  or...,  restrained,  stunned   Water  Breathing.  The  swarm  can  breathe  only   underwater.   Senses...   Languages  —   Challenge  2  (450  XP)       Swarm.  The  swarm  can  occupy  another  creature’s   space...  enough  for  a  Tiny  snake.  The  swarm   can’t  regain  hit  points  or...  0  ft.,  one   creature  in  the  swarm’s  space.  Hit:  14  (4d6)  piercing...  the  swarm  has   half  of  its  hit  points  or  fewer.     Swarm  of  Rats   Medium  swarm  of  Tiny  beasts,  unaligned...  5  ft.,  one   target  in  the  swarm’s  space.  Hit:  7  (2d6)  piercing   damage...  each   swarm  has  the  special  characteristics  described  below.     Swarm  of  Beetles.  A  swarm  of  beetles  gains  a  burrowing   speed  of  5  feet.     Swarm  of  Centipedes.  A  creature  reduced  to  0  hit  points   by  a  swarm  of...  poisoned   in  this  way.     Swarm  of  Spiders.  A  swarm  of  spiders  has  the...   additional  traits.     Spider  Climb.  The  swarm  can  climb  difficult  surfaces,   including...  in  contact  with  a  web,  the  swarm  knows   the  exact  location  of....  The  swarm  ignores  movement  restrictions   caused  by  webbing.     Swarm  of  Wasps.  A  swarm  of....   Swarm  of  Ravens     Languages  —   Challenge  1/4  (50  XP)       Keen  Smell.  The  swarm  has  advantage  on  Wisdom   (Perception)  checks  that  rely  on  smell.   Swarm.  The  swarm  can  occupy  another  creature’s   space...  enough  for  a  Tiny  rat.  The  swarm   can’t  regain  hit  points  or...  0  ft.,  one   target  in  the  swarm’s  space.  Hit:  7  (2d6)  piercing   damage...  hit  points  or  fewer.   Medium  swarm  of  Tiny  beasts,  unaligned   Tiger...  that  rely  on  smell.   Swarm.  The  swarm  can  occupy  another  creature’s   space...  enough  for  a  Tiny  raven.  The  swarm   can’t  regain  hit  points  or...



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0.07/5
..., Great Valley) for information on Swarm Intelligence; Steve Tompkins (NASA Goddard... (SARP) project, Formal Approaches to Swarm Technologies (FAST), administered by the....1 Introduction to Swarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 10.2 Swarm Technologies at NASA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 10... Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 10.2.3 Other Space Swarm-Based Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 10.3 Other... Swarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 10.4 Autonomicity in Swarm Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 10.5 Software Development... 10.5.2 Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 10.6 Future Swarm Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 11 Concluding Remarks... an already existing constellation or swarm. The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP... unprecedented challenges to system developers. Swarm-based missions, with a new level... swarm, a completely different model of operations would be required, where the swarm will operate completely autonomously or with some control at the swarm level. This chapter will describe swarm-based systems... other planets). Intelligent swarm technology is based on swarm technology where the individual members of the swarm also... in this way therefore the swarm becomes heterogeneous. Intelligent swarms may... complex and often unexpected behaviors. Swarm behavior is also being investigated... systems, and shortest path optimizations. Swarm intelligence techniques (note the slight... stochastic methods used in 10.2 Swarm Technologies at NASA 213 combinatorial... swarm. Swarm intelligence represents a metaheuristic approach to solving a wide range of problems. Swarm robotics is the application of swarm intelligence techniques to...). 10.2 Swarm Technologies at NASA The Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS) project... optimize function (morphological capabilities), 10.2 Swarm Technologies at NASA • • 215 adapting... launch of a swarm of autonomous pico-class (approximately 10.2 Swarm Technologies at....4. overview. NASA’s Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS) mission 1kg) spacecraft that... like a natural swarm culture. In one scenario, the swarm would form sub... Advanced Concepts (NIAC), consists of a swarm of low altitude, buoyancy-driven...). A second NASA swarm-related project titled “Extremely Large Swarm Array of Picosats... Boids project [115] elaborates a particle swarm of simulated birds. The aggregate....3 described several application areas of swarm technology where the approach seems... groups/colonies 10.4 Autonomicity in Swarm Missions 221 of individuals, with... configured at both the swarm and team (sub-swarm) levels in order... facilitate the basic self-properties. Swarm (ANTS) individuals must be aware... would require environmental awareness. The swarm (ANTS) individuals will need to... a heuristic approach that accommodates the swarm’s social structure. Artificial-intelligence technologies... missions simultaneously pose many challenges. Swarm missions will be highly autonomous... for verification and validation of swarm-based missions. Formal methods are.... The FAST (Formal Approaches to Swarm Technologies) project surveyed formal methods... correctness. 10.6 Future Swarm Concepts A brief overview of swarm technologies was presented... for potential future NASA missions. Swarm technologies hold promise for complex... designed around single spacecraft. While swarm autonomy is clearly essential for... camera or other 10.6 Future Swarm Concepts 225 instrument, could coordinate... other types of space exploration, a swarm flying over a planetary surface could... reliable. With its autonomic properties, a swarm could easily replace an individual... functionality simply by having the swarm add members (perhaps from a collection... System ANTS - Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm AOS - Acquisition of Signal ARPA... Explorer FAST - Formal Approaches to Swarm Technologies FDC - Fault Detection and... (USA), 1988. G. Beni and J. Want. Swarm intelligence. In Proc. Seventh Annual..., 1996. E. Bonabeau and G. Th´eraulaz. Swarm smarts. Scientific American, pages 72... M. K. Bhat. ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm): An artificial intelligence approach to... August 2003. 55. D. E. Hiebeler. The swarm simulation system and individual-based.... 79. J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart. Particle swarm optimization. In IEEE International Conference... and B. Stefansson. Economic Simulations in Swarm: Agent-Based Modelling and Object.... 131. M. Savage and M. Askenazi. Arborscapes: A swarm-based multi-agent ecological disturbance..., M. Hinchey, J. Rash, and C. Rouff. NASA’s swarm missions: The challenge of building... N1, 186 survivability, 175, 176 swarm, 220 Tivoli management environment, 183... verification, 91 Formal Approaches to Swarm Technology (FAST), 223 formation flying... Activities, 214 Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS), 3, 213, 214, 216–218...



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0.24/5
...@gold.ac.uk 1 Introduction Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a versatile population... an interacting super-swarm of charged swarms . A charged swarm is inspired by... a self-adapting multi-swarm, a multi-population with swarm birth and death. 2 Canonical... discretization of particle motion v(t + 1) = v(t) + a(t + 1) x(t + 1) = x(t) + v(t + 1) (1) (2) Particle Swarm Optimization in Dynamic Environments 3 where... velocity clamping. Moreover the constricted swarm is replete with a convergence proof... function evaluations per iteration. Particle Swarm Optimization in Dynamic Environments 5 3.3 The... of swarm diversity (Fig. 1). Loss of diversity arises when a swarm is converging... and the swarm will successfully track the moving target. The swarm as... in effect the swarm leader (frame 3). After a while, the swarm oscillates along... model, a swarm is comprised of a ‘charged’ and a ‘neutral’ sub-swarm. The model... charged sub-swarm will be rapidly re-optimized by the swarm as... nichePSO, if a particle’s fitness Particle Swarm Optimization in Dynamic Environments 9 changes... THEN Re-initialize worst swarm. FOR EACH swarm n // Test for Change Evaluate... particle attractor. Update swarm attractor. FOR EACH particle i of swarm n // Update Particle... := xni // Exclusion. FOR EACH swarm m = n IF swarm attractor png is within rexcl...-initialize swarm n ELSE Re-initialize swarm m FOR EACH particle in re-initialized swarm Re-evaluate function value. Update swarm attractor. UNTIL..., p(x, dv) = ρ(x)dv = const. In Particle Swarm Optimization in Dynamic Environments 11... as a many-swarm. A many-swarm has M swarms, and each swarm, for symmetrical configurations has N 0 neutral and N − charged particles. Such a many-swarm... by the swarm, f (pg ). The configuration of the interacting multi-swarm is... one free swarm in the multi-swarm at all times. A free swarm is... a peak. A swarm is assumed to be converging when the neutral swarm diameter... that a swarm immediately tracks a shifted peak. This means that the swarm size at the shift is about s and the swarm has... at the swarm level , as enforced by exclusion, enables a single swarm to... at the multi-swarm level enables the multi-swarm as a whole to find new peaks. 5.4 Multi-swarm cardinality The multi-swarm... place a swarm on each peak, and to maintain multi-swarm diversity with (at least one) patrolling swarm. The multi-swarm therefore needs a new swarm if all swarms... 3 Self-adapting multi-swarm Begin with a single free swarm, randomized in X d At... swarm ELSE If Mf ree > nexcess , remove worst free swarm FOR EACH swarm n test for change IF swarm n is excluded... M (t) = M (0) = 1 M (t − 1) + 1, Mf ree = 0 M (t − 1) − 1, Mf ree > nexcess (5) Swarm convergence and exclusion are now... the multi-swarm size and the number of converging swarms. A swarm is...: suppose a swarm (swarm A) has started to converging on a peak. A new free swarm, swarm B, will..., fluctuations in the swarm size may cause the swarm to appear to... swarms and 1 free swarm. Offline error Particle Swarm Optimization in Dynamic Environments... a previously converged swarm to vaporize through exclusion (the better swarm remains). Or... the multi-swarm; a multi-swarm is a colony of swarms, where each swarm, drawing... at the multi-swarm level, where a mechanism for swarm birth and death..., 2002. 6. T. M. Blackwell and J. Branke. Multi-swarm optimization in dynamic environments. In... Evolutionary Computation, to appear. 8. T.M. Blackwell. Swarm music: Improvised music with multi.... A. Carlisle and G. Dozier. Adapting particle swarm optimisationto dynamic environments. In Proc... locally - a framework for adaptive particle swarm optimizers. Technical report, 2002. http.... M. Clerc and J. Kennedy. The particle swarm: explosion, stability and convergence in.... X. Hu and R.C. Eberhart. Adaptive particle swarm optimisation: detection and response to.... S. Janson and M. Middendorf. A hierachical particle swarm optimizer for dynamc optimization problems.... 26. J. Kennnedy. Stereotyping: improving particle swarm performance with cluster analysis. In... choosing neighborhood bests in a particle swarm optimizer for multimodal function optimization... global optimization problems through particle swarm optimization. Natural Computing, pages 235.... J. Vesterstrom T. Krink and J. Riget. Particle swarm optimisation with spatial particle extension... A. P. Englebrecht. A cooperative approach to particle swarm optimization. IEEE transactions on Evolutionary..., 9 quantum, 7, 10 update equations, 2 particle swarm optimization, 1 PSO, 1 algorithm, 4 canonical, 2 linear collapse, 5 re-diversification, 7 many-swarm, 11 moving peaks benchmark, 1, 3 offline... settings, 12 MPB, 1 multi-swarm, 2, 9 star topology, 2 swarm birth and death, 14..., 2 diameter, 5 free, 14 diversity multi-swarm, 9, 12 swarm, 5, 12 diversity loss, 1, 5 diversity...



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0.18/5
... with the flight of a honeybee swarm toward a new nest site. The... directional information and steer the swarm to the new home. This coordinated flight of a honeybee swarm contrasts sharply with most migration... [9]). Upon leaving the nest, the swarm first settles into a beard-like... name “streaker bees”) through the swarm. The streaker bee hypothesis has...] performed a video analysis of a flying swarm using computer tracking algorithms and... trajectories of bees in the swarm. They measured each bee’s position... of the swarm. Another field experiment [18] considered a migrating bee swarm exposed... in a direction perpendicular to the swarm’s intended flight path. The heavy... disrupted the flight of the swarm, hence supporting the streaker bee..., informed bees streak through the swarm and fly back (with lower... a different approach and model the swarm flight with a system of ordinary... former performing streaks through the swarm. We present two mathematical models... model, streakers accelerate through the swarm with constant acceleration, while in... the flight of a real bee swarm. Various numerical results are presented... experiments. 2 The mathematical model Consider a swarm of N individuals with Nf follower... constant (high) speeds 3 through the swarm. The recent video processing study... flying individuals only, and in a swarm, these individuals are typically the... the desired location, reach the swarm’s front, then return to the... I: Streaker bees accelerate through the swarm with constant acceleration: dxi = vi... to the back of the swarm. We also consider different magnitudes...: Streaker bees fly through the swarm with constant speed: dxi = v0... in order to make the swarm flight more realistic. 8 Random flying... the swarm. Consider a generic streaker bee s. Bee s flies through the swarm by... We consider a two dimensional horizontal swarm of size N = 630, where Ns... numerical experiments for the bee swarm model (1) and (5)/(6) in order to... of flight guidance, speed of swarm versus speed of streakers. Unless... equivalently, the speed of the swarm in the desired direction of... II. Time evolution of the swarm, flight angle distribution. In the... lowest1 bee locations in the swarm, from t = 0 to t = 800, for the... initialization phase, during which the swarm expands, the bees remain confined... their locations within the swarm, however the swarm translates as a whole in the desired direction. Snapshots of the swarm... Figures 8 and 9) show that the swarm reaches a circular shape which it... the distance travelled by the swarm. For instance, with Cal = 0.2, the... is achieved. However, a too aligned swarm may not be realistic, and... highest and lowest locations” or “swarm height” refer to the horizontal... the average velocities of the swarm. (b) Trajectories of the centre of... in the swarm. The plot shows the confinement of the swarm within... from [15] show a generally chaotic swarm, with bees flying in all... 5(b)). For a better visualization of the swarm states and their evolution, we... the snapshots of the entire swarm. See Figures 6, 8 for plots corresponding... variance is low (t = 600), the swarm flight is fairly chaotic. The... acceleration) would slow down the swarm (results not shown here). Decreasing... (see Figure 5(b)). Snapshots of the swarm at these time instances are.... The previous numerical experiments concern a swarm of size N = 630 with Ns... 1% of the size of the swarm)! Efficiency drops sharply however if... (see Figure 5(b)). Snapshots of the swarm at these time instances are... task of choosing a nest site. Swarm split. There are rare occurrences... location. When this happens, the swarm takes off with approximately half... different initial conditions. The entire swarm either follows one single group... streak in the y-direction. The swarm starts off moving diagonally (in... distance travelled by the entire swarm (shown in columns 2 and 3) for... cases better) guidance to the swarm. Even Ns = 6 streaker bees (less... 1% of the size of the swarm) can achieve reasonably good efficiency.... During the final 30 m, the swarm moved slowly and eventually came... the bees streaked through the swarm, in straight and level flights... are qualitatively consistent with the swarm flight and description above. First... initial flight segment, when the swarm organizes itself from a a very chaotic... sense of direction, but the swarm as a group moves consistently in... achieved average speed of the swarm. For instance (see Figure 4(a)), corresponding... 6 and 7, as well as the swarm snapshots from Figures 8 and 9), a feature... scouts does not brake the swarm significantly (this was discussed above... swarms in terms of average swarm speed, flight angle distribution, individual... swarms: How do scouts guide a swarm of uninformed bees?, Animal Behaviour... red dwarf honeybee apis florea, Swarm Intell. 5 (2011) 121–141. [18... = 600 Figure 8: Snapshots of the swarm at various times (Cal = 0.1): t = 0, 462... = 546 Figure 9: Snapshots of the swarm at various times (Cal = 0.5): t = 0, 454... steady acceleration of a real bee swarm, due to a chain reaction and...