Спутник ДЗЗ. Swarm A. [Редактировать]

22 ноября 2013 года в 16:02 по московскому времени (12:02 UTC) с космодрома «Плесецк» ракетой-носителем «Рокот» с разгонным блоком «Бриз-КМ» осуществлён запуск трёх европейских спутников Swarm A, Swarm B и SwarmC. Swarm – является очередным проектом Европейского космического агентства, предусматривающим создание серии спутников Earth Explorer, задача которых – изучение важнейших параметров Земли и их изменений под воздействием деятельности человека. Космические аппараты предназначены для измерения магнитных сигналов, исходящих из ядра, мантии, коры, океанов, ионосферы и магнитосферы Земли.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
139452НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - Франция
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг468

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град87.4
2Апогей, км475.2
3Перигей, км470.6
4Период, минут93.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км6843

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2013-067B

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2013-11-22 at 12:02:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm B
3Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm A
4Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm C
5Ракета-носитель 1xРокот

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Swarm A». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.34/5
swarm API 2.1 NA-13-0267-0003-2.1 swarm API Version: 2.1 Document Information Document Title: swarm API Document...-0003-2.1 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 Contents 1.Scope.......................................................................................................................................................... 4 2.Functionality... API Command Set Overview....................................................................................................16 4.4.1.swarm radio Setup Commands....................................................................................................16 4.4.2.Ranging........................................................................................................................ 16 4.4.3.Data Communication Commands................................................................................................16 4.4.4.swarm radio Node Identification...................................................................................................17 4.4.5.Medium............................................................................................................................. 20 swarm radio Setup Commands.............................................................................................................20 Ranging Commands.............................................................................................................................. 32 swarm radio node... ranging functionality for a swarm radio described in chapter 2. A swarm is defined as...: 1. Send out ID broadcast information. Swarm radio nodes shall periodically broadcast... implement the described functionalities the swarm radio shall either be connected... swarm API Version: 2.1 Autonomous 2 Host 1 Host 3 3 1 5 Host 5 4 Host 4 Figure 1. Example of swarm...-0267-0003-2.1 Page 5 swarm API Version: 2.1 3. Locating Methods Swarm radios can perform...-0003-2.1 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 4. Application Programming Interface... the bidirectional binary interface between swarm- and hostdevice. The information is...-0003-2.1 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 Example: ESC + 'S' reflects... allows reconfiguration of remote swarm devices through another swarm device using the... ASCII interface using SDAT Host SWARM A 1 SWARM B 2 3 4 7 8 5 9 6 1) Host transmits a SDAT command with... blink broadcast from swarm B. 5) swarm A transmits the prepared payload to swarm B (081255540254000105) and... error occurred. *SDAT:000000000011,0,575090200 7) swarm B receives the packet, and identifies... and GTXP. 8) swarm B sends a GTXP response packet back to swarm A over air... BINARY interface using SDAT Host SWARM A 1 SWARM B 2 3 4 7 8 5 9 6 1) Host transmits a SDAT command with... blink broadcast from swarm B. 5) SWARM A transmit the prepared payload to swarm B (081255540254000105) and... CRC_LOW CRC_HIGH 0x000000000011020e4a0a96 0xeb 0x39 7) swarm B receives the packet, and identifies... and GTXP. 8) swarm B sends a GTXP response packet back to swarm A over air...-0003-2.1 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 P_TYPE P_VERSION C_TYPE... 0x00000000001105563f 0x9c 0xff 4.3. Power management Swarm radios support three different power...: When a swarm radio A node wants to communicate to another swarm radio B in... until it receives the swarm radio B’s NodeID. Swarm radios store one ranging... of the swarm Node GUID (0x09) Get Unique ID of swarm Node...-2.1 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 4.4.4. swarm radio Node Identification EBID...: = configured 6 byte Node ID of swarm node Range: 000000000001 … FFFFFFFFFFFE ASCII... 25 swarm API Version: 2.1 SPSA Sets power management mode for swarm radio...-2.1 0x07 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 BRAR : Broadcast ranging... 0x94 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 Data Communication Commands...-0003-2.1 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 FNIN : FNIN 0> : Fills... the MEMS sensor on the swarm radio. Parameter description: Range: 0 … 1 0 = MEMS... 0x04 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 GPIO : Description: Configure...-0003-2.1 © 2015 All Rights Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 7. Notification messages This... Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 8. API Default Settings When starting the swarm Radio... 85 swarm API Version: 2.1 9. Settings for Different Node Behaviours The swarm radio... another swarm radio: Whenever it receives a blink from any other swarm radio... the other swarm radio and broadcast it. • A ranging request: Any swarm in... operation with the swarm. In this case, the swarm answers by sending... and any other swarm radio in the area. When a swarm which is... from any swarm in the neighborhood: In case the swarm is connected...) so that the swarm will not blink. • The swarm radio can be... other swarm in range. For the two operations the transmitting swarm needs... Reserved swarm API Version: 2.1 10. Further Reading • Apps Note – AN0509 swarm API... version. Completely revised and enhanced swarm API, introduction of Mnemonic code...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.47/5
... novel swarm metaheuristic algorithms—named Survival Sub-swarms Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization... of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 Particle Swarm Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 A Classic Particle Swarm Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 The Variants of PSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3.1 Adaptive parameters particle swarm optimization . . . . 16 2.3.2 Modified topology particle swarm optimization . . . . . . 20... . . . . . . . . . . 54 3.2 Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.3 Particle Swarm Optimization for CVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64..., “A novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based on particle swarm migration,” Applied Mathematics..., 2009. 8 CHAPTER 2 Particle Swarm Optimization 2.1 Introduction Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is an... called a swarm and its individuals are called the particles. The swarm is... into 3 main categories: parametric approaches, swarm topology improvement, and hybridization. Parametric... results. Swarm topology improvements consider different communication structures within the swarm. Hybridization... methods and adaptive swarm topology methods. 2.3.1 Adaptive parameters particle swarm optimization Shi... from predation for the whole swarm. The swarm topology has been changed... whole swarm. As a result, the sub-swarms enable the whole swarm to... s is the sub-swarm index. Subsequently, the sub-swarm with the capability... to the whole swarm if the worst sub-swarm disappeared from the flock? Reasonably, the animal swarm should... particle swarm should also be able to maintain its swarm size in... each sub-swarm is evaluated, and the worst performing sub-swarm is... particles in a sub-swarm) and S (number of sub-swarm) (c) Randomly initialize the... helps the whole swarm maintain its diversity. The swarm may benefit from... particles in a sub-swarm) and S (number of sub-swarm) (c) Randomly initialize the..., 2002. [4] K. E. Parsopoulos and M. N. Vrahatis, Particle Swarm Optimization and Intelligence: Advances and..., “A novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based on particle swarm migration,” Applied Mathematics...] B. Kaewkamnerdpong and P. J. Bentley, “Perceptive particle swarm optimization: an investigate,” in Proceedings..., and C. Anyakoha, “A review of particle swarm optimization. part 2: hybridisation, combinatorial, multicriteria...] T. Krink, J. S. Vesterstrom, and J. Riget, “Particle swarm optimisation with spatial particle extension... A. P. Engelbrecht, “Effects of swarm size on cooperative particle swarm optimisers,” in Proceedings... particles in a sub-swarm) and S (number of sub-swarm) (c) Using the sweep...] S. Ponnambalam, N. Jawahar, and S. Chandrasekaran, Particle Swarm Optimization. Vienna, Austria: In-Tech...-valued particle swarm optimization,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium..., J. F. Roddick, and J.-S. Pan, “A parallel particle swarm optimization algorithm with communication strategies... and J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, “A parallel particle swarm optimization algorithm accelerated by asynchronous...–2268. Ai, T. J. and Kachitvichyanukul, V., “Particle swarm optimization and two solution representations..., J., and Anyakoha, C., “A review of particle swarm optimization. part 2: hybridisation, combinatorial, multicriteria..., F., Prins, C., Yalaoui, F., and Amodeo, L., “Particle swarm optimization algorithm for a vehicle routing..., S.-C., Roddick, J. F., and Pan, J.-S., “A parallel particle swarm optimization algorithm with communication strategies..., C., “A novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based on particle swarm migration,” Applied Mathematics.... Kaewkamnerdpong, B. and Bentley, P. J., “Perceptive particle swarm optimization,” in Proceedings of the.... Kaewkamnerdpong, B. and Bentley, P. J., “Perceptive particle swarm optimization: an investigate,” in Proceedings.... Krink, T., Vesterstrom, J. S., and Riget, J., “Particle swarm optimisation with spatial particle extension.... Marinakis, Y., Iordanidou, G.-R., and Marinaki, M., “Particle swarm optimization for the vehicle routing.... Parsopoulos, K. E. and Vrahatis, M. N., “Unified particle swarm optimization for tackling operations research.... Ponnambalam, S., Jawahar, N., and Chandrasekaran, S., Particle Swarm Optimization. Vienna, Austria: In-Tech...-valued particle swarm optimization,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium..., H.-L., Kuo, C.-C., and Chiang, C.-M., “Modified particle swarm optimization algorithm with simultated annealing... Engelbrecht, A. P., “Effects of swarm size on cooperative particle swarm optimisers,” in Proceedings..., G. and Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J., “A parallel particle swarm optimization algorithm accelerated by asynchronous..., K., Iwasaki, N., Ueno, G., and Aiyoshi, E., “Particle swarm optimization: a numerical stability analysis and...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.36/5
... Simultaneous field-aligned currents at Swarm and Cluster satellites Dunlop, M. W.; Yang...). Simultaneous field-aligned currents at Swarm and Cluster satellites. Geophysical Research...), Simultaneous field-aligned currents at Swarm and Cluster satellites, Geophys. Res... Simultaneous field-aligned currents at Swarm and Cluster satellites M. W. Dunlop1,2,3, J.-Y. Yang1... (~2.5 RE altitude) orbits using a particular Swarm and Cluster conjunction. The Cluster... currents at both Cluster and Swarm. The methodology is made possible... and Swarm, which contain, in the first several months of Swarm operations... the advent of the multispacecraft Swarm and Cluster missions. ©2015. The.... DUNLOP ET AL. The three Swarm [Friis-Christensen et al., 2008.... The polar orbits take the Swarm spacecraft through the auroral regions.... At the start of the Swarm operations, the four Cluster spacecraft... ring plane (magnetic equator). The Swarm orbital planes drift relatively to...://earth.esa.int/web/guest/swarm/data-access) from the Vector...-Christensen et al., 2008] on Swarm. The orbits of the spacecraft... et al., 1998]. The three Swarm spacecraft, even when flying in... spacecraft spatial configuration of Swarm. In Figure 1a, the magnetic... example. Clearly, if the three Swarm spacecraft are close together, as... technique as applied to Swarm measurements. The three Swarm spacecraft, A, B, and C are... relative to the orbit of Swarm A for a particular time. The positions... the spacecraft fly over the poles). Swarm B is flying at a slightly higher.... (b): The orbits of Cluster and Swarm relative to the Earth in... show zoomed views of the Swarm spacecraft configurations, projected into... 5 relative to the orbit of Swarm A. The Cluster colors are: C1..., and C4-blue, while the Swarm colors are A-black, B-red, and... cross compared. The combination of Swarm A, B, and C produces a purely spatial estimate... 2014. (top) The estimate from Swarm data corresponding to the single... Swarm spacecraft [see Xiong et al., 2014]. The data are the Swarm...://earth.esa.int/web/guest/ swarm/data-access) derived using VFM... background magnetic field direction). The Swarm estimates are shown in black... conjunction between the Cluster and Swarm arrays occurred. Figure 1b (right... separation from the others). The Swarm configurations show the crossover... slightly higher altitude of the Swarm B spacecraft. An overview of the... two Swarm orbits covering the interval of interest, where Swarm crosses first...firms that the footprint of Swarm crosses the Cluster orbit footprint... of the Swarm positions indicated by colored dots on the Swarm orbit... been directly applied to the Swarm data for this interval, where... indicated along the right-hand Swarm track correspond to the actual... 3. Mapped footprints of Cluster and Swarm (where two cross at about... magnetic local time (MLT) of Swarm a with model, equatorward and poleward... northern track on the right, Swarm enters a region of FACs as... are present. This first northern Swarm pass therefore occurs just after... negative J|| on cluster occurs while Swarm is in the south. We... and the northern pass of Swarm, for detailed analysis. We refer... burst of FACs on Swarm (during which Swarm crosses the Cluster orbit... the different positions along the Swarm orbit, where the dashed line... Figure 4. The FAC estimates for Swarm for the whole northern pass... the region: Swarm A and C are almost side by side, while Swarm B lags behind (~25 s). It is also apparent that Swarm B, at... (in SM coordinates) values of Swarm and Cluster FACs. The top... Swarm and Cluster signatures in terms of their MLAT position. The Swarm... a MLT difference between Cluster and Swarm, which develops through the interval... distinct features which appear. For Swarm, we see that the single... to the separation of the Swarm Satellites, i.e., approximately 150 km) feature... amplitude at the height of Swarm B is slightly reduced. The second... seen that the three-spacecraft Swarm estimates derived from the ABC... trace) broadly agree with the Swarm B signature in the second panel... the four-spacecraft estimate from Swarm (red trace, third panel). The...files show a remarkable similarity to Swarm and at similar MLAT positions... a factor of ~60 between the Swarm and Cluster altitudes. We find... amplitudes of current densities at Swarm and Cluster are ~1.3 μAmÀ2 and... between the Swarm and Cluster spacecraft arrays, where three Swarm spacecraft are... field measurements at both the Swarm and Cluster locations. We have... currents at both Cluster and Swarm. The methodology is made possible... and Swarm, which contain, in the first several months of Swarm operations...figurations and magnetic environment at Swarm, and the comparison of C1.... Acknowledgments We thank the ESA Swarm project for provision of the..., E., H. Lühr, D. Knudsen, and R. Haagmans (2008), Swarm – An Earth observation mission investigating...’ scale analysis performed with the Swarm constellation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42... (2006), Curl-B technique applied to Swarm constellation for determining field-aligned... field-aligned currents with the Swarm constellation mission, Earth Planets Space...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.47/5
... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue...-GS-0074 V1.5 August 2009 1 SWARM TAILORING OF THE EARTH EXPLORER FILE FORMAT STANDARD FOR THE SWARM GROUND SEGMENT Prepared by: Tristan... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... and RPx_ in section 4.2.3 Editorial: SWARM -> Swarm Agreed GS-PDR updates: RID... with respect to the standard. 2.2 7 Swarm GS PM #4 Action 4.2-ESTEC: File... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... objectives. The Swarm Mission, (hereinafter also referred to as “Swarm”) has been... 530 km will form the Swarm constellation. The constellation configuration will... a full decade time scale.The Swarm nominal mission lifetime will be... development and procurement of the Swarm ground segment components. 1.2 Purpose and... Standard, [F-STD], by providing the Swarm specific details. Basically this document...,...etc) as a CFI for the Swarm ground segment. This document should... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue...-06-03. 2.2 Reference Documents [MRD] Swarm Mission Requirements Document, SW-MD... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... to Swarm. 3.2 Header The content of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 3.3 Data... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 3.4 Packaging and Distribution of Files... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. The Earth Explorer logical file... ID For Swarm: MM = SW 4.1.2 File Class For Swarm the following are... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... x being “A”, “B” or “C”, respectively for Swarm A, Swarm B or Swarm C. 4.1.3.2 Semantic Descriptor The Semantic Descriptor... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... Swarm A. GPSBNAV_0_: for the Level-0 navigational solution from the GPS for Swarm...: 4.1.4 REPA_DQC__: ponent. A report relating to Swarm A generated by the PDGS data...- REPB_L1BOP: processor. A report relating to Swarm B generated by the PDGS Level... ID shapes identified for Swarm. 4.1.4.1 Shape 1: Standard Swarm File Instance ID This... ID shape applies to every Swarm File Category with the exception... REPx (see section 4.1.4.2). The standard Swarm File Instance ID shape has... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... following meaning: • • • yyyymmddThhmmss is the Swarm sensing start time of the...:00.000000). YYYYMMDDTHHMMSS is the Swarm sensing stop time of the..., ACCx, VFMx and HK_x. As Swarm sensing time values will typically... 2: Validity Period with respect to Swarm Sensing Time In the validity period with respect to Swarm sensing time context the components... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... to always be valid for Swarm data would contain 00000000T00000000_99999999T99999999. 4.1.5.3 Shape... of File Category TMx_. As Swarm downlink time values will typically... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 4.2 Physical File Names 4.2.1 File Names... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 4.2.2 Single File vs Header and... applies to Swarm. 4.2.3 Packaging and Distribution Files Each Swarm File Type shall... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... to Swarm. 5.1.2 Exceptions The content of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 5.1.3 Earth... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 5.2 File Syntax – Hierarchical Decomposition 5.2.1 Top... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 5.2.2 Header Syntax The content of... Swarm. 5.2.3 Data Block Syntax The content of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 5.3 File Syntax – Summary 5.3.1 XML ASCII... 5.3.1-1 in [F-STD] is relevant to Swarm while 5.3.1-2 is not. A file with... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... 5.3.2-4 in [F-STD] is relevant to Swarm while 5.3.2-3 is not. A file with... Swarm. Tailoring of the Earth Explorer File Format Standard for the Swarm... Swarm. 6.2 ASCII Data Representation The content of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 6.3 Binary Data Representation The content of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... the allowed values. Mission string Swarm File_Class string Repetition of the... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 7.2.2 Variable Header Content for Binary... of [F-STD] fully applies to Swarm. 7.2.3 Variable Header Content for Binary... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue... File Format Standard for the Swarm Ground Segment doc. no.: issue...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-25
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.26/5
... The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF) and Swarm data...). The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF) and Swarm data... The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF) and Swarm data...; Online published November 22, 2013) Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study... of the constellation aspect of Swarm. The Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application..., electromagnetic induction, comprehensive inversion, Swarm satellites. 1. Introduction Swarm, a constellation mission comprising three... be distributed by ESRIN (Frascati/I). Swarm will simultaneously obtain a space-time... 1190 N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH... consisting of several satellites, like Swarm, opens new possibilities for exploring... advantage of the Swarm constellation. Analysis of the Swarm data will greatly... have joined the SMART consortium (Swarm Magnetic and Atmospheric Research Team... from the Swarm mission, and it was decided to establish a Swarm SCARF... scientific community at large. Advanced Swarm-derived models of the geomagnetic... availability are discussed in Section 5. 2. Swarm Level-1b Products The Level... each of the three satellites Swarm A, Swarm B, and Swarm C on a daily basis, i.e. each... illustrating the filenaming convention of Swarm Level-1b 1 Hz magnetic product... component N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH... SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH FACILITY (SCARF) Table 2. Content of Swarm... — — — — Hz1/2 SP3xCOM 2 ) discussed in Section 3.2. 3. Swarm Level-2 Data Processing and Products... SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH FACILITY (SCARF) 1193 Table 3. The Swarm... currents determined from combination of Swarm A and Swarm B FACxTMS 2F CDF Time... contributions (Hamilton, 2013). Processing of Swarm Level-1b products in order... data in combination with the Swarm magnetic observations. Finally, observatory hourly... 1194 N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH... r the Level-2 Product Definition Document (Swarm Level 2 where a = 6371.2 km is..., gnm , h m n N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH...): 1196 N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH.... time. N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH... Mauersberger-Lowes spectrum (de- the Swarm satellites was still scheduled for... time difference between (gn,e (g ) + (h m ) ) + (h ) n,e n,t n,t Swarm A and Swarm B when crossing the equator shall...,e and for Swarm (h 0 = 460 km and i = 87.35◦ for Swarm A and m m m h n,e are...). 1198 N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH... , BC ), in agreement with the Swarm performance requirements. The magnetic field..., γ = −6184) arcsecs for Swarm A, (α = 808, β = −434, γ = −1234) arcsecs for Swarm B and (α = 2222, β = 2991, γ = 3115) arcsecs for Swarm C. The various.... dtu.dk / data / magnetic-satellites/Swarm/ SCARF/TDS-1/Level1b/Mag/. Further... downlink Swarm Level-1b data are processed • Next working day Swarm Level... http://earth.esa.int/swarm . 6. Conclusions The Swarm mission is devoted to... types N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH... have joined the SMART consortium (Swarm Magnetic and Atmospheric Research Team... by supporting the creation of a Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and... implemented. Acknowledgments. The Development of Swarm SCARF has been funded by..., P., S. Maus, P. Vigneron, O. Sirol, and G. Hulot, Swarm SCARF equatorial electric field inversion..., and A. W. P. Thomson, Independent validation of Swarm Level 2 magnetic field products and..., E. Th´ebault, O. Sirol, and G. Hulot, Swarm SCARF Dedicated Ionospheric Field Inversion.... Friis-Christensen, E., H. L¨uhr, and G. Hulot, Swarm: A constellation to study the Earth...-Christensen, E., H. L¨uhr, D. Knudsen, and R. Haagmans, Swarm – An Earth Observation Mission investigating... large-scale magnetospheric field from Swarm satellite data, Earth Planets Space..., 3-D electromagnetic induction studies using the Swarm constellation. Mapping conductivity anomalies in..., V. Lesur, M. Rother, and M. Mandea, The Swarm End-ToEnd mission simulator study... magnetic field inversion analysis for Swarm, DNSC Scientific Report 1/2007, Danish... conductivity in Earth’s mantle from Swarm satellite data, Earth Planets Space... conductivity in Earth’s mantle from Swarm satellite data: Frequency domain approach... field-aligned currents with the Swarm constellation mission, Earth Planets Space... the Comprehensive Inversion method for Swarm satellite data analysis, Earth Planets..., 1200 N. OLSEN et al.: THE SWARM SATELLITE CONSTELLATION APPLICATION AND RESEARCH..., this issue, 1375–1383, 2013. Swarm Level 2 Processing System Consortium, Product..., S. Maus, A. Chulliat, O. Sirol, and G. Hulot, Swarm SCARF Dedicated Lithospheric Field Inversion...



Дата загрузки: 2017-05-20
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.34/5
... address this lack of realistic swarm statistics by providing our measurement results revealing real live BitTorrent swarm characteristics. 1 Introduction Overlay traffic resulting.... We have measured the swarm size, swarm dynamics in terms of number... example that real-life BitTorrent swarm distributions are highly skewed (i.e., 90... of the swarm holds a large fraction of the whole swarm and the... of a swarm and the AS-fraction of a swarm (i.e., x-largest AS of a swarm – #peers in AS/#peers in swarm) follows... of forming a larger cluster within a swarm, and give a probabilistic approach how... downloading the file. For each swarm, a centralized component, the so-called... in each experiment the swarm size, the swarm dynamics, and the AS... in the swarm at a single time instant, i.e. a snapshot of the swarm. In... time dynamics of a swarm, several samples of the swarm size and the... a decimal number, while a snapshot of a swarm always returns an integer value... metho#torrents index criteria content swarm dology TV 96 samples website... 24 hours ing observed swarm size swarm size swarm size meas. date Jun... AS topology May 2009 swarm size swarm size swarm size AS topology Mar... X ∼ BIN O(n, q), when the tracker of a swarm of size N is requested n times... X ∼ BIN O(b, q), when the tracker of a swarm of size N is requested b times... observing the AS topology of a swarm. Figure 2 shows the cumulative distribution... where the results for specific swarm types contradict the accepted knowledge.... 0.4 0.3 Pop. 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 1 2 10 10 3 10 swarm size Figure 3: CDF of the... in a swarm. Each dot represents (#seeder,#leecher) of an individual swarm for... for the topological characteristics of a swarm, which also depend on the content shared. In general, the swarm size distribution is heterogeneous with.... The result is a fully meshed swarm. Consequently, accepted solutions using Biased... 0.73 0.65 4.2 Time-Dynamics within a Swarm While a snapshot of the number... that a swarm can be treated as static. The population of a swarm varies... [h] 60 70 80 Figure 5: Total swarm size of exemplary swarms (measurement.... While swarm D), which is 13 standard deviation si of swarm size measurement (mi, si) theoretical minimum 1 10 0 10 −1 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 average swarm... the size of swarm i vs. average size of swarm i for measurement experiment... peer population, the size of swarm C) exhibits a periodic behavior. We attribute... South America, and therefore the swarm population increases during the daytime... regions and decreases again afterwards. Swarm G), sharing a German movie, shows a similar... of the peer population of swarm B) is a superposition of a continually increasing... like for swarms C) and G). While swarm D) distributes content that seems not... seeder and leecher population of a swarm distributing a German version of OpenOffice... deviation si for a given average swarm size mi ∈ [a; a + 1[ is obtained when... locality-awareness much better than a swarm that is highly dispersed topologically...[ 0.04 [2000; ∞[ 0.01 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 0.5 increasing swarm size 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 1 2 10 10 average... size, cf. Table 3. 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 0.5 increasing swarm size 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 1 10 10 average number... data with. 17 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 increasing swarm size 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 −1 0 10 10 coefficient of... AS’s per swarm Figure 13: Number of AS’s per swarm (Mus.,Mov.). Another important characteristic of a swarm is the... of the swarm in single AS’s. For the largest swarm A, the most... swarm Figure 16: Relative number of peers in a swarm’s top AS (Reg.). Swarm.... 4.2 that the peer populaton within swarm D remains almost constant over time... swarm distributes content that seems not to be preferred regionally. However, swarm... largest AS of a swarm CDF 0.6 0.5 0.4 top AS of a swarm 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25... the suitability of the according swarm for locality promotion, something previously... mechanism under study – these relevant swarm characteristics have to be considered... to get a snapshot of the swarm. Application layer traffic optimization mechanisms... peers currently participating in the swarm. However, the problem remains that... for this observation regarding the swarm Ele. (1) The tracker always returns... the k-th largest AS in swarm i for k = 1, 2, · · · , n. Then, we compute the... number n of different AS’s in a swarm vs. the coefficient of determination... number n of different AS’s in a swarm vs. the coefficient of determination... traffic optimization mechanisms. Considering the swarm statistics according to the offered... topology of a swarm, i.e., the AS affiliations of peers within a swarm. However, also the observed number of different AS’s of a swarm increases significantly with the swarm size. As a result... number of different AS’s within a swarm follows a log-normal distribution. Further... significant fractions of the total swarm, applying locality awareness here may...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-25
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.49/5
Swarm  on  the  Biowulf2  Cluster   Dr.    ...   September  24,    2015       What  is  swarm?   •  Wrapper  script  that  simplifies...   DocumentaJon   •  'man  swarm'   •  'swarm  -­‐-­‐help'   •  hMps://hpc.nih.gov/apps/swarm.html   Di...  swarm   0   hostname  ;  upJme   1   hostname  ;  upJme   swarm   swarm  -­‐t  2   0   1   2   2   hostname  ;  upJme   3   hostname  ;  upJme   single-­‐threaded  swarm   3   subjobs   Simple  swarm   0   hostname  ;  upJme   1   hostname  ;  upJme   swarm  -­‐t  3   swarm  -­‐t  4   0   1   2   hostname  ;  upJme   3   hostname  ;  upJme   mulJ-­‐threaded  swarm   2   3   Basic  swarm  usage   •  Create  swarmfile  (file.swarm)   cd cd cd...   $ swarm –f file.swarm 1234567 $ ls swarm_1234567_0.o swarm_1234567_1.o swarm_1234567_0.e swarm_1234567_1.e swarm_1234567_2.o swarm_1234567_2.e Standard  swarm  opJons   •  -­‐f  :  swarm.../to/input3 /path/to/input4 $ swarm –f file.swarm –g 4 –t 4 –o –o –o –o /path/to/output1 /path.../to/jarfile –opt1 –opt2 –opt3 $ swarm –f file.swarm –g 4 –t auto •  This  allocates  an...,  -­‐-­‐devel,  -­‐-­‐verbose,  -­‐-­‐silent   -­‐-­‐devel   $ swarm --devel -f file.swarm -b 4 -g 8 -v 4 -----------------------------------------------------------SWARM ├── subjob 0: 4 commands (1 cpu, 8.00... subjob sbatch --array=0-3 --job-name=swarm --output=/home/user/test/ swarm_...:00 / spin1/swarm/user/I8DQDX4O.batch No  more  .swarm  directories   •  swarm  scripts  are...  own  subdirectory   $ tree /spin1/swarm/user /spin1/swarm/user ├── 2341529 │   ├── cmd.0 │   ├── cmd...   •  -­‐-­‐license  replaces  -­‐R  or  -­‐-­‐resource     $ swarm –f file.swarm --license=matlab -­‐-­‐module   •  -­‐-­‐module  now...  than  space  delimited  list:   $ swarm –f file.swarm --module python,samtools,bwa,tophat...  disk  space   •  Replaces  -­‐-­‐disk   $ swarm –f file.swarm --gres=lscratch:50 •  /lscratch/$SLURM_JOBID...  ;  upJme   2   hostname  ;  upJme   3   hostname  ;  upJme   swarm  -­‐p  2   0   2   1   3   -­‐-­‐logdir   •  Redirects  .o  and  .e  files  to.../trashbin $ swarm –f files.swarm --logdir /data/user/trashbin 1234567 $ ls file.swarm $ ls...   •  -­‐-­‐Jme  for  swarm  is  per  command,  not  per   swarm  or  per  subjob   •  -­‐-­‐Jme  mulJplied  by  bundle  factor   $ swarm -f file.swarm --devel...:00:00 /spin1/swarm/hooverdm/iMdaW6dO.batch $ swarm -f file.swarm --devel --time=01...=0-7 ... --time=04:00:00 /spin1/swarm/hooverdm/zYrUbkiO.batch Primary  sbatch...   ALL  sbatch  opJons   •  -­‐-­‐sbatch   $ swarm -f file.swarm --sbatch "--mail-type=FAIL -export...   $ swarm –f file.swarm •  mulJ-­‐threaded  commands   $ swarm –f file.swarm –t 4 •  large  memory,  single-­‐threaded   $ swarm –f file.swarm –g 32 Examples   •  >10K  single-­‐threaded  commands   $ mkdir /data/user/bigswarm $ swarm –f file.swarm --job-name bigswarm --logdir /data... ; ; ; ; command command command command $ swarm –f file.swarm --gres=lscratch:200 –opt –opt....sh 10000 $ swarm -f file.swarm --dependency=afterany:10000 10001 $ swarm -f file2.swarm --dependency=afterany... Examples   •  Long-­‐running  processes   $ swarm -f file.swarm --time=4-00:00:00 Defaults  and  Limits   •  •  •  •  •  •  •  1,000  subjobs  per  swarm...  Swarms   •  scancel   Complex  Examples   •  Rerunnable  swarm   [[ [[ [[ [[ -e -e -e -e file1.flag file2.flag file3...  job;  passed  to  the  swarm:   $ swarm –f file.swarm --sbatch "--export=FILE=/path/to...  the  job;  part  of  the  swarmfile   export export export export...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.38/5
Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for ... Team Leader. Page 1 of 27 Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... Update Summary ..................................................................................................... 10 4 Description of Swarm Euler Angle Update ......................................................................... 13 4.1 Derivation... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... Table 3-1 Swarm A CCDB Update .....................................................................................................................10 Table 3-2 Swarm B CCDB Update .....................................................................................................................10 Table 3-3 Swarm C CCDB... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for..., “Magnetic field measurements”, of the Swarm Calibration/Validation (CalVal) workshop and... reference frame for all three Swarm spacecrafts. Within the scientific community... as “The Euler Angles of Swarm”. 2 Applicable and Reference Documentation 2.1 Applicable... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... ESA European Space Agency ESL Swarm Expert Support Laboratories ESRIN European... (heritage from the L2PS Project) Swarm Constellation of 3 ESA satellites, http... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... The proposed updates of the Swarm CCDB auxiliary files are given... is given in Section 4. Table 3-1 Swarm A CCDB Update Filename SW_OPER_AUXASW1_C__20000101T000000_99999999T999999_0007.EEF....space.dtu.dk/data/magneticsatellites/Swarm/SCARF/Test/L1b_Euler_Test.zip ftp....dk/data/magneticsatellites/Swarm/SCARF/Test/L1b_Euler_Test2.zip Table 3-2 Swarm B CCDB Update... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for....space.dtu.dk/data/magneticsatellites/Swarm/SCARF/Test/L1b_Euler_Test.zip ftp....dk/data/magneticsatellites/Swarm/SCARF/Test/L1b_Euler_Test2.zip Table 3-3 Swarm C CCDB Update... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for....space.dtu.dk/data/magneticsatellites/Swarm/SCARF/Test/L1b_Euler_Test.zip ftp....space.dtu.dk/data/magneticsatellites/Swarm/SCARF/Test/L1b_Euler_Test2.zip The... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... of Swarm Euler Angle Update The update of the “Swarm Euler Angles... improving the accuracy of the Swarm vector magnetic data provided in... GFZ and DTU independently using Swarm MAGX_LR_1B products version 0301covering the... Table 4-1 have been applied to Swarm MAGX_LR_1B products version 0301covering the... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... the following elements of the Swarm Level 1b products: 1. The magnetic... referenced on the front page. Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal for... front page. ESL Swarm Page 16 of 27 Swarm Expert Support Laboratories...-GS-003, Rev: 1 Analysis  of  Swarm  datasets  prepared  from  revised  Euler...  not  negligible.             1   ESL Swarm Page 17 of 27 Swarm Expert Support Laboratories... Swarm Page 18 of 27 Satellite  A     Dec  2013       dB_r   dB_theta   dB_phi   Swarm...  rms  residuals.     3   ESL Swarm Page 19 of 27 Swarm Expert Support Laboratories...  (bottom)  datasets.         4   ESL Swarm Page 20 of 27 Swarm Expert Support Laboratories...  (bottom)  datasets.         5   ESL Swarm Page 21 of 27   Swarm Expert Support Laboratories...  (bottom)  datasets.       6   ESL Swarm Page 22 of 27 Swarm Expert Support Laboratories... constructed main field models for Swarm A,B,C using the DTU and GFZ... generally extremely small. Residual rms Swarm A DTU Component December May Combined... 4.68 4.26 ESL Swarm Page 23 of 27 Swarm Expert Support Laboratories...) Swarm B DTU GFZ (new angles) Swarm C DTU GFZ (new angles) ESL Swarm Page 24 of 27 Swarm Expert... (DTU) Swarm A December May Combined ESL Swarm Page 25 of 27 Swarm Expert..., Rev: 1 Swarm B December May Combined ESL Swarm Page 26 of 27 Swarm Expert...-GS-003, Rev: 1 Swarm C December May Combined Swarm Expert Support Laboratories Proposal...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.25/5
... of DEBOT and LSG signatures Swarm + Oceans ˇ ˇ Martinec, David Einˇspigel... WP3000 Status 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 2/33 Magnetic field induced... BM σ=0 aG u(r, ϑ,ϕ) σ(r, ϑ,ϕ) a−h 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 3/33 Magnetic field induced... (r; t) = −∇UM (r; t) 1 ∂b ∇ × (ρ∇ × b) + = ∇ × (u × BM ) µ0 ∂t b(r; t) = −∇u(r; t)|r=a 23.4. 2015, ESTEC ∇2 u = 0 Swarm + Oceans r≥a lim u(r; t) = 0 r→∞ 4/33 Magnetic field... 1 (e) 1 K+1 B−1 K+1 + (j + 1) Bjm = Gjm = 0, 2j + 1 jm ΛK+1 = 0. jm Swarm + Oceans 5/33 Magnetic field induced... 1 × 1 and 3 × 3 blocks 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 6/33 Magnetic field induced... − Uk · xk+1 k 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 7/33 Benchmarks Nested spheres... 3-D conductivity model 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 8/33 Benchmarks Nested spheres... ELMK7E imag 2000 4000 r (km) Swarm + Oceans 6000 −5 0 2000 4000 6000... main field 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 10/33 Benchmarks Shallow... ELMGIV 2D FD Analytical 10 j*(j+1)/2+m+1 Swarm + Oceans 20 11/33 Benchmarks... 23.4. 2015, ESTEC 50 60 j*(j+1)/2+m+1 Swarm + Oceans 70 80 11/33... 190 200 210 220 230 j*(j+1)/2+m+1 Swarm + Oceans 240 250 260 11... ocean, σ = 3.5 S/m, h = 3 km 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 12/33 Benchmarks 1-D time... 4000 4500 0 5000 5500 r (km) Swarm + Oceans 6000 6500 3500 4000... 0.5 hrs 0.5 hrs 0.5 hrs 0.5 hrs 0.5 hrs Swarm + Oceans K 71 71 71 65... 0.1 σ (S/m) 1 4 conductivity model 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 15/33 10 Benchmarks... Swarm A track No. 1755.5 for various resolution settings. 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm... precomputed weights) 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 17/33 Benchmarks Velocity... < ˜rj+1 ˜ ϑk ≤ ϑi < ϑ˜k+1 u(ri , ϑi , ϕi ) = wα uα α=1 ϕ˜l ≤ ϕi < ϕ˜l+1 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 18/33 Benchmarks Velocity... velocity interpolation, Θ0 = 0.5◦ 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 19/33 Benchmarks Velocity... velocity interpolation, Θ0 = 1.0◦ 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 19/33 Benchmarks Velocity... velocity interpolation 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 19/33 Benchmarks Velocity... Swarm A track No. 1755.5 for various velocity interpolations. 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm... = 7.73 hrs 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 21/33 −1.5 Benchmarks Transient....66 hrs 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 21/33 −1.5 Benchmarks Transient....51 hrs 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 21/33 −1.5 Magnetic field... al. 2003) 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 22/33 Magnetic field....4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans −4 −2 0 2 Zsurf (nT) 4 6 23/33 Z (nT) Y (nT) Swarm A, Orbit....4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans −4 −2 0 2 Zsurf (nT) 4 6 23/33 Z (nT) Y (nT) Swarm B, Orbit....4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans −4 −2 0 2 Zsurf (nT) 4 6 23/33 Z (nT) Y (nT) Swarm C, Orbit....4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans −4 −2 0 2 Zsurf (nT) 4 6 23/33 Z (nT) Y (nT) Swarm C, Orbit....4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans −4 −2 0 2 Zsurf (nT) 4 6 23/33 Z (nT) Y (nT) Swarm C, Orbit....4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans −4 −2 0 2 Zsurf (nT) 4 6 23/33 Z (nT) Y (nT) Swarm C, Orbit... m2/s 1 105 m2/s 5 104 m2/s Swarm + Oceans ε 0.08 0.08 0.10 0.12..., ESTEC 0 lat 50 −50 0 lat Swarm + Oceans 50 −50 0 lat 50.... CHAOS-5 (J = 90) 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 26/33 −1.5 Magnetic field... al. 2003) 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 27/33 Magnetic field... (nT) 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Z, t= 500 h 6 Swarm + Oceans 8 10 28/33 Magnetic... (σ in S/m) 6369.48125000000 1 r= −4 −3 r= 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 log (σ in S/m) 0 Swarm + Oceans −4 r= 6370.92125000000 −3 −2 −1 0 log (σ in... (σ in S/m) 6361.50000000000 1 r= −4 −3 r= 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 log (σ in S/m) 0 Swarm + Oceans −4 r= 6366.24975000000 −3 −2 −1 0 log (σ in...-surface conductivity 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 30/33 Magnetic field... February 2013 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 31/33 WP3000 Status... LSG runs 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 32/33 WP3000 Status... baroclinic models 23.4. 2015, ESTEC Swarm + Oceans 33/33



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.54/5
... rate of peers in each swarm is lower than the seed... seed, form a so-called swarm. Peers in a swarm exchange file pieces (or... aggregate upload capacity of the swarm. A natural question about BitTorrent is... swarm growing to infinity? Intuitively, as every incoming peer increases the swarm... Zhu [3], who showed that the swarm remains stable if λ < U , and unstable... autonomous swarms together into a universal swarm: peers immediately depart upon retrieving... different swarms. Intuitively, such inter-swarm exchanges utilize bandwidth that would... et al. conjecture that a universal swarm with a single seed has an... become meta-stable when the swarm seed and peers prioritize rare... section. Our model of universal swarm is introduced in Section 3. Earlier... in downloading file C as Swarm C. Assume peers in Swarm C arrive according to... enough to hold F. Peers in Swarm C depart immediately upon retrieving all... into types according to (a) the swarm they belong to and (b) the... their cache. Hence, a peer in Swarm C holding S ⊆ F is denoted to be... source prioritizes pieces within the swarm of the receiver: if (S \S )∩C = ∅, it... by a distinguished peer called the swarm tracker. Alternatively, distributed techniques such... arrival of a new peer in swarm C. Given C, S ∈ T such that i ∈ / S, and a state... of peers in equilibrium. 4. SINGLE SWARM AND MISSING PIECE SYNDROME Hajek... the case of a single, autonomous swarm, i.e., a system in which all peers... 1 (Hajek and Zhu [3]). Consider a single swarm of peers requesting all pieces.... In particular, suppose that each swarm operates in an autonomous mode... swarms. More specifically, peers in swarm C ∈ C contact and exchange pieces only... other peers in the same swarm. In addition, the seed divides... total capacity. Finally, peers in swarm C store and exchange only pieces... the following: Corollary 1. Consider a multi-swarm system operating in autonomous mode... of a seed’s rate to each swarm. Though formally studying the capacity... to the size of each swarm does not improve stability or... what follows, we study multi-swarm systems that operate as described... as a multi-swarm system in universal mode or, simply, a universal swarm. 5. STABILITY REGION OF A UNIVERSAL SWARM The following is... Theorem 2, applied to the single swarm setup, is that the stability... same stability region as a universal swarm while also ensuring small delays... universal swarms through simulations, studying swarm behavior for different piece selection... of the sojourn time in swarm parameters. In what follows, we... the arrival rate in each swarm is λ = 3.0; note We provide the...: its upload rate to each swarm, for different combinations of policies... that W dynamically, so that each swarm receives pieces at a rate is... peers belong to the same swarm, and store Definition 3. ∆ := U − maxi:i∈F C:i∈C λC > 0. in... the arrival rate at each swarm is λ = 3, Theorem 2 stipulates that when... is fixed at U = 3.0 and the swarm arrival rate varies as λ = U (1 − 21i... L for the case where each swarm comprises peers requesting a k-piece file... suggest that, in a meta-stable swarm, there are two important system... (a) the system comprises of a single swarm, (b) λ > U , and (c) both the seed and... show that in such a single swarm system: nop ≈ λ(K − 1) 1 U (K − 1) λK , and n0 ≈ [ − 1]. µ µ 2 λ−U (1) 3 1000... stability region of the universal swarm, while also ensuring that the... universal mode if any single swarm has size ≥ nop + max(n0... if each piece requested by a swarm is held by at least...(nop /10, 1) peers within the swarm. Values nop , n0 are computed... syndrome is manifesting, as the swarm size becomes greater than nop... is enough diversity in each swarm—each piece is held by... mode, each requesting k = K/L pieces. Each swarm gets a U/L upload rate in autonomous... number of pieces in each swarm. As the number of pieces... AND CRITICAL SIZE Consider a single swarm, where peers arrive with rate...