Спутник ДЗЗ. Swarm C. [Редактировать]

22 ноября 2013 года в 16:02 по московскому времени (12:02 UTC) с космодрома «Плесецк» ракетой-носителем «Рокот» с разгонным блоком «Бриз-КМ» осуществлён запуск трёх европейских спутников Swarm A, Swarm B и SwarmC. Swarm – является очередным проектом Европейского космического агентства, предусматривающим создание серии спутников Earth Explorer, задача которых – изучение важнейших параметров Земли и их изменений под воздействием деятельности человека. Космические аппараты предназначены для измерения магнитных сигналов, исходящих из ядра, мантии, коры, океанов, ионосферы и магнитосферы Земли.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - Франция
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг468

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град87.4
2Апогей, км475.3
3Перигей, км470.5
4Период, минут93.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км6843

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2013-067C

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2013-11-22 at 12:02:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm B
3Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm A
4Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm C
5Ракета-носитель 1xРокот

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Swarm C». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Theses and Dissertations 2014 Particle Swarm Optimization of Low-Thrust, Geocentric... Recommended Citation Abraham, Andrew, "Particle Swarm Optimization of Low-Thrust, Geocentric... contact preserve@lehigh.edu. Particle Swarm Optimization of Low-Thrust, Geocentric... and its Associated Manifold . . . . . . 6 Particle Swarm Optimization 87 94 6.1 History and... 99 6.4 Fitness Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 6.5 Particle Swarm Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 6.6 Local PSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104... than 0.01 using the Particle Swarm Optimization and Monte Carlo methods... less than J = 0.1 using the Particle Swarm Optimization and Monte Carlo methods... less than J = 0.1 using the Particle Swarm Optimization and Monte Carlo methods... using the method 1 of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The PSO method... an evolutionary algorithm called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). 1.1 History of Lagrange.... One evolutionary method called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is becoming increasingly... on a target LPO. • Chapter 6 - Particle Swarm Optimization is introduced. The chapter... optimization methods, such as Particle Swarm Optimization (Chapter 6), can be used... search-space for the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm as described in... on the application of Particle Swarm Optimization to solve many difficult... near the Earth. 93 6 Particle Swarm Optimization This chapter outlines the... used in this dissertation: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). PSO is a heuristic... defined. The mechanisms of Particle Swarm Optimization are discussed and applied... Particle Swarm Theory is a branch of evolutionary computation known as “swarm intelligence... they are usually 94 6 Particle Swarm Optimization more precise. Examples from... in the engineering world. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), in particular, is... final term mimics 95 6 Particle Swarm Optimization the social intelligence of... any individual member of the swarm. The particle’s velocity vector is...-defined stopping condition); 97 6 Particle Swarm Optimization then the integrator stops... becomes all the 98 6 Particle Swarm Optimization possible points within the... the Search Space The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm requires the... fitness function (Equation 6.4.1) 99 6 Particle Swarm Optimization can be evaluated at... ≤ 1, and positive integers, 1 ≤ k ≤ M . 100 6 Particle Swarm Optimization 6.4 Fitness Function The fitness... of flight. 102 6 Particle Swarm Optimization 6.5 Particle Swarm Optimization The PSO algorithm...) , k (best) , represents the best 6 Particle Swarm Optimization known value of the... very similar. To 104 6 Particle Swarm Optimization avoid this problem a “local... j iterations, the particles in the swarm begin to collect around various... of γ is reached. 105 6 Particle Swarm Optimization 6.7 Search Space Boundary Conditions... concludes the chapter introducing Particle Swarm Optimization. Recall that in Chapter... introduced the concept of Particle Swarm Optimization. In the next few... of a basic, one-dimensional Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm attempting to... an individual particle in the swarm. The swarm terminates its search when... than 0.01 using the Particle Swarm Optimization and Monte Carlo methods... less than J = 0.1 using the Particle Swarm Optimization and Monte Carlo methods... less than J = 0.1 using the Particle Swarm Optimization and Monte Carlo methods... one-dimensional study of Particle Swarm Optimization. Conclusions of this research... optimized via a two-dimensional Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm in this... of a basic, two-dimensional Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm attempting to... individual particle in the swarm, with the swarm terminating its search when... the Search Space The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm requires the... evolutionary algorithm known as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and can be...-space is defined, the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is employed to... is indeed possible using Particle Swarm Optimization. Since the search space... demonstrated in this study. Particle Swarm Optimization was used to prune..., an evolutionary algorithm called Particle Swarm Optimization, was used in conjunction.... [34] M. Pontani and B. A. Conway, “Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to Space Trajectories...] M. Pontani, P. Gosh, and B. Conway, “Particle Swarm Optimization of Multiple-Burn Rendezvous..., Lagrange Point Orbits Using Particle Swarm Optimization,” AAS 13925, Hilton Head.... [64] J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Optimization,” Proceedings of IEEE International... on the Applications of Particle Swarm Optimization,” Journal of Artifical Evolution...] Y. Shi and R. Eberhart, “A Modified Particle Swarm Optimizer,” Proceedings of the IEEE...-Halo-Orbit Transfers, via Particle Swarm Optimization,” AAS 14-315, Santa...] A. J. Abraham, D. B. Spencer, and T. J. Hart, “Particle Swarm Optimization of 2-Maneuver, Impulsive Transfers...-thrust trajectory optimization, using Particle Swarm Optimization, and was awarded his...



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... program that allows participants in a swarm to exchange pieces with each... large files in an active swarm is typically faster than other... program that allows participants in a swarm to exchange pieces with each... large files in an active swarm is typically faster than other... a file using BitTorrent, a client joins a swarm of other peers and obtains... from other members of the swarm. The swarm relieves the peer that... majority of peers in a BitTorrent swarm would have an asynchronous connection... for the benefit of the swarm (Jun, 2005). As will be... CP back out to the swarm, which would violate the law... a “metainfo” file. Members of the swarm announce which pieces they have... the pieces distributed in the swarm (Layton & Watters, 2010). 3.2.2. Metainfo File... of the peers in the swarm and Section 3.2.3 discusses them in...). 3.2.3. Peers All participants in the swarm for a particular metainfo file are... point, peers frequently leave the swarm, although it is considered good... maximize the entropy of the swarm. Therefore, peers select pieces to... from other peers in the swarm. This policy is important since... maximizes the health of the swarm, it also works to the... tracker about participants in the swarm. After a successful handshake, the peers... to identify itself in the swarm. The bitfield is a data structure... peers currently participating in the swarm for a particular torrent, the peer... has abandoned the swarm. The size of the swarm can vary all.... This improvement is because the swarm has more participants—even though... file and then joining the swarm (Tamana, 2013). Kenneth G. Hartman, kgh... natural traffic patterns of the swarm (Cunche, 2014). 4. Investigating Digital Contraband... tracker about a leecher’s participation in a swarm is considered hearsay. However, if... a typical BitTorrent peer in the swarm. The goal is not to... files back out to the swarm (Liberatore et al., 2010a). It... of the peers in the swarm to create a list of suspects... time for large files in a swarm that has a small number of... all the peers in the swarm over time, this monitoring process... while participating in the BitTorrent swarm (Liberatore et al., 2010b). Tags... sense of reality regarding the swarm. In fact, it is easy... presents multiple identities to the swarm when performing a single source download... target peer’s perception of the swarm, preventing it from receiving all... of coordinated peers in the swarm as a percentage of the whole...-downloading-torrents Konrath, M. A. (2007). Attacking a Swarm with a Band of Liars: evaluating...



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...: Jean-Jacques Dordain ← On cover: Swarm is ESA’s first Earth observation... Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Russia. The three Swarm satellites will help us to... planets existed and only a vast swarm of asteroids and comets surrounded... satellites that make up ESA’s Swarm magnetic field mission seen in... to Earth on 11 November Swarm launched ← The ESRO HEOS-1 team...’s space environment. ESA’s three-satellite Swarm constellation was launched into a near... of its upper atmosphere. The Swarm satellites will give us unprecedented... it contributes to global change. ← Swarm liftoff European Space Agency | Bulletin... PROGRAMME CRYOSAT GOCE SMOS AEOLUS SWARM EARTHCARE BIOMASS SENTINEL-1 SENTINEL-2 SENTINEL... the November launch of ESA’s Swarm mission. IBIS/ISGRI and JEM... ground segment has been resumed. →→SWARM The satellites were transported to... nitride. The launch date of Swarm was 14 November (subsequently updated... the fairing of Vega The Swarm satellites waiting for propellant loading... days before launch, the three Swarm satellites sit just centimetres apart...-309 // 12 pp E-book online Swarm: ESA’s Magnetic Field Mission (September...



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... вопросе можно достичь при использовании SWARM-алгоритмов [40], построенных на методе... далее. Метод роя частиц (particle swarm optimization) – метод числовой оптимизации, использование... знаний точного градиента роевого интеллекта (swarm intelligence), описывающего коллективное поведение децентрализованной... метод роя частиц (PSO – Particle Swarm Optimization) непосредственно представляет связность и взаимообусловленность... с экрана. [40] Троянов А. М. Особенности использования SWARM технологий при планировании загрузки вычислительных... Russ.). [2] Andreeva E. Efficacy of bees swarm algorithm for solving the inverse....). [8] Natural algorithms. The algorithm behavior swarm of bees: [electronic resource] // Habrahabr....). [9] Karpenko A.P. Global optimization of particle swarm on graphics processors: [electronic resource... - 206 p. (in Russ.). [17] D. Martens swarm intelligence agents to work with...] Features of behavior swarm of bees: [electronic resource] // a swarm of bees. - Electron... screen. (in Russ.). [32] Reason swarm: [electronic resource] // Science and Life... communicate and what the insects swarm intelligence ?: [electronic resource] // Theory and... Russ.). [36] Solovyov E.V. Using particle swarm to form a composition multiversioning software.... (in Russ.). [40] Troyanov A.M. Features SWARM technology use in the planning...



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... as to evoke a specific emergent swarm behavior Predicting, Prognosticating, and Diagnosing... as to evoke a specific emergent swarm behavior TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Electronics The... for members of a micro-robotic swarm, and allowing those individuals the... actions are integrated over a large swarm of individuals, group behaviors emerge... overall swarm behavior is not centrally directed so the swarm is difficult... the emergent behavior of the swarm has the desired effect. The... so that the resulting collective swarm action achieves a specific effect. The... to express the selected overall swarm goal, how to partition the... to the problem should require a swarm of heterogeneous robots that do... the goal when executed by a swarm of heterogeneous robot agents. The... simulates the operation of the swarm in an appropriate simulated environment... objectives when executed by the swarm. The simulation should show that... of desired emergent behavior in swarm of microrobots. In ECAI (Vol...



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... address this lack of realistic swarm statistics by providing our measurement results revealing real live BitTorrent swarm characteristics. 1 Introduction Overlay traffic resulting.... We have measured the swarm size, swarm dynamics in terms of number... example that real-life BitTorrent swarm distributions are highly skewed (i.e., 90... of the swarm holds a large fraction of the whole swarm and the... of a swarm and the AS-fraction of a swarm (i.e., x-largest AS of a swarm – #peers in AS/#peers in swarm) follows... of forming a larger cluster within a swarm, and give a probabilistic approach how... downloading the file. For each swarm, a centralized component, the so-called... in each experiment the swarm size, the swarm dynamics, and the AS... in the swarm at a single time instant, i.e. a snapshot of the swarm. In... time dynamics of a swarm, several samples of the swarm size and the... a decimal number, while a snapshot of a swarm always returns an integer value... metho#torrents index criteria content swarm dology TV 96 samples website... 24 hours ing observed swarm size swarm size swarm size meas. date Jun... AS topology May 2009 swarm size swarm size swarm size AS topology Mar... X ∼ BIN O(n, q), when the tracker of a swarm of size N is requested n times... X ∼ BIN O(b, q), when the tracker of a swarm of size N is requested b times... observing the AS topology of a swarm. Figure 2 shows the cumulative distribution... where the results for specific swarm types contradict the accepted knowledge.... 0.4 0.3 Pop. 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 1 2 10 10 3 10 swarm size Figure 3: CDF of the... in a swarm. Each dot represents (#seeder,#leecher) of an individual swarm for... for the topological characteristics of a swarm, which also depend on the content shared. In general, the swarm size distribution is heterogeneous with.... The result is a fully meshed swarm. Consequently, accepted solutions using Biased... 0.73 0.65 4.2 Time-Dynamics within a Swarm While a snapshot of the number... that a swarm can be treated as static. The population of a swarm varies... [h] 60 70 80 Figure 5: Total swarm size of exemplary swarms (measurement.... While swarm D), which is 13 standard deviation si of swarm size measurement (mi, si) theoretical minimum 1 10 0 10 −1 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 average swarm... the size of swarm i vs. average size of swarm i for measurement experiment... peer population, the size of swarm C) exhibits a periodic behavior. We attribute... South America, and therefore the swarm population increases during the daytime... regions and decreases again afterwards. Swarm G), sharing a German movie, shows a similar... of the peer population of swarm B) is a superposition of a continually increasing... like for swarms C) and G). While swarm D) distributes content that seems not... seeder and leecher population of a swarm distributing a German version of OpenOffice... deviation si for a given average swarm size mi ∈ [a; a + 1[ is obtained when... locality-awareness much better than a swarm that is highly dispersed topologically...[ 0.04 [2000; ∞[ 0.01 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 0.5 increasing swarm size 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 1 2 10 10 average... size, cf. Table 3. 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 0.5 increasing swarm size 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 1 10 10 average number... data with. 17 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 CDF 0.6 increasing swarm size 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 −1 0 10 10 coefficient of... AS’s per swarm Figure 13: Number of AS’s per swarm (Mus.,Mov.). Another important characteristic of a swarm is the... of the swarm in single AS’s. For the largest swarm A, the most... swarm Figure 16: Relative number of peers in a swarm’s top AS (Reg.). Swarm.... 4.2 that the peer populaton within swarm D remains almost constant over time... swarm distributes content that seems not to be preferred regionally. However, swarm... largest AS of a swarm CDF 0.6 0.5 0.4 top AS of a swarm 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25... the suitability of the according swarm for locality promotion, something previously... mechanism under study – these relevant swarm characteristics have to be considered... to get a snapshot of the swarm. Application layer traffic optimization mechanisms... peers currently participating in the swarm. However, the problem remains that... for this observation regarding the swarm Ele. (1) The tracker always returns... the k-th largest AS in swarm i for k = 1, 2, · · · , n. Then, we compute the... number n of different AS’s in a swarm vs. the coefficient of determination... number n of different AS’s in a swarm vs. the coefficient of determination... traffic optimization mechanisms. Considering the swarm statistics according to the offered... topology of a swarm, i.e., the AS affiliations of peers within a swarm. However, also the observed number of different AS’s of a swarm increases significantly with the swarm size. As a result... number of different AS’s within a swarm follows a log-normal distribution. Further... significant fractions of the total swarm, applying locality awareness here may...



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... algorithm; binary space partitioning; BSP; swarm intelligence. Reference to this paper... benefits. In this paper, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm, namely history-driven... In standard firefly algorithm, the swarm consists of a population of the... algorithm In this section, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm, namely HdSFA is... future. HdSFA is a real-coded swarm intelligence algorithm. For a D-dimensional landscape... different populations – discoverer and tracker swarm – and also two different explicit..., change identification, discoverer and tracker swarm processing and also fine 6 B. Nasiri...() 5 call change_identification() 6 /*----discoverer swarm process begin------*/ 7 if discoverer swarm is active then...(Discoverer) 10 call Discoverer_Convergence_Checking() discoverer swarm is configured somehow to explore... and efficiently. Once the discoverer swarm converged to a local optima, the... tracker swarm, and the discoverer swarm should be re-initialised. The tracker swarm... first. Specie_identification() Algorithm 6 input: [tracker swarm sw, rexcl] 1 2 begin Calculate distance... if 4 12 /*------ discoverer swarm process end------*/ 5 13 /*------ tracker swarm process begin------*/ Create... one specie. 14 foreach active swarm si in tracker S do 6 Return... 17 call Specie_Freezing() 18 /*------ tracker swarm process end------*/ 19 call fine_Tuning...)old then 2 Initialise the discoverer swarm Sdiscoverer = [xi] 7 /*------ change happened ------*/ 3 for...-term memory. 4 Initialise the tracker swarm Stracker = [xi] 5 end 9 Reinitialise short... Activate the discoverer swarm. 12 foreach Firefly i in discoverer swarm F do 7 13... all the fireflies in tracker swarm by adding a random value to the GBestPosition of each swarm between [-Vlength*P, Vlength*P] 15 f(xi... firefly by inspiration from particle swarm optimisation. 1 foreach firefly I in SW 3 1 Algorithm 10 discovererConvergenceChecking() Input: [swarm sw] 1 7 end for end for... swarm process if this swarm is active in the environment. The discoverer swarm process includes three actions including swarm moving, exclusion and convergence checking. The swarm moving, as... the discoverer swarm to the tracker swarm 4 re-initialise the discoverer swarm 5 6 end end Based on Algorithm 10, the discoverer swarm is... swarm, the m best fireflies in it will move to the tracker swarm and the discoverer swarm will be re-initialised. After discoverer swarm process, the tracker swarm will begin by swarm moving, freezing and fine-tuning process. The swarm moving for the tracker swarm uses the same algorithm as discoverer swarm...() 1 2 begin foreach specie i in tracker swarm if (f(Gbesti)t–3–f(Gbesti)t) < rconv) or... number of fireflies in discoverer swarm is 10 and in the... each species in the tracker swarm. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm.... Blackwell, T. and Branke, J. (2004) ‘Multi-swarm optimization in dynamic environments’, Applications... swarms for dynamic optimization problems’, Swarm Intelligence, pp.193–217. Branke.... (2011) ‘Enhanced speciation in particle swarm optimization for multi-modal problems..., B. (2008) ‘Multi-strategy ensemble particle swarm optimization for dynamic optimization’, Information...) ‘A comprehensive review of firefly algorithms’, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation. Fister, I., Yang...) ‘A new particle swarm optimization algorithm for dynamic environments’, Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic..., A.B. and Meybodi, M.R. (2010b) ‘A hibernating multi-swarm optimization algorithm for dynamic environments..., C. and Yang, S. (2009) ‘A clustering particle swarm optimizer for dynamic optimization’, IEEE... Yang, M. (2014) ‘An adaptive multi-swarm optimizer for dynamic optimization problems..., X., Branke, J. and Blackwell, T. (2006) ‘Particle swarm with speciation and adaptation in..., L., Yang, S. and Wang, D. (2010) ‘Particle swarm optimization with composite particles in... the state of the art’, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 6, pp... particle swarm optimization algorithm for dynamic environments’, Advances in Swarm Intelligence, Vol... using firefly algorithm: performance study’, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 1, No..., S. and Li, C. (2010) ‘A clustering particle swarm optimizer for locating and tracking... al. (2012) ‘A new artificial fish swarm algorithm for dynamic optimization problems... a novel method based on particle swarm optimization’, International Journal of Artificial..., A. et al. (2013b) ‘A novel multi-swarm algorithm for optimization in dynamic environments based on particle swarm optimization’, Applied Soft Computing, Vol... dynamic environments with global changes’, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 18... dynamic environment based on particle swarm optimization’, Proceedings of the 16th...



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..., популяционными, многоагентными и алгоритмами роевого интеллекта (Swarm intelligence) [1]. Данные алгоритмы предполагают одновременную..., 1992), метод роя частиц (Particle Swarm Optimization, 1995), бактериальная оптимизация (Bacterial....055093. 11. Clerc M. The particle swarm – explosion, stability, and convergence in... with the simple constrained particle swarm optimizer / L. C. Cagnina, S. C. Esquivel, C. A. C. Coello // Informatica... Q. An effective co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization for constrained engineering design.... This metaheuristic algorithm applies to swarm intelligence algorithms, which are developing... used the technique of particle swarm optimization is proposed. The computational.... Keywords: bat algorithm, population algorithm, swarm intelligence, global optimization. REFERENCES 1. Karpenko.... 11. Clerc M., Kennedy J. The particle swarm – explosion, stability, and convergence in... with the simple constrained particle swarm optimizer, Informatica, 2008, Vol. 32... L. An effective co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization for constrained engineering design...



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... с экрана. [40] Троянов А. М. Особенности использования SWARM технологий при планировании загрузки вычислительных... E. Study of the effectiveness of a swarm of bees algorithms for solving... algorithm of behavior of bees swarm: [electronic resource] // Habrahabr. - Electron. data....Yu Global optimization of particle swarm on graphics processors: [electronic resource... Russ.). [17] Martens D., Basens B., Fausett T. Swarm agents intelligence to work with...] The behavior of bees swarm: [electronic resource]. a swarm of bees. - Electron. data... the screen. [32] Mind of swarm: [electronic resource]. Science and Life... with insects and what is swarm intelligence? [Electronic resource]. Theory and... .: 3 titles. [36] Soloviev E.V. Using particle swarm in formation of multiversion software... screen. [40] Troyanov A.M. Features of SWARM technology in planning download cores...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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.... 4. C. Li and S. Yang. A clustering particle swarm optimizer for dynamic optimization. Proceedings... 1.5 Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.6 Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.2 2 Particle Swarm Optimization 17 2.1 Global Optimization Algorithms... Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5 Self-learning Particle Swarm Optimizer 5.1 67 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6 Clustering Particle Swarm Optimizer 99 6.1 Difficulties for... operator at different iteration in a swarm of 10 particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5.5 Flow... xv List of Algorithms 2.1 Particle Swarm Optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2 Adaptive Mutation PSO... 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION Algorithm 2.1 Particle Swarm Optimizer 1: Generate the initial swarm by randomly... own experience. 22 CHAPTER 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION vi v ’i 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 gbest 1 0 0i 1 x pbest... swarm that can create a sub-swarm once a niche is identified. The main swarm..., a charged swarm is used for maintaining the diversity of the swarm, and...], a fast multi-swarm optimization (FMSO) 32 CHAPTER 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION algorithm was.... In FMSO, a parent swarm is used as a basic swarm to detect the... 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION Algorithm 2.2 Adaptive Mutation PSO 1: Generate the initial swarm by... component algorithms. 40 CHAPTER 2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION 2.8 Summary This chapter introduced... 87 CHAPTER 5. SELF-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 5.3 UpdateLearningOpt(particle k) 1: if.... 89 CHAPTER 5. SELF-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER 1 Learning probability (Pl) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10... 5.4. 91 CHAPTER 5. SELF-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 5.5 Repel(particle k) ⃗ 1: for... to a new swarm. In Figure 5.5, SLPSO starts with a main swarm s1 with... are split off from swarm s1 and form a new swarm s2. It should be noticed that a new swarm is created only from the youngest swarm, which is... swarm s2 at stage 93 CHAPTER 5. SELF-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER C2, swarm... its old swarm to the next young swarm or a new swarm. Together with...-LEARNING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 5.6 The SLPSO Algorithm 1: Generate initial swarm and... for initial swarm t:=0; 3: while f es < T Fes do 4: for each swarm S[q] do 5: for each particle k in swarm S[q] do 6: Select... the 104 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.2 Clustering(C, slst) 1: Create... two 105 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.3 FindNearestPair(G, r, s) 1: f ound := FALSE... formulated as: M(r, s) = min d(i, j) i∈r,j∈s (6.2) Given a cradle swarm C, the clustering method works as... peak. 107 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.4 LocalSearch(S, evals) 1: for.... (2.1) as 108 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.5 LearnGBest(particle i, gbest... for a sub-swarm, which starts from 0 when a sub-swarm is newly created...(s) = 1 ∑ d(i, scenter ), |s| i∈s 109 (6.4) CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm 6.6 CheckSubswarms(C, slst, clst... a sub-swarm is within the search radius of another sub-swarm, then... see whether a sub-swarm has converged. A sub-swarm convergence list clst is..., the converged sub-swarm is removed from the sub-swarm list: slst. The removal of converged sub-swarm and... the new sub-swarm list. 112 CHAPTER 6. CLUSTERING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZER Algorithm... the initial swarm and the maximum size of each sub-swarm on... M is the initial swarm size of the cradle swarm and N is the... size of the cradle swarm, only one sub-swarm may be obtained... each sub-swarm is also automatically calculated. When a sub-swarm is created... the sub-swarm or the overcrowded particles from the sub-swarm. Hence... [1] P. Angeline, “Evolutionary optimization versus particle swarm optimization: Philosophy and performance di... a standard for particle swarm optimization,” in IEEE Swarm Intel. Symp., 2007, pp...] S. Janson and M. Middendorf, “A hierachical particle swarm optimizer for dynamic optimization problems...] M. Lovbjerg, and T. Krink, “Extending particle swarm optimisers with selforganized criticality,” in.... [87] A. Passaro and A. Starita, “Particle swarm optimization for multimodal functions: A clustering..., W. B. Langdon and O. Holland, “Extending particle swarm optimization via genetic programming,” in..., and T. Blackwell, “Particle swarm optimization: An overview,” Swarm Intell., vol. 1, no. 1, 2007... H. C. Watson, “Self-organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration..., Singapore, 2005. [107] P. N. Suganthan, “Particle swarm optimizer with neighborhood operator,” in..., A. P. Engelbrecht,“A Cooperative approach to particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput...