Спутник ДЗЗ. Swarm C. [Редактировать]

22 ноября 2013 года в 16:02 по московскому времени (12:02 UTC) с космодрома «Плесецк» ракетой-носителем «Рокот» с разгонным блоком «Бриз-КМ» осуществлён запуск трёх европейских спутников Swarm A, Swarm B и SwarmC. Swarm – является очередным проектом Европейского космического агентства, предусматривающим создание серии спутников Earth Explorer, задача которых – изучение важнейших параметров Земли и их изменений под воздействием деятельности человека. Космические аппараты предназначены для измерения магнитных сигналов, исходящих из ядра, мантии, коры, океанов, ионосферы и магнитосферы Земли.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - Франция
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг468

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град87.4
2Апогей, км475.3
3Перигей, км470.5
4Период, минут93.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км6843

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2013-067C

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2013-11-22 at 12:02:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm B
3Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm A
4Полезная нагрузка 1xSwarm C
5Ракета-носитель 1xРокот

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Swarm C». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Radar Technique pages 241 252 Swarm-Based Satellite Constellation Control pages... Australian Space Science Conference, 2013 Swarm-Based Satellite Constellation Control John... of satellite swarm are presented. The potentials of applying swarm technologies to.... Keywords: Satellite Constellation, Bio-Inspired Swarm, Behaviour Rules. Introduction Many space... full capability. Self-Organising Swarms Swarm technology has its origin in... a Self-Organised (SO) system or swarm intelligent system. The terms ‘SO... that the individuals within the swarm system are neither able to..., i.e. there is no supervisor in a swarm system. Their actions are determined... which the spacecraft, modelled as a swarm of agents, follow three biological... much less exploration of how swarm technology Page 254 Proceedings from... two scenarios where a self organised swarm might yield benefit. Debris Avoidance... this scenario we looked at a swarm of spacecraft in the same... be the basis for a classic swarm readjustment based on a changed environment... the other vehicles in the swarm’s environment which led to them... of the weaknesses of using a swarm of satellites to carry out... not be uniform across the swarm as it depends on initial... fuel consumption area by utilising swarm technology. Proceedings from 13th Australian... the spacecraft swarm. Figure 2 (b): The initial position of the spacecraft swarm on 𝑦𝑦 − 𝑧𝑧 plane. Figure 2 shows a swarm of satellites viewed... Figure 3: Fuel cost map. The swarm algorithm allows the individual vehicles...-fuel-consumption positions. Figure 4(a): Initial swarm. Proceedings from 13th Australian Space... Conference, 2013 Page 257 Figure 4 (b): Swarm after 1000 orbits. Thus after... less fuel demanding locations. Applying Swarm Technology to Constellations of Spacecraft... are other ways in which swarm technology can be applied to... should be possible to produce a swarm rule set to maximise revenue... surface temperature, humidity and wind. A swarm-type approach would match sensor... directed. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] E. Bonabeau, et al., Swarm Intelligence- From Natural to Artificial... Distributed Motion Planning for Satellite Swarm," Journal of Guidance, Control, and... al., "Cooperative control of UAV swarm via information measures," International Journal...-Based Control Law for Spacecraft Swarm Operation," in 5th International Conference... Space Technology Into The Classroom Swarm-Based Satellite Constellation Control DSTO...



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... 13.  The Becharof swarm is the largest earthquake swarm since the Ugashik... Emmons Perryville Mageik Becharof Lake swarm Ukinrek Maars Chiginagak Veniaminof Pavlof... area June Earthquake swarm near site of 1998 swarm. Aniakchak January, July... magmatic intrusion SVA; anomalous seismic swarm; avalanche SVA, avalanche SVA, avalanche... SVA, large steam plume Earthquake swarm Re-suspended ash Martin/Mageik... SVA, intense seismic swarm and inflationary episode Earthquake swarm Chiginagak 1997 1998... on satellite image SVA, seismic swarm Increase in lower crustal seismicity... 2009 Strombolian eruption SVA, seismic swarm Major Phreatomagmatic eruption Bursts of... SVA, anomalous seismicity SVA, seismic swarm, tremor Kanaga 1993 1994 1995..., and December. A particularly notable earthquake swarm occurred on May 26 when... (9 mi), a location similar to the swarm associated with the eruption in... to the May 26 seismic swarm. Both flights reported continued vapor... fig. 1 for location of the swarm on the Alaska Peninsula. 28...). The largest event of the swarm was a magnitude 5.3 that occurred the... region of the 1998 Becharof swarm, deformation, and degassing event (Lu... of 2010. Unlike the 1998 swarm, there was no apparent surface... others, 1987). The 1998 seismic swarm began on May 8 and continued...). The initial event of the swarm sequence was a ML 5.2 earthquake felt... area within days of the swarm onset noted small scale slumps... 13.  The Becharof swarm is the largest earthquake swarm since the Ugashik... of earthquakes during the 2010 swarm that started on June 13... an approximate 15-minute long swarm. Another brief sequence of low... at Westdahl was a brief seismic swarm in January 2004 (Neal and.... Seismicity increased slightly with a small swarm on April 7 and again in... MINOR ASH PLUMES; NEARBY TECTONIC SWARM Ash clouds, thermal anomalies, ash... reached the Earth’s surface. seismic swarm  a flurry of closely spaced earthquakes...



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... on November 2, 2009 .............................................................................59 54.  Swarm of low-frequency earthquakes beneath... magmatic intrusion SVA; anomalous seismic swarm; avalanche SVA, avalanche SVA, avalanche... SVA, large steam plume Earthquake swarm Martin/Mageik/Trident 2005 SVA... Lake 1998 SVA, intense seismic swarm and inflationary episode Chiginagak 1997... on satellite image SVA, seismic swarm Akutan 1992 1996 1998 2003... 2009 Strombolian eruption SVA, seismic swarm 5 weeks of phreatomagmatic eruption from..., uplift, increased fumarolic activity Seismic swarm; continued fumarolic activity; inflation rate... SVA, anomalous seismicity SVA, seismic swarm, tremor Kanaga 1993 1994 1995... of March 29, a 1-hour-long swarm occurred that consisted of 37...). Then, on April 2, a 43-hour swarm of repeating earthquakes began that... in seismicity—a 5-day final tremor swarm— and gas emissions (Buurman and.... By December 29, the shallow swarm of earthquakes had decreased markedly... on June 3, 2009. Figure 54.  (A) Swarm of low-frequency earthquakes beneath... June 23–24, 2009, a small swarm of low-frequency earthquakes was... flank of a larger volcano. seismic swarm  a flurry of closely spaced earthquakes...



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... of the Czech Space Activities 2 Swarm satellites Credit: ESA 3 4 5 5 Prague`s ESA... Measurement Unit) process sensors. Satellites SWARM/TEASER, Microaccelerometer (launch in preparation... models for three satellites, the SWARM project being supported by ESA... HEAD, MONSTER and others… 5 1 Satellites SWARM/TEASER, Microaccelerometer 2 Cleanroom 100.000... 2017. • Flight Software for ESA’s SWARM Micro-Accelerometer MAC04 ESC has...‘s Magnetic field and environment Explorer SWARM. ESC has been responsible for... Czech Republic: VZLÚ a.s. The ESA SWARM mission will provide the best... its X-ray spectrometer/ telescope. The SWARM satellite development phase is in... software for one of the SWARM instruments, the Microaccelerometer MAC04. From... in the SWARM OBC testbed, SWARM electrical system engineer (EADS), SWARM SW system...-elastic response of spacecraft structure 4 Swarm spacecraft with microaccelerometer unit Credit... Objective Assembly for ASPIICS coronagraph. • SWARM (2005 -2013) - Project supported by... delivered for three satellites of SWARM mission. The key responsibility was...



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....41 (withdrawn) TERRAFORMING MOON USING A SWARM OF ROVERS Kartik Shah, University... 2016, 09:45 — Tlaquepaque A PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED INPUT VARIABLE SELECTION... SPECTRUM DETECTION BASED ON PARTICLE SWARM SVM Haiyue Li, State Key... CHALLENGES FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY SATELLITE SWARM INTERFEROMETRY (IRASSI) MISSION Meltem Eren..., United States INVERSE DYNAMICS PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION APPLIED TO CONSTRAINED MINIMUM... BY USING NANO COMPOSITES AND SWARM INTELLIGENCE ALGORITHM Davide Micheli, "Sapienza... BEAM POWERED SENSORS FOR SPACE SWARM NETWORKS Marek Novák, Czech Technical... Corporation, United States LAUNCHING THE SWARM: FROM LAUNCHER TO MOTHERSHIP Abe...-16.D2.IP.10 PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED PI CONTROLLER DESIGN...



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... within one year) significant seismic swarm (with felt events only), phreatic... at 0950 UTC and a seismovolcanic swarm started under it about 25... al., 1962]. Finally, an earthquake swarm occurred beneath Mt. Liamuiga in... 1843 earthquakes. [37] A volcanic seismic swarm with a great number of reported... activity (shorter length indicates seismic swarm, medium length indicates phreatic eruption... 29 October 1996. The latter swarm seams underlined a ≈1 km2 ESE‐WNW... AD 2000 Izu Islands earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity...



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... Summary....................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Background ................................................................................................................................................... 5 Swarm Robotics ........................................................................................................................................ 5 Swarm Intelligence.................................................................................................................................... 6 Swarm Advantages.................................................................................................................................... 7 Swarm Disadvantages ............................................................................................................................... 9 Swarm Topologies ................................................................................................................................... 10 Coverage Algorithms ............................................................................................................................... 11 Previous Hierarchical Swarm Attempts .................................................................................................. 12 Hierarchal Swarm... traditional swarm communications which often utilize the interconnected topology. A hierarchical swarm mimics... robots in the swarm. The combination of a working physical swarm, a working and... the HST. Specifically, the swarm Hierarchical Swarm Robotics Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2011... to be valid. Background Swarm Robotics Swarm robotics is the study of... results. Hierarchical Swarm Robotics Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2011 5 Swarm Intelligence Swarm intelligence is... to the particular model of swarm intelligence. Swarm intelligence in general has... moderator.’ Hierarchical Swarm Robotics Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2011 6 Swarm Advantages The advantages and disadvantages of using a robotic swarm versus... of a single swarm. Increasing the size of the swarm can also be...-tolerance. Implementing a swarm provides the possibility to make swarm members simpler. To... cost Hierarchical Swarm Robotics Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2011 8 Swarm Disadvantages While swarm systems... the cons of using swarm robotics: Hierarchical Swarm Robotics Worcester Polytechnic Institute... task is not parallelizable Swarm Topologies While swarm robotics is still a fairly... of the tests. Hierarchal Swarm Topology A hierarchal swarm topology works off the... structure of a hierarchal swarm topology splits the swarm into various levels, and... a robot in a normal swarm system. In a non-hierarchical swarm, every robot has... a new robot in the swarm. In a hierarchical swarm, the new robot's parent... simpler than regular swarm systems. Application Ideas Hierarchical swarm systems can be... of each level in the swarm. The swarm consists of three levels... the Hierarchical Swarm Robotics Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2011 46 swarm, or the... the various robots in the swarm. Hierarchical Swarm Robotics Worcester Polytechnic Institute... hierarchical swarm. This was successfully achieved by creating a three tiered swarm consisting.... This swarm was considerably different than other attempts at swarm mapping solutions... of a hierarchical swarm when compared to already existing swarm topologies, it did show that a hierarchical swarm can in... Topologies in Swarm Intelligence. 8. Chen, Hanning, et al. Hierarchical Swarm Model: A New...



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... for creating and interpreting swarm programs. The swarm structure provided by SDG... an entirely new swarm framework. Mike Hogye implemented the swarm framework in... modifications that would accommodate swarm development. Hence, the Swarm project was moved... the Swarm The Difficulties Associated with Swarm Programming A System to Facilitate Swarm Development Document Overview 1 3 6 7 CHAPTER 2: SYNTHESIZING A SWARM PROGRAM 8 1. An Overview of the Software System 2. Swarm Behaviors 8 9 CHAPTER 3: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 11 1. Object-Oriented Swarm Programming 2. The Swarm Framework 3. The Swarm Generator 11 12 13 CHAPTER 4: TESTING 21 1. Swarm Simulation... of an object • acceptable swarm program – a swarm program is acceptable if it... process used by the swarm generator to create a swarm program • information hiding... with the swarm generator • swarm – a collection of devices • swarm framework – the swarm code library... swarm application • swarm program – the computer code that runs on an individual swarm device • swarm programming – programming a collection of autonomous swarm devices • synthesizing... fundamental difference between swarm programming and traditional programming. Swarm programming requires a flexible... swarm environments and the random failure of swarm devices. This requirement makes swarm... associated with the swarm programming process. 1. PROGRAMMING THE SWARM In the last... rest of the swarm. The result is the swarm functioning as a single... of programming the swarm exist. 2. THE D IFFICULTIES ASSOCIATED WITH SWARM PROGRAMMING The... reasoning about swarm programs. The design aspect of a swarm program is complicated... description of a swarm’s behavior can we generate an acceptable swarm program? The... 2. Swarm Behavior: Disperse device d r s environment Begin Clustered swarm devices End Dispersed swarm devices... swarm programmer to implement a new swarm program to provide the new desired swarm behavior. Hence the problem: swarm... a software system that allows swarm developers to create swarm programs at a much... an acceptable swarm program from a high- level description of a swarm’s behavior o Specified... process by generating swarm programs from a set of highlevel swarm descriptions. This increases the efficiency of swarm programmers by... introduction to the swarm beha viors pertinent to synthesizing a swarm program. Chapter... 2: Synthesizing a Swarm Program CHAPTER 2: SYNTHESIZING A SWARM PROGRAM The principles for synthesizing a swarm program... of fusing multiple swarm behaviors into a single new swarm behavior, and from... interface for swarm programmers, allowing them to create new swarm programs by simply selecting a set of swarm behaviors from... by the Swarm Program Synthesizer to generate an acceptable swarm program for... as a new swarm program for each device. 2. SWARM B EHAVIORS A swarm behavior is a description... of the swarm. Let us consider some of the swarm behaviors as.... The converge swarm behavior does just that; it enables swarm devices to... an acceptable swarm program. 1. OBJECT-O RIENTED SWARM PROGRAMMING In swarm programming, a swarm is viewed....santafe.edu/projects/swarm/ swarmfest99-tutorial/ 2. THE SWARM FRAMEWORK The Swarm Programming Project... from the swarm program and shows the interactions of swarm devices with... acceptable swarm program from a high- level description of swarm behaviors. Specifying swarm behaviors... system, or swarm generator, accepts any number of swarm behaviors as input... a new swarm program for each swarm device as output. The swarm generator is... file of the swarm generator project. In this file, a swarm generator object... logical order. The Swarm Generator Class The swarm generator object in main... synthesizing an acceptable swarm program from high- level swarm behaviors. This chapter... some interpretation of the swarm program. The swarm program’s acceptability is interpreted... for visually interpreting a swarm program. The interpretation of a swarm program is based... description of a swarm’s behavior can we generate an acceptable swarm program? The... an acceptable swarm program from a set of high- level swarm behaviors is possible. The system, or swarm generator, produced...-Hill [21] The Swarm Development Group “The Swarm Development Group.” Retrieved December... ht tp://www.swarm.org 27 APPENDIX A: THE SWARM GENERATOR CLASS FILES... -- Template for swarm .cpp file */ /* HeaderConstruct.txt -- Template for swarm .h file */ /* LowPowerNewBehavior... -- Template for swarm .cpp file */ /* HeaderConstruct.txt -- Template for swarm .h file */ /* LowPowerNewBehavior... the Swarm Generator class to build a swarm */ /* program from three seperate swarm entity...



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Winfield, A. F. and Nembrini, J. (2012) Emergent swarm morphology control of wireless networked...-order connectivity information to maintain swarm coherence. For the second-order... illuminated and occluded robots, the swarm displays emergent global taxis towards... vertical axial configurations. This emergent swarm morphology control is remarkable because... range of future applications in swarm robotics. 1 Introduction This chapter investigates... a dynamically connected stable swarm, which we call a “coherent” swarm. Working primarily in... in an unbounded environment, i.e., the swarm forms a single connected communication network... approach to allow emergent swarm morphology control. Swarm robotics is the study... upon the principles of swarm intelligence [9]. In swarm robotics a number of relatively... a swarm of physically but flexibly connected robots that demonstrate emergent swarm taxis... differentiation between robots within the swarm, Section 5 investigates the potential of... any unintended synchronicity. 3 Swarm Coherence The goal of swarm coherence is to... of a wireless connected swarm as follows: The swarm is considered to be... 1 Default parameter values for swarm coherence. swarm size cadence random noise α or... in connectivity between a swarm of 20 robots and a swarm of 60. Note.... (a) Increasing α under swarm sizes n = 20 (‘*’) and n = 60 (‘+’). (b) Increasing swarm size under α = 6. These... D share Robot B as neighbour. Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of Wireless Networked...-connectivity under (a) increasing swarm size, (b) n = 7 and 20. Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of... to note that swarm spreading is much faster than swarm aggregation: when... covered between β = 1 and β = 20. Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of Wireless Networked... covered by the swarm is plotted against β for different swarm sizes, we... of any swarm size. (a) (b) Fig. 13 Area coverage against β and swarm size (a) absolute area (b) normalised area. The swarm area divided... qualitative behaviour seen in Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of Wireless Networked... robots disconnecting themselves from the swarm (typically after 2 minutes). The number.... 16 Area coverage with (a) increasing swarm size (β = 2), (b) increasing β (n = 7). When parameter β is... Real-robot experiments with β = 2 and β = 6. 4 Swarm Taxis This section extends the... initial position of the swarm. We now have a swarm that senses the... this progression without obstacles, increasing swarm sizes and change in β parameter... the non-illuminated robots, Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of Wireless Networked... or larger swarm sizes is counterbalanced by confidence that the swarm will... A broken swarm of 60 robots. swarm as the attraction draws the swarm 20... a disconnected swarm of 60 robots experiencing this problem. Emergent Swarm Morphology Control... behind an occluding obstacle, the swarm actually functions as a distributed sensing... noise increases. As already suggested, swarm taxis results from differentiation between... the swarm according to an external incentive, which provides the swarm with... applications. enclosure of the beacon. 5 Swarm Shape This section investigates the... introducing predefined heterogeneities into the swarm, leading to both concentric and... such a 2-group concentric segregation. Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of Wireless Networked... swarm size. (a) (b) Fig. 25 3-group concentric segregation with (a) n = 20, and (b) different swarm... heterogeneities in β values across the swarm are sufficient to concentrically segregate... segregation with (a) n = 60, and (b) different swarm sizes n. Thus with a simple algorithm... a positive velocity ratio (in Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of Wireless Networked... become illuminated. The result is a swarm growing in both directions perpendicular... axis formation, with intermediate stages. Swarm size and β threshold variation First...-organisation of the swarm takes more time with increasing swarm sizes, especially... coherence of a wireless connected robot swarm based only upon rangelimited communication... to component failure. The Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of Wireless Networked... the additional emergent properties of swarm avoidance of beacon-occluding obstacles... biologically plausible solutions, the emergent swarm taxis is highly suggestive of... within the swarm to allow control of the overall swarm morphology. With... investigated differential β values to control swarm morphology. These results strongly suggest... approach to develop a promising Emergent Swarm Morphology Control of Wireless Networked... (2010) 9. Bonabeau, E., Dorigo, M., Th´ eraulaz, G.: Swarm Intelligence - From Natural to Artificial... application. In: E. S ¸ ahin, W. Spears (eds.) Swarm Robotics Workshop: State-of-the..., S., Ampatzis, C.: The SWARM-BOTS project. In: E. S ¸ ahin, W. Spears (eds.) Swarm Robotics Workshop... discipline of swarm engineering. In: E. S ¸ ahin, W. Spears (eds.) Swarm Robotics Workshop: State..., A.: Modelling a wireless connected swarm of mobile robots. Swarm Intelligence 2(2-4), 241–266 (2008...



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... distributed algorithms for intra-swarm and inter-swarm bandwidth allocation under a utility... Swarm 1 S 23 Swarm 2 Resource Flow Data Flow Fig. 1. S 22 Source Receiver Cross-swarm Sharing between Two Conferencing Swarms. conference form a conferencing swarm and...-poor swarm. Figure 1 illustrates an example of the cross-swarm bandwidth sharing... Conferencing Swarm Here we introduce the distribution structures within a conferencing swarm to... users in conferencing swarm i set of nodes in swarm i, Ni = Vi H set... source s in swarm i number of receivers for source in swarm i the multicast... swarm i to helpers helper h contributes to swarm i aggregate utility of users in swarm... maximal multicast rates in swarm i. Theorem 1: In conferencing swarm i with helper contributions... node in each swarm can be promoted as the swarm coordinator to... fast. 2) Inter-swarm Helper Bandwidth Allocation: After sources in a swarm have conducted... utility of the swarm converges and the swarm enters an equilibrium state... the marginal utility of swarm to helpers. Definition A swarm is called choked... in the swarm reach the maximal multicast rates. For instance, swarm i is... by swarm j with swarm i. From the perspective of swarm i, the nodes in swarm j those... learn that if swarm i shares its own resources with swarm j, it can... efficiency factor ρj of swarm j. The marginal utility gain of swarm j is µj . However, at the same time, swarm i suffers utility... by shifting the resources from swarm i to swarm j, the following criteria should... the resource relay. Swarm i receives δ amount of resources from swarm j and provides the same amount of resources to swarm k simultaneously. Because only ρi δ amount of resources from swarm j effectively increase the rates of sources in swarm i, the... with that swarm j directly provides δ amount of resources to swarm k. Thus, resource... µ(0) µ(0) µ(z ∗ ) 1 Fig. 4. µˆ µ(z ∗ ) 2 3 4 swarm id 1 2 3 4 swarm id Marginal utility of swarm in equilibrium. no swarm becomes... except that of swarm 2. While in cooperative conferencing system, swarm 2 could further.... In the Figure, swarm 2 spares resources to help swarm 1 and µ2 increases. The... fraction of resources of swarm j sharing with swarm i, it does not initiate... helping other swarms. Otherwise, swarm i should choose a swarm of type NC-R as... resources from swarm i. In case this set is empty, swarm i chooses one.... Suppose swarm i intends to provide Bji amount of resources to swarm j. If swarm... swarm j, swarm i helps them with resources equivalent to those taken back by swarm j. Similarly, during the helper bandwidth allocation procedure, if a swarm with... this setting, swarm 3 has abundant resources that the sources of swarm 3 can... Inner Swarm Adaptation Aggregate Utility of Swarm 1 2 3 4 100 5 Normalized Source Multicast Rate Swarm Swarm Swarm Swarm... BANDWIDTH S ETTING Swarm 1 Swarm 2 Swarm 3 0.1 20 Pair-wise Adaption in a single swarm. weights of... 20 steps. Swarm 3 still has no helper bandwidth input. After swarm 4 joins the system, part of the bandwidth fraction allocated to 6.5 0.6 6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 Swarm 1 Swarm 2 Swarm 3 Swarm... beginning and swarm 4 joins the system in the middle. 0.4 2 ∆=µ3(1/ρ3−1) 0.2 2.5 2 1.5 0 µ3 Swarm 1 Swarm 2 Swarm 3 50 100 Adjustment Times of Swarms 150 (a) Marginal utility of swarm... of System µ1, µ2 ψ3 Marginal Utility of Swarm 4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 Swarm 1 Swarm 2 Swarm 3 0.1 0 0 50 100 Adjustment Times of... joining of swarm 4 and converge to a new level finally. Swarm 3 is choked... swarm 2 until µ3 /ρ3 = µ2 , as shown in Figure 8(a). Swarm 3 only shares its resources with swarm... the bandwidth fraction from swarm 3 spent on swarm 2, i.e., ψ23 . The system utility... bandwidth in swarm 2, each time when swarm 3 shifts some resources to swarm 2, the... resources previously spent in swarm 2 back to swarm 1. Figure 8(c) presents the adaptation... the equilibrium with swarm 3 sharing resources with swarm 4. After the swarm departure happens... to swarm 1 is shifted to swarm 2 and swarm 4. The marginal utility of swarm 3, µ3 , is... from helpers, swarm 3 takes its resources back Marginal Utility of Swarm 12 4 µ1 3.5 µ2, µ4 3 2.5 µ 3 0 50 100 150 Time (a) Marginal utility of swarm Bandwidth... in independent swarm sharing scenario. Figure 10(a) shows Fig. 9. Swarm churn in... from swarm 4 gradually. Accordingly, helpers increase their bandwidth expenditure on swarm 4. That.... Each swarm has around 2 sources and 4 other participating users. Specifically, swarm 3 has abundant resources that the sources of swarm 3 can... of Helper Bandwidth A. Simulation Setting 0.8 0.6 Swarm 1 Swarm 2 Swarm 3 0.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 Time (s) 40.... Fraction of Helper Bandwidth R EFERENCES 0.8 0.7 0.6 Swarm 1 Swarm 2 Swarm 3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 20 Time (s) 30 40...