Спутник ФКИ. UARS. [Редактировать]

UARS – исследовательский спутник для подробного и систематического изучения стратосферы, мезосферы, и нижних слоев атмосферы Земли.
Для выведения спутника в космическое пространство был использован МТКК "шаттл" Discovery во время миссии STS- 48. Спутник был отправлен в самостоятельный полет на третий день полета шаттла 15 сентября 1991 г. Спутник был извлечен из грузового отсека Discovery и вытолкнут в ОКП с помощью манипулятора. Спутник был рассчитан на 3 года эксплуатации, однако окончил работу после 14 лет эксплуатации в 2005 году. После того, как в 2005 году NASA отказалось от дальнейшей эксплуатации спутника, предлагалось увезти спутник с орбиты на шаттле, но этого не было сделано.

15 декабря 2005 года спутник был переведен на более низкую орбиту и перешел в «спящий» режим.

24.09.2011 спутник вошел в плотные слои атмосферы и прекратил баллистическое существование. Согласно оценкам NASA, спутник не должен был сгореть в атмосфере целиком: около 26 фрагментов аппарата общей массой чуть более 500 килограммов должны были достигнуть Земли, самым крупным обломком должна была стать часть каркаса аппарата массой около 150 килограммов. Средства слежения за космическим пространством США, России и Европы сопровождали спутник на последнем этапе его полета.

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2Размер, метра9.7 х 4.6 х 4.6

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... SOLSTICE and SUSIM aboard the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft... was used, for instance, for UARS/SUSIM and SORCE/SIM (Brueckner... stars, as is done for UARS/SOLSTICE and SORCE/SOLSTICE (McClintock... from SCIAMACHY, SORCE/SIM, and UARS/SUSIM (Pagaran et al., 2009.../SOLSTICE is a second generation of UARS/SOLSTICE (Rottman et al., 1993...–420 nm) in the original UARS/SOLSTICE and to extend wavelength... the variability observed by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM over the cycle... times more variability than the UARS/SOLSTICE measurements and most model...., 2004), which are composites using UARS/SUSIM and UAR/SOLSTICE data... in the UV (e.g. by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM) is significantly better... spectral irradiances are derived from UARS/SOLSTICE observations through a multiple regression... long-term stability of the UARS spectral instruments (both SOLSTICE and... NRLSSI is effectively a composite of UARS/SOLSTICE observations (below 400 nm... of 1365.5 W m−2 . The employment of UARS/SOLSTICE data up to 400... 270 nm are rescaled using UARS/SUSIM observations (Krivova et al... (Ball et al., 2011, 2012), UARS/SUSIM spectral irradiance (Krivova et...), as well as with UARS/SUSIM and UARS/SOLSTICE Ly-α measurements (see... or fair agreement with earlier UARS UV observations, TSI measurements and... to the low response of UARS/SOLSTICE to variability above 220... with earlier observations (e.g. by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM) and with SSI... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10695–10711..., L. E., Rottman, G. J., and Pap, J. M.: Status of UARS solar UV irradiance data, Adv... solar UV irradiance measurements from UARS, in: Solar Variability as an..., C. K., and Reiser, P. A.: Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with... 1947 through 1999 based on UARS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 27195... PREMOS Start | NIMBUS SMM ERBS UARS SOHO ACRIM-sat SORCE PICARD..., fromonly left tothe period 2002), UARS/SUSIM only relative WR-2002... in UV; Woods Rottman, 2002), UARS/SUSIM (green, only 2012). The... GOME EURECA Discussion Paper OSO 3,4,6 UARS SME LYRA SEE Fig. 3. Overview... [W/m2/nm] NOAA−11/SBUV2 UARS/SOLSTICE Discussion Paper NOAA−9/SBUV2... Paper SORCE/SOLSTICE Discussion Paper UARS/SUSIM Close Full Screen / Esc... flux [W/m2] NRLSSI SATIRE-S UARS/SUSIM UARS/SOLSTICE SORCE/SOLSTICE SORCE/SIM... 2005 2007 2009 NRLSSI SATIRE-S UARS/SUSIM SORCE/SOLSTICE 1.04 SORCE... COSI (magenta), and measured with UARS/SUSIM SATIRE-S (blue) and COSI...), and measured with UARS/SUSIM (darker (darkergreen), green), UARS/SOLSTICE(light (lightgreen...),SORCE/SOLSTICE SORCE/SOLSTICE (orange) UARS/SOLSTICE (orange) and and SORCE... when the sensitivity of the UARS/SUSIM green shading in the... when the sensitivity of the UARS/SUSIM instrument (and thus the...



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... UV; Woods and Rottman, 2002), UARS/SUSIM (green, only in UV... Spectral Irradiance Monitor) aboard the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft... ISS AE-C, AE-D, AE-E OSO 3,4,6 UARS SME LYRA SEE Fig. 3. Overview... was used, for instance, for UARS/SUSIM and SORCE/SIM (Brueckner... selected stars, as done for UARS/SOLSTICE and SORCE/SOLSTICE (McClintock... from SCIAMACHY, SORCE/SIM, and UARS/SUSIM (Pagaran et al., 2009.../SOLSTICE is a second generation of UARS/SOLSTICE (Rottman et al., 1993...–420 nm) in the original UARS/SOLSTICE and to extend wavelength... the variability observed by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM over solar cycle...., 2004), which are composites using UARS/SUSIM and UAR/SOLSTICE data...] NOAA−9/SBUV2 NOAA−11/SBUV2 UARS/SOLSTICE modulation amplitude 2 [W/nm/m ] 2 −6 1985... SORCE/SOLSTICE SORCE/SIM 10 +π/2 UARS/SUSIM SORCE/SOLSTICE −4 10 0 −π/2 100....dev. (W m−2 ) Reference Nimbus SMM ERBS UARS SOHO ACRIM-sat SORCE PICARD... spectral irradiances are derived from UARS/SOLSTICE observations through a multiple regression... long-term stability of the UARS spectral instruments (both SOLSTICE and... NRLSSI is effectively a composite of UARS/SOLSTICE observations (below 400 nm... and climate NRLSSI SATIRE-S UARS/SUSIM UARS/SOLSTICE SORCE/SOLSTICE SORCE/SIM... 1.06 2007 2009 NRLSSI SATIRE-S UARS/SUSIM SORCE/SOLSTICE 1.04 SORCE... (magenta), and measured with UARS/SUSIM (darker green), UARS/SOLSTICE (light green... when the sensitivity of the UARS/SUSIM instrument (and thus the... nm are re-scaled using UARS/SUSIM observations (Krivova et al... (Ball et al., 2011, 2012), UARS/SUSIM spectral irradiance (Krivova et...), as well as with UARS/SUSIM and UARS/SOLSTICE Ly-α measurements (Figs... or fair agreement with earlier UARS UV observations, TSI measurements, and... of the low response of UARS/SOLSTICE to long-term variability... and TSI observations (e.g. by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM) and with SSI... v12, TIMED/SEE v10, UARS/SOLSTICE v18, UARS/SUSIM v22, SBUV, and... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10695, doi..., L. E., Rottman, G. J., and Pap, J. M.: Status of UARS solar UV irradiance data, Adv... solar UV irradiance measurements from UARS, in: Solar Variability as an..., C. K., and Reiser, P. A.: Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with... 1947 through 1999 based on UARS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 27195...



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... Landsat 6 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) NASA Upper atmosphere chemistry, winds... since program approval by Congress. UARS, on the other hand, was... w ReXom ~t~but~ t. UARS cost ~fio~nce SUCCIXS include: The UARS project had.... Scientists and engineers in the UARS project were well aware of... exceptions were allowed by UARS management. The UARS project was also able... Earth science satellites, such as UARS, the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon,4 Landsat.... The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), which has already provided measurements... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS —figure 5-3), supplemented by planned Shuttle... to acquire equivalent data after UARS fails .11 However, continued satellite.... The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), which has already provided measurements... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS, the first of the EOS... its development began in 1985, UARS is viewed as the first... Mission to Planet Earth. The UARS platform carries 10 instruments in... earth, ocean and atmosphere, Although UARS may function for over nine... Other instruments carried on the UARS include an improved Stratospheric and... deployed on the Nimbus and UARS satellites, It will be used... ozone depletion as data from UARS, a precursor satellite to EOS, was... 1989, pp. 22-32. 10 UARS is not a long-term monitoring... no planned follow-on to UARS. Although some of its instruments... on UARS, a satellite whose useful Iifeis expsctedto end In 1994. UARS might... TM TOMS TOGA TOPEX TUSK UARS UAVS UNEP UNESCO —Short Wave..., 105 Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer, 106 UARS. See Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...



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... MF radars and by HRDI/UARS, B. Khattatov, M. Geller, V. Yudin, P. Hays, W. Skinner.... Climatological mean wind observations from UARS HRDI and WINDII: Comparison with... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS (M.D. Burrage, D.A. Gell, P.B. Hays, A.R. Marshall, D.A. Ortland... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS, D.L. Wu, P.B. Hays, W.R. Skinner, A.R. Marshall, M.D. Burrage... stratospheric winds from HRDI on UARS (M.D. Burrage, D.A. Ortland, W.R. Skinner, and P.B. Hays... Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS (M.D. Burrage, W.R. Skinner, D.A. Gell, P.B. Hays, A.R. Marshall... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS (M.D. Burrage, W.R. Skinner, A.R. Marshall, P.B. Hays, R.S. Lieberman... the HRDI on Board the UARS (A. Bucholtz, V. J. Abreu, P. B. Hays, W.R. Skinner, and... by the HRDI on the UARS Satellite (K. M. Chick, V. J. Abreu, P. B. Hays, W.R. Skinner... of the HRDI Onboard the UARS (A. Bucholtz, V.J. Abreu, J.H. Yee, W.R. Skinner, and... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS (P.B. Hays, V.J. Abreu, D.A. Ortland, J.-H. Yee, and... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) (P.B. Hays, H.J. Grassl, W.R. Skinner, V.J. Abreu, J.-H. Yee... Stratospheric Winds by HRDI on UARS (V.J. Abreu, P.B. Hays, D.A. Ortland, M.D. Burrage, D.A. Gell... by the HRDI Instrument on UARS (D. Ortland, P.B. Hays, A.R. Marshall, J.-H. Yee, M.D. Burrage... and Temperature by HRDI on UARS (J.-H. Yee, P.B. Hays, V.J. Abreu, W.R. Skinner, D.A. Ortland... by the HRDI Instrument on UARS (V.J. Abreu, P.B. Hays, W.R. Skinner, D. Ortland, J.-H. Yee... by the HRDI Instrument on UARS (J.-H. Yee, P.B. Hays, V.J. Abreu, W.R. Skinner, D. Ortland... by the HRDI Instrument on UARS (W.R. Skinner, V.J. Abreu, P.B. Hays, D. Ortland and.... Observation of Mesospheric Winds from UARS (W.R. Skinner, P.B. Hays and the HRDI... by the HRDI instrument on UARS (W.R. Skinner, M.D. Burrage, P.B. Hays, G.A. Gell, A.R. Marshall... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS (D.L. Wu, P.B. Hays, W.R. Skinner, A.R. Marshall, R.S. Lieberman... temperatures measured by HRDI on UARS (F. He, P.B. Hays, W.R. Skinner and J.H. Yee... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS (W.R. Skinner, P.B. Hays, M.D. Burrage, R.S. Lieberman, D.L. Wu... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS (M.D. Burrage, W.R. Skinner, A.R. Marshall, P.B. Hays, R.S. Lieberman.... Mesospheric nightglow: Observations by HRDI/UARS and model comparison (J.H. Yee, G. Crowley... O3 density profiles from HRDI/UARS measurements (J.H. Yee, B. DeMajistre, A. Marshall, W.R. Skinner... and ozone measured by HRDI/UARS (J.H. Yee, D. Anderson, B. DeMajistre, P.K. Swaminathan, A. Marshall... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS (W.R. Skinner, P.B. Hays, M.D. Burrage, R.S. Lieberman, D.L. Wu... wind observed by HRDI on UARS (Hasebe, F., M. Geller, Y. Chi, B. Khattatov, P. Hays... Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS (Burrage, M.D., D.A. Gell, P.B. Hays, A.R. Marshall, D.A. Ortland... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) (Yee, J.-H., B. Demajestri, W.R. Skinner, P.B. Hays, A.R. Marshall... (M.D. Burrage, M.E. Hagan, W.R. Skinner, and P.B. Hays), UARS Science Team Meeting, March 1995..., D.R. Marsh, P.B. Hays, A.R. Marshall, and D.A. Ortland), UARS Science Team Meeting, March 1995... High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS (P.B. Hays, M.D. Burrage, W.R. Skinner, D.A. Ortland, A.R. Marshall.... Mesospheric ozone retrieved by HRDI/UARS (J.H. Yee, G. Crowley, W.R. Skinner, P.B. Hays, A.R. Marshall... January 1993 (S.E. Palo, R.G. Roble, M.E. Hagan, UARS HRDI team), 1995 Spring AGU... and lower thermosphere observed by UARS (M.D. Burrage, W.R. Skinner, and P.B. Hays), IUGG..., F. Schmidlin, W. Skinner, A. Marshall, and P. Hays), UARS Dynamics Working Group, Toronto, Oct... winds (D. Ortland, W. Skinner, and P.B. Hays), UARS Dynamics Working Group, Toronto, Oct... (D. Ortland, W. Skinner, R. Lieberman, and P. Hays), UARS Dynamics Working Group, Toronto, Oct..., M. Burrage, P. Hays, A. Marshall, and D. Ortland), UARS Dynamics Working Group, Toronto, Oct..., R. Vincent, H. Mayr, W. Skinner, and P. Hays), UARS Dynamics Working Group, Toronto, Oct... mesospheric ozone observed by HRDI/UARS (W.R. Skinner, D.R. Marsh, D.A. Ortland, P.B. Hays, M.D. Burrage... mesospheric potassium layer by HRDI/UARS (G.G. Fletcher, W.R. Skinner, P.B. Hays, and J.-H. Yee... and background atmosphere: A view from UARS data (D.L. Wu, M.D. Burrage, E.F. Fishbein, P.B. Hays... (W.R. Skinner, M.D. Burrage, P.B. Hays, and J.-H. Yee), UARS Science Team Meeting, Hampton, VA..., D.F. Strobel, G. Crowley, P.K. Swaminathan, and R.G. Roble), UARS Science Team Meeting, Hampton, VA... (P.B. Hays, J.F. Kafkalidis, W.R. Skinner, and R.G. Roble), UARS Science Team Meeting, San Antonio... (M.D. Burrage, D.A. Ortland, W.R. Skinner, and P.B. Hays), UARS Science Team Meeting, San Antonio... km as observed by HRDI/UARS (J.-H. Yee, W.R. Skinner, P.B. Hays, X. Zhu, D.F. Strobel... (D.R. Marsh, W.R. Skinner, V. Yudin, and R.G. Roble), UARS Science Team Meeting, Pasadena, CA... HRDI (W.R. Skinner, D.R. Marsh, and A.R. Marshall), UARS Science Team Meeting, Pasadena, CA... mesopause region determined by HRDI/UARS (B. Swartz, J.-H. Yee, X. Zhu, W.R. Skinner, and...



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Спутник UARS: последние дни жизни Слон или ...» событием – неработающий американский исследовательский спутник “UARS” (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite – Исследовательский... электроэнергии для “UARS” являются его панели солнечных батарей. Рис. 1. Спутник “UARS” [1]. Падение... «Мир» в 2001 году… Не был “UARS” и самым крупным спутником, который неконтролируемо... комичность истерии по поводу падения “UARS” вносит то, что спутник был... ИСЗ “UARS”. Он был старательным рабочим Правильнее всё же назвать “UARS” не..., а в частности озонового слоя. 15 Сентября “UARS” был выведен на рабочую орбиту.... В связи с поднявшейся шумихой вокруг падения “UARS” администрация NASA выпустила специальный буклет... NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)” [6], в котором приводится оценка рисков от... характеристиках. На Рис. 2 показана фотография “UARS”, опубликованная NASA, при его выведения... с учётом того, наклонение орбиты “UARS” порядка 60°, и фрагменты могут выпасть...» в южном. Рис. 2. Основные блоки ИСЗ “UARS”. Красным отмечены элементы, которые могут...ём теперь к рассмотрению эволюции орбиты ИСЗ “UARS” за последние два года. Корабль... ИСЗ использовались орбитальные элементы спутника “UARS” их личного архива автора, которые... Рис. 3 показано изменение периода обращения “UARS” с 4 сентября 2009 г. по 24 сентября... смерти», которая постепенно уменьшалась, заставляя “UARS” обращаться всё быстрее и быстрее. Темп... название Рис. 3. Изменение периода обращения “UARS” с 4 сентября 2009 г. по 24 сентября... г. Рис. 4. Темп уменьшение периода обращения “UARS” с 4 сентября 2009 г. по 24 сентября... нём показано изменение высоты перигея и апогея “UARS” в последние 50 дней его существования.... Рис. 7. Изменение высоты перигея и апогея “UARS” в последние 50 дней его существования.... Дополнительным подтверждением постепенного «округления» орбиты “UARS” может служить график изменения эксцентриситета... Рис. 9 – график изменения эксцентриситета орбиты “UARS” за последние два года. Рис... эксцентриситета “e” [14]. Как видно, орбита “UARS” была почти круговой уже два.... Рис. 9. график изменения эксцентриситета орбиты “UARS” за последние два года. На... до расчётной даты сгорания “UARS” в атмосфере Земли стали появляться прогнозы... показана раскадровка видеоролика со спутником “UARS”, снятый Тьери Легаулем (Therry Legault... видеоролик. Рис. 10. Вращение спутника “UARS” за 9 дней до падения [17]. Как видно из видео, “UARS” вращался с периодом порядка 20-25... и критической период обращения “UARS” вокруг Земли Ткр. Для “UARS” средняя площадь поперечного....space-track.org, средняя высота “UARS” составляла 139,4 км, а период обращения... F10.7 в последние 50 дней существования “UARS” по данным ИЗМИРАН [19]. Рис... даты падения “UARS”. В Таблице 2 ниже указаны прогнозируемые даты схода “UARS” с орбиты, рассчитанные...” указывала на реальную дату падения “UARS”. На Рис. 13 показана хронология изменения предсказываемой даты падения “UARS”, составленная канадским наблюдателем спутников Тэдом... в полпятого утра по Всемирному времени “UARS” должен был упасть. Рис. 13. Изменение прогнозируемой даты сгорания “UARS” от различных источников [22]. Оценить... попробуем оценить «время жизни» спутника “UARS”. Продолжительность жизни τ спутника на орбите... обращения на “dT” [16]. Для “UARS” значение “dT/dt” для выбранной... H ≈ 40 км для средней высоты “UARS” над поверхностью Земли 270 км... 2011 г. Получается, что дата падения “UARS” по нашей грубой оценке – 2 октября... видно, что при наклонении орбиты “UARS” i ≈ 57° коэффициент κ ≈ 0,94. Подставим в (4) выражение... высоты “h” нужно использовать «среднюю» высоту ”UARS” над поверхностью Земли, которая равна...” от OpenOffice. В частности, для спутника “UARS” на 9 сентября 2011 г. получаем: H= 266700... для нескольких значений средней высоты “UARS” – получим набор точек, изображённых... процедуру оценки времени жизни τ для “UARS” на орбите, используя полученное нами..., что τ = 16 дней с 9 сентября 2011 г., т.е. “UARS” должен упасть 25 сентября по... высот H от средней высоты спутника “UARS” над поверхностью Земли. Что бы... атмосферы на разных высотах – хоть “UARS” давно не функционирует, но он...ённость в значении средней площади сечения “UARS” – , т.к. он имеет форму не простого... литературу. «Летучий голландец» В день падения “UARS”, 24 сентября 2011 г., координаты места... слухов – вот уже якобы обломки “UARS” упали в Буэнос-Айресе, разрушили квартал.... 19. Предполагаемое место падения обломков “UARS” по данным NASA [24]. Только... последние данные являются самыми точными: “UARS” упал восточнее Австралии, в Тихом океане... мог. Рис. 20. Место падения “UARS”. Новая цель Не успели ещ... уходящими на дно океана осколками “UARS”, а на подходе новая «сенсация», да... спутники и научные исследования», М., 1963 г. 9. http://uars.gsfc.nasa.gov 10. http...



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... opportunities for ground truth validation. 7.2.1 UARS MLS The microwave limb sounder... the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) was the first spaceborne application.... MLS was one of 10 UARS instruments in a National Aeronautics and... oscillator (LO) frequencies of the UARS MLS. Chlorine monoxide (ClO) is... the instrument FOV. In Table 7-7. UARS MLS radiometer bands and mission... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) microwave limb sounder (MLS) instrument... measured during FOV calibration. Table 7-8. UARS MLS requirements. Vertical HPBW Horizontal... view >200 km Scan axis/UARS velocity vector collinearity ±0.5 deg 364... known and constant throughout the UARS mission to within 1 percent. Table... in the successors to the UARS MLS. Instrument Packages 365 7.2.1.2 Trade... dB for 366 Chapter 7 Table 7-9. UARS MLS physical antenna characteristics. Parameter.... Instrument Packages 367 Fig. 7-10. UARS MLS in flight configuration. Figure... a vertical plane cut of the UARS MLS 205 GHz antenna pattern. Table 7-10 summarizes the UARS MLS antenna performance. Beamwidths and... an accuracy of 1–3 percent [17]. UARS was launched September 12, 1991... vertical antenna pattern of UARS MLS. Table 7-10. UARS MLS antenna performance... products were added to the UARS MLS dataset, including geopotential height... from the MLS boresight to UARS reference, and it was corrected... drifted within range of the UARS MLS scan. The maximum resulting... and special roll maneuvers of UARS) confirmed the low sidelobe and... pre-launch calibration dataset. The UARS mission life was 18 months... was never reactivated, and the UARS was scheduled for total deactivation... sounding from space begun with UARS. Advances in receiver technology and... lines at these frequencies. The UARS MLS data quality allowed retrieval... stratospheric chemistry. As with the UARS MLS, the lowest target frequency... O2 line at 234 GHz. UARS yawed 180 deg approximately every... the functional requirements of the UARS MLS, the science requirements for... requirements highlights differences from the UARS MLS requirements described above. Beamwidth... similar to those for the UARS MLS, it was decided to... and –20 dB in the UARS MLS). This was to alleviate... contaminated the radiometric calibration of UARS [19]; such spillovers would be... to make the materials of UARS MLS infeasible (the all aluminum... of EOS MLS. As with UARS, the incoming signal is split... conic prescriptions, like those of UARS, to match the astigmatic beam... patterns. A more significant departure from UARS is the antenna for 2.5-THz.... These are scaled from the UARS MLS design, and are machined... the engineering model of the UARS MLS antenna, then used to..., H. C. Pumphrey, D. L. Wu, Z. Shippony, R. F. Jarnot, “The UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Version 5 Data...



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... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) [Reber et al., 1993], and... the Space Shuttle and from UARS, comprise several spectrometers and four...] is also part of the UARS instrument complement and monitors the... over the ten-year UARS mission. The UARS SUSIM and SOLSTICE instruments... delay between the launch of UARS and the publishing of this... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite ( UARS), J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10695–10711..., M.R., The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) mission, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10643... 677, 1993. Rottman, G.J., and Woods, T.N., UARS Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment..., B.G., and Pankratz, C.K., Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet 36 2. S PECTRORADIOMETRY FOR... Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor on UARS, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite... some anomalies JMAS-7; calibration rockets; UARS/SOLSTICE d SICWG-9; inter-calibration JOPs... published. b Solar irradiance instruments on UARS report relative uncertainties of 2 % to...]. A cross-calibration with SOLSTICE on UARS (calibrated at NIST before launch... 1200 A SUMER/SOHO and SOLSTICE/UARS, Astron. Astrophys. 352, 321–326... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) [Rottman et al., 1993] have... 1200 A SUMER/SOHO and SOLSTICE/UARS, Astron. Astrophys. 352, 321–326... from the SOLSTICE experiment on UARS [G. Rottmann, personal communication, 1998], and... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was also performed using a set... comparisons between SOHO SUMER and UARS SOLSTICE. With irradiance comparisons, the... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has been making daily measurements... Rocket XPS SOHO SUMER UARS SOLSTICE SOHO SUMER UARS SOLSTICE sequence, early...]. The high accuracy of the UARS SOLSTICE solar UV irradiances [Woods... SUMER in 1996 to the UARS SOLSTICE, as listed in Table... measurements are lower than the UARS SOLSTICE measurements by 14 % and... 1200 A SUMER/SOHO and SOLSTICE/UARS, Astron. Astrophys. 352, 321–326..., C.K., and Reiser, P.A., Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The UARS 350 26. F UTURE S OLAR... an improved version of the UARS SOLSTICE instrument [Rottman et al... 1200 A SUMER/SOHO and SOLSTICE/UARS, Astron. Astrophys. 352, 321–326..., C.K., and Reiser, P.A., Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with...-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (on UARS) SORCE SOlar Radiation and Climate... Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (on UARS) TIMED Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics... Transition Region And Coronal Explorer UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Ulysses...



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...)” 2007 NASA Group Achievement Award, UARS Science Team 2007 JPL/NASA... 1993 NASA Group Achievement Award, UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Data Processing...-Investigator, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Investigation “Studies of PSC Processes..., JPL) 1992-1999 Co-Investigator, UARS Theoretical Investigation “Radiative-Dynamic Balances... upper stratospheric temperatures based on UARS, TIMED and Aura satellite measurements... the Arctic lower stratosphere from UARS observations” at 1995 Fall AGU... stratospheric CH3 CN observed by UARS MLS following boreal forest fires... of stratospheric HNO3 based on UARS Microwave Limb Sounder measurements, J. Geophys... (1991 to 2000) estimated from UARS Microwave Limb Sounder measurements, J. Geophys... the polar lower stratosphere from UARS Microwave Limb Sounder measurements, J. Geophys... Arctic polar stratospheric clouds from UARS MLS HNO3 and POAM II.... Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, and J.W. Waters, UARS Microwave Limb Sounder observations of..., and J.W. Waters, Six years of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder HNO3 observations..., Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, and R.P. Thurstans, The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder... 4-day wave and transport of UARS tracers in the Austral Polar..., R.J. Salawitch, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, and J.W. Waters, UARS MLS HNO3 Observations: Implications for..., Arctic Ozone Depletion Observed by UARS MLS during the 1994–1995..., and J.M. Russell III, Analysis of UARS Data in the Southern Polar... During Late Winter: Results from UARS, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 18,835... the lower stratosphere during the UARS mission, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23... J.W. Waters, Lagrangian transport calculations using UARS data. Part I: Passive tracers, J. Atmos... R. Swinbank, Lagrangian transport calculations using UARS data. Part II: Ozone, J. Atmos..., W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, D.A. Flower, and R.F. Jarnot, UARS MLS observations of lower stratospheric... the first two years of UARS MLS data, J. Atmos. Sci., 51... evolution of ozone observed by UARS MLS in the 1992 late...



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ISSI Scientific Report SR-007 Calibration of Particle Instruments in Space Physics M. Wüest, D. S. Evans & R. von Steiger (Eds.) SR-007 September 2007 Calibration of Particle Instruments in Space Physics Editors Martin W¨uest INFICON Ltd, Balzers, Principality of Liechtenstein David S. Evans Space Environment Center, NOAA, Boulder CO, USA Rudolf von Steiger International Space Science Institute, Bern, Switzerland ii Cover: Example calibration data of the ASPERA-4/ELS sensor on the Venus Express mission of ESA (see p. 145). The International Space Science Institute is a Foundation under Swiss law. It is funded by the European Space Agency, the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss National Science Foundation, and the University of Bern. For more information about ISSI see www.issibern. ch. Published for: by: Publication Manager: Cover Design: Copyright: ISSN: Price: The International Space Science Institute Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland ESA Publications Division Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands Karen Fletcher N.N. c 2007 ISSI/ESA ZZZZ-YYYX XX Euros Contents List of Figures xi List of Tables xvii Preface xix 1 2 Introduction 1.1 Particle Environments . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Measurement Requirements . . . . . 1.3 Conversion to Physical Quantities . . 1.3.1 Particle Fluxes . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Velocity Distribution Function 1.3.3 Moments . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Gas Densities . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Required Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Error Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 10 Review of Instruments 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Important Characteristics of Analyzers . . . . . . 2.2 Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Faraday Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Discrete Electron Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Continuous Electron Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Microchannel Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Solid-State Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5.1 Energy Loss of Particles in Matter . . . 2.2.5.2 Silicon Solid-State Detectors . . . . . . 2.2.5.3 Scintillators and Cherenkov Radiators . 2.2.6 Avalanche Photo Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Langmuir Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Overview of the Langmuir Probe Technique . . . . 2.3.2 Types of Probes Used in Ionosphere Measurements 2.3.3 Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Internal Consistency Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5 Implementation Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.1 Boom Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.2 Collector Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.3 Probe Contamination . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.4 Magnetically Induced Potentials . . . . 2.3.5.5 Adaptive Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.6 Spacecraft Design Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 13 13 13 14 15 18 27 27 29 32 34 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv C ONTENTS 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.3.6 Summary of Langmuir Probe Operations in Dense Plasmas . 2.3.7 Langmuir Probe Measurements in Low Density Plasmas . . Faraday Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Instrument Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2.1 System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2.2 Measurement Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plasma Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 The Retarding Potential Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.3 The Cylindrical Curved Plate Electrostatic Analyzer . . . . 2.5.4 Spherical Sector Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5 Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.1 Spherical Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.2 Toroidal Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.3 Electrostatic Deflection to Increase Field of View 2.5.6 Magnetic Sector Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.7 Plasma Analyzer Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass ...



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SR-007 September 2007 Calibration of Particle Instruments in Space Physics Editors Martin W¨uest INFICON Ltd, Balzers, Principality of Liechtenstein David S. Evans Space Environment Center, NOAA, Boulder CO, USA Rudolf von Steiger International Space Science Institute, Bern, Switzerland ii Cover: Example calibration data of the ASPERA-4/ELS sensor on the Venus Express mission of ESA (see p. 149). The International Space Science Institute is a Foundation under Swiss law. It is funded by the European Space Agency, the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss National Science Foundation, and the University of Bern. For more information about ISSI see www.issibern. ch. Published for: by: Publication Manager: Cover Design: Copyright: ISSN: Price: The International Space Science Institute Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland ESA Publications Division Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands Karen Fletcher N.N. c 2007 ISSI/ESA ZZZZ-YYYX XX Euros Contents Preface 1 2 xix Introduction 1.1 Particle Environments . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Measurement Requirements . . . . . 1.3 Conversion to Physical Quantities . . 1.3.1 Particle Fluxes . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Velocity Distribution Function 1.3.3 Moments . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Gas Densities . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Required Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Error Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 Review of Instruments 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Important Characteristics of Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Faraday Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Discrete Electron Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Continuous Electron Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Microchannel Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Solid-State Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5.1 Energy Loss of Particles in Matter . . . . . . . 2.2.5.2 Silicon Solid-State Detectors . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5.3 Scintillators and Cherenkov Radiators . . . . . 2.2.6 Avalanche Photo Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Langmuir Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Overview of the Langmuir Probe Technique . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Types of Probes Used in Ionosphere Measurements . . . . 2.3.3 Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Internal Consistency Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5 Implementation Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.1 Boom Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.2 Collector Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.3 Probe Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.4 Magnetically Induced Potentials . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.5 Adaptive Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.6 Spacecraft Design Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.6 Summary of Langmuir Probe Operations in Dense Plasmas 2.3.7 Langmuir Probe Measurements in Low Density Plasmas . 2.4 Faraday Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 13 13 13 14 15 18 27 27 29 32 34 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 41 41 43 43 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv C ONTENTS 2.4.2 Instrument Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2.1 System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2.2 Measurement Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Plasma Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 The Retarding Potential Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.3 The Cylindrical Curved Plate Electrostatic Analyzer . . . . 2.5.4 Spherical Sector Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5 Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.1 Spherical Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.2 Toroidal Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.3 Electrostatic Deflection to Increase Field of View 2.5.6 Magnetic Sector Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.7 Plasma Analyzer Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Mass Spectrometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 Performance Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Introduction to Magnetic and Electric Analyzers . . . . . . 2.6.2.1 Magnetic Mass ...