Спутник ФКИ. UARS. [Редактировать]

UARS – исследовательский спутник для подробного и систематического изучения стратосферы, мезосферы, и нижних слоев атмосферы Земли.
Для выведения спутника в космическое пространство был использован МТКК "шаттл" Discovery во время миссии STS- 48. Спутник был отправлен в самостоятельный полет на третий день полета шаттла 15 сентября 1991 г. Спутник был извлечен из грузового отсека Discovery и вытолкнут в ОКП с помощью манипулятора. Спутник был рассчитан на 3 года эксплуатации, однако окончил работу после 14 лет эксплуатации в 2005 году. После того, как в 2005 году NASA отказалось от дальнейшей эксплуатации спутника, предлагалось увезти спутник с орбиты на шаттле, но этого не было сделано.

15 декабря 2005 года спутник был переведен на более низкую орбиту и перешел в «спящий» режим.

24.09.2011 спутник вошел в плотные слои атмосферы и прекратил баллистическое существование. Согласно оценкам NASA, спутник не должен был сгореть в атмосфере целиком: около 26 фрагментов аппарата общей массой чуть более 500 килограммов должны были достигнуть Земли, самым крупным обломком должна была стать часть каркаса аппарата массой около 150 килограммов. Средства слежения за космическим пространством США, России и Европы сопровождали спутник на последнем этапе его полета.

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг6795
2Размер, метра9.7 х 4.6 х 4.6

Найдено 630 документов по запросу «UARS». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-03-28
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... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS-launched i n 199 1) continued, meanwhile, to... Climatology Regional Experiment, and the UARS. Using Pathfinder data sets, NASA... with selective overpasses of NASA’s UARS (launched in 1991). The campaign.... Launched Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Docked with Mir space station... Thrust Vector Control System UARP UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Program Upper...-56 Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), 5 5 5 7 U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency...



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..., called Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).21 The political context in... had been planning since 1978. UARS was seen as the principal... would be some time before UARS could be deployed via a Shuttle... governed by the development of UARS, scientific questions, the need to... worked out a strategy for using UARS data when they became available... 1989 (the worst years).74 UARS: VANGUARD OF THE MISSION TO...-million Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). NASA hailed it as the... project scientist for the UARS mission. The UARS mission development had begun... OSSA at NASA Headquarters, called UARS a precursor to EOS.75 Len... heralded the broader significance of UARS. He declared, “A turning point in... measurements of the atmosphere, the UARS findings would be used by... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). (Source: NASA Fact Sheet HQL... NASA timed the launch of UARS to coincide with the breakup... cycle in the following year. UARS provided a novel and intense view... of Ozone Depletion 29 McNeal, a UARS program scientist. “Having the winds... and latest ozone-measuring tool, UARS, seemed to confirm the findings... materialize as predicted. Data from UARS showed that the concentrations of... scientist Joe Waters. In January, UARS detected concentrations of chlorine monoxide... was on using smaller satellites. UARS was an example of the... built billion-dollar satellites. But UARS had already been launched. Hence... research goals EOS would feature. UARS was in orbit and other... observations in the period between UARS and the development of the... a problem themselves. How long would UARS last? When would NASA have... system to maintain continuous observations. UARS was not expected to last....103 Based upon data from UARS, NASA reported that ozone-destroying....108 On 19 December 1994, UARS confirmed with the most conclusive... hole. Mark Schoeberl, a UARS project scientist, said that UARS data collected for... for some time, the multiyear UARS global data now made it... NASA’s December 1994 statement that UARS data had proved conclusively that... congressional budget cuts, and that UARS was aging, NASA had decided... prevent a data-collection gap between UARS’s demise and the EOS ozone... EARTH PROBE In addition to UARS (the most comprehensive existing ozone... authorized for the interval between UARS and the EOS satellite launch... observations. The satellite’s measurements supported UARS findings. The Japanese ADEOS ended... a sufficient flow of ozone data. UARS was still functioning but was... NASA and the Environment Probe, UARS, and the Earth Radiation Budget... could be in danger. THE UARS CONTROVERSY In August 2000, scientists... NASA had decided to exclude UARS from its FY 2002 budget... would take the place of UARS and the Agency’s other ozone... foresee needing funds for future UARS operations. In September, however, NASA... NASA’s decision to phase out UARS increasingly controversial among scientists in... the view within NASA that UARS should not be kept in... longer than necessary. NASA scheduled UARS to cease operating on 30... for years,” Steitz responded. Originally, UARS had been projected to last... the kind of comprehensive data UARS had provided. In the spring... a last-ditch effort to save UARS. It was to no avail... the data gap-UARS controversy. He said that keeping UARS as a backup... Earth Probe was possible. Postponing UARS’ retirement would be an “insurance... found the money to keep UARS going. In March 2002, the...). NASA had hoped to launch UARS in 1984. Stolarski, 16 December... 1990): A8. 74 Douglas Isbell, “UARS Seen as Earth Observing System...): A3. 76 77 Douglas Isbell, “UARS Launches Earth Study,” Space News... (SAGE II) launched in 1984. UARS also had an instrument to... of the prior years’ experiments . . . UARS data, in fact, disproved the... help provide calibration information for UARS, as there were some comparable...): PA 32. 108 NASA,“NASA’s UARS Confirms CFCs Caused Antarctic Ozone..., 41 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 10, 11, 25, 28, 29..., 41 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 10, 11, 25, 28, 29...



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..., called Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).21 The political context in... had been planning since 1978. UARS was seen as the principal... would be some time before UARS could be deployed via a Shuttle... governed by the development of UARS, scientific questions, the need to... worked out a strategy for using UARS data when they became available... 1989 (the worst years).74 UARS: VANGUARD OF THE MISSION TO...-million Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). NASA hailed it as the... project scientist for the UARS mission. The UARS mission development had begun... OSSA at NASA Headquarters, called UARS a precursor to EOS.75 Len... heralded the broader significance of UARS. He declared, “A turning point in... measurements of the atmosphere, the UARS findings would be used by... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). (Source: NASA Fact Sheet HQL... NASA timed the launch of UARS to coincide with the breakup... cycle in the following year. UARS provided a novel and intense view... of Ozone Depletion 29 McNeal, a UARS program scientist. “Having the winds... and latest ozone-measuring tool, UARS, seemed to confirm the findings... materialize as predicted. Data from UARS showed that the concentrations of... scientist Joe Waters. In January, UARS detected concentrations of chlorine monoxide... was on using smaller satellites. UARS was an example of the... built billion-dollar satellites. But UARS had already been launched. Hence... research goals EOS would feature. UARS was in orbit and other... observations in the period between UARS and the development of the... a problem themselves. How long would UARS last? When would NASA have... system to maintain continuous observations. UARS was not expected to last....103 Based upon data from UARS, NASA reported that ozone-destroying....108 On 19 December 1994, UARS confirmed with the most conclusive... hole. Mark Schoeberl, a UARS project scientist, said that UARS data collected for... for some time, the multiyear UARS global data now made it... NASA’s December 1994 statement that UARS data had proved conclusively that... congressional budget cuts, and that UARS was aging, NASA had decided... prevent a data-collection gap between UARS’s demise and the EOS ozone... EARTH PROBE In addition to UARS (the most comprehensive existing ozone... authorized for the interval between UARS and the EOS satellite launch... observations. The satellite’s measurements supported UARS findings. The Japanese ADEOS ended... a sufficient flow of ozone data. UARS was still functioning but was... NASA and the Environment Probe, UARS, and the Earth Radiation Budget... could be in danger. THE UARS CONTROVERSY In August 2000, scientists... NASA had decided to exclude UARS from its FY 2002 budget... would take the place of UARS and the Agency’s other ozone... foresee needing funds for future UARS operations. In September, however, NASA... NASA’s decision to phase out UARS increasingly controversial among scientists in... the view within NASA that UARS should not be kept in... longer than necessary. NASA scheduled UARS to cease operating on 30... for years,” Steitz responded. Originally, UARS had been projected to last... the kind of comprehensive data UARS had provided. In the spring... a last-ditch effort to save UARS. It was to no avail... the data gap-UARS controversy. He said that keeping UARS as a backup... Earth Probe was possible. Postponing UARS’ retirement would be an “insurance... found the money to keep UARS going. In March 2002, the...). NASA had hoped to launch UARS in 1984. Stolarski, 16 December... 1990): A8. 74 Douglas Isbell, “UARS Seen as Earth Observing System...): A3. 76 77 Douglas Isbell, “UARS Launches Earth Study,” Space News... (SAGE II) launched in 1984. UARS also had an instrument to... of the prior years’ experiments . . . UARS data, in fact, disproved the... help provide calibration information for UARS, as there were some comparable...): PA 32. 108 NASA,“NASA’s UARS Confirms CFCs Caused Antarctic Ozone..., 41 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 10, 11, 25, 28, 29..., 41 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 10, 11, 25, 28, 29...



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... 2012 follows the termination of UARS HALOE and MLS, SAGE-II..., Evaluation of ozone analyses from UARS MLS assimilation by BASCOE between... and intercomparisons with Aura and UARS MLS, J. Geophys. Res. 116 D02307...



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... Managers Discuss Fragmentation Risks as UARS Heads Back to Earth, NASA.../09/ nasa-managers-fragmentation-risks-uars-heads-back-earth/. In 1991... Managers Discuss Fragmentation Risks as UARS Heads Back to Earth’ (NASA...



Дата загрузки: 2017-01-30
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... TTL Tagging, Tracking and Locating UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite UAV... NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) believed hit by uncataloged debris... NASA’s Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) reentered the atmosphere and fell to Earth.34 UARS entered the dense portion of... on average once a year,36 UARS received major news coverage in... to its reentry. Stories on UARS were featured in mainstream publications... the odds of a piece of UARS debris hitting a person on Earth... Mail.47 As with the UARS coverage, 33 Space Security Index... the most mainstream media attention, UARS and ROSAT were just two...,” October 2011, at 1; NASA, “NASA's UARS Re-Enters Earth's Atmosphere,” Press...: http://news.yahoo.com/nasa-uars-satellite-debris-poses-1-3-200192200264.html. 37 Gina Sunseri, “Space Satellite UARS Might Hit Earth Friday,” ABC....go.com/Technology/space-satellite-uars-hit-earth-friday/story?id...



Дата загрузки: 2017-03-09
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...: The upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is a clinically relevant sleep-related... symptom profile of patients with UARS suggests that they are commonly... term "upper airway resistance syndrome" (UARS) was coined by Guilleminault et... leading to the discovery of UARS are reviewed in an article by Exar and Collop (e1). UARS is a sleep-related breathing disorder... frequent arousal reactions during sleep (2). UARS patients usually complain of snoring... that suggest a tentative diagnosis of UARS, and to indicate useful steps towards diagnosis. The differences between UARS and OSAHS are pointed out... employed for the management of UARS are described. Method This review... impairment of gas exchange. In UARS patients, however, the receptor functions... considerable negative pressures (6), whereas in UARS patients an arousal reaction is... sleep, while UARS patients exhibit hyperreactivity. Polysomnographic diagnosis UARS can only be..., which are a diagnostic criterion of UARS. Ambulatory monitoring that reveals no... therefore does not rule out UARS (e5). When patients with inexplicable... suggest OSAHS, polysomnography for suspected UARS is indicated (e5). One diagnostic... arousal reaction) (e6, e7). Before UARS was described, air flow measurement..., the predominant respiratory event in UARS patients is termed respiratory effort...). Typically, the flow limitations of UARS are not associated with oxygen... number of RERA for an UARS diagnosis has been defined as... the observation that treatment of UARS with more than 10 RERA... improvement in daytime sleepiness. If UARS is suspected, 2 polysomnographies should be... 1 lists the diagnostic criteria of UARS and OSAHS. General and special... examinations play a particular role for UARS patients. These include measurements of... examination. Studies have confirmed that UARS patients have an abnormal tendency... cm H2O causes obstruction, in UARS patients the PCRIT is –4 cm...-oropharynx should be scheduled whenever UARS is suspected. General practitioners who... from OSAHS (9); the prevalence of UARS in the general population is... men are affected equally by UARS (10). In the author's own... is 1 : 9 (women/men), while for UARS this ratio is 1 : 3 (Stoohs RA... representative of the prevalence of UARS in the general population, they... has to be taken for UARS. This includes recording sleep habits... arrests, although UARS can also occur without snoring (11). UARS patients complain... when first seen by a physician, UARS patients are younger than OSAHS... OSAHS patients is daytime sleepiness, UARS patients commonly report sleep-onset... insomnia is also common in UARS patients, but is also reported... complaints are often diagnosed in UARS patients (12). These are multiple... reported. The typical complaints of UARS patients include orthostatic symptoms (14...-onset insomnia (13). Daytime sleepiness UARS patients complain both of daytime... the degree of sleepiness of UARS patients as high as that... correlates with depressive symptoms in UARS patients (13). Results of a long... study in patients with untreated UARS demonstrate that at the time.... TABLE 1 Polysomnographic criteria of UARS and OSAS Variable UARS OSAHS <5 ✞5 usually ✞ 92...-Hypopnea Index Lowest oxygen saturation UARS: upper airway resistance syndrome; OSAHS... can only be considered when UARS has been ruled out (1). Therapy... for the first description of UARS included a treatment by nasal continuous... limitation and daytime sleepiness in UARS patients (1). A problem did arise as... 2 Anamnestic criteria of UARS and OSAHS Variable UARS OSAS Sleep-onset insomnia... the lacking therapy compliance of UARS patients (15, e10). Conceivably, therapy compliance is even poorer in UARS patients than in OSAHS patients... the sleep-onset insomnia in UARS may possibly be exacerbated by... the therapy of choice for UARS patients. Possible side effects are... by a therapeutic trial. Behavioural therapy UARS patients with insomnia-related complaints... avoided. Since the BMI of UARS patients is usually below 40... of weight reducing measures. If a UARS patient is overweight, weight reduction... use of surgical procedures in UARS patients (e13) and found these... of surgical weight reduction in UARS patients was evaluated in a study... of the operated patients. Since UARS patient are not generally overweight.... The surgical procedures used for UARS include interventions aimed at removing... approach is recommended (25). Conclusions UARS is a clinically relevant sleep-related... can also be observed in UARS. Marked differences exist in the... trials in normal breathing and UARS post menopausal women complaining of... snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA...



Дата загрузки: 2016-11-09
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... Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data Dessler.... We present an analysis of UARS MLS and HALOE water vapor.... In this presentation, I will use UARS MLS water vapor measurements, as... Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data – 152... Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data – 152... Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data – 152... Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data – 152... Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data – 152... Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data – 152... Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data – 152...



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... was compared with unilateral one (UARS) to evaluate the variation of... BARS was 1.2-1.3 times larger than UARS which was calculated from the... the statistical analysis. Definition of UARS and BARS To focus on...) and unilateral acceleration response spectrum (UARS) are calculated for these waveforms... responses as Eq.(3); ( BARS (T ) = max UARS x (T ) t ) + (UARS (T ) ) 2 2 y t where T : Natural period of SDOF system (second) UARS|t: Unilateral acceleration response at time... this study, 2 cases are assumed; UARS is given only for arbitrary...) is assumed using UARS with coefficient β as, EBARS1(T ) = β ⋅ UARS (T ) (4) In Case2, 2 methods.... a) SRSS combination method SRSS (T ) = (UARS1 (T ))2 + (UARS 2 (T ))2 (5) where, 1,2 (subindex): axis1 and axis2... (PARS) PARS1(T ) = UARS1 (T ) + α ⋅ UARS 2 (T ) (6a) PARS 2(T ) = α ⋅ UARS1 (T ) + UARS 2 (T ) (6b) Where, rate of..., EBARS: estimated BARS by EBARS1(=UARS) or SRSS or PARS Statistical... the comparison between BARS and UARS. The maximum response direction for... these figures. The values of UARS at the same natural period... BARS. For example, the maximum UARS at the natural period of... be estimated by only one UARS for arbitrary directional component. Comparison..., which are calculated from 6 orthogonal UARS pairs, are also shown in... of SRSS or PARS for 6 UARS combination pairs are smaller than that of UARS cases. Moreover, the absolute response... spectral ratios to BARS of UARS (UARS/BARS) or SRSS (SRSS/BARS... ζ of spectral ratios. Variation of UARS/BARS is large in comparison... margin of fluctuation of λ of UARS/BARS is from -0.4 to -0.1 and... margin of fluctuation of ζ of UARS/BARS is obviously larger than.... This trend is also found UARS/BARS case (λ is approximately -0.3). CVs... 5-8%). On the contrary, CV of UARS/BARS tends to become large... Ground motion Response Acc.(gal) UARS (for 12 directions) BARS JMA... Fig. 3 Comparison of response spectra UARS (Left) & Maximum response (Left: BARS.... 4 Comparison of spectral ratios (Left: UARS/BARS Center: SRSS/BARS Right... deviation of spectral ratios (Left: UARS/BARS Center: SRSS/BARS Right... for the estimation methods. 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 50 UARS/BARS SRSS/BARS PARS/BARS... simply, it is assumed that UARS for arbitrary direction is equal... estimation results are; EBARS (T ) EBARS1 = UARS (T ) = 1.33UARS (T ) 0.75 (EBARS1) (12) EBARS... method is 1.2-1.3 times larger than UARS. However, accuracy of estimated values... (EBARS) are 1.2-1.3 times larger than UARS. However, accuracy of estimated values...



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...UARS AND TOMS-EP PROJECT OPERATIONS ... CENTERS COLLOCATED AND REENGINEERED E. J. Macie UARS Project Manager, Code 513 National... Laurel, Maryland 20707 USA J. Speer UARS FOT Manager Lockheed Martin Greenbelt...-cycle costs, plans for extended UARS mission operations, increased automation of... complex Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) mission and the impending generation...-Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) mission. UARS IS supported in a multimission institutional..., NASA wants to extend the UARS mission (currently in its fourth..., to 5 years. The relocation of UARS mission operations to the Earth... has been the home of UARS operations since the observatory was... altitude of 585 km. The UARS observatory mission objective is to... in climate and climate variability. UARS flight operations is a joint effort... of both TOMS-EP and UARS has been discussed. Scientists have... waiting for a launch vehicle. The UARS FOT has achieved mission objectives... Capability and Institutional Support The UARS FOT, located in the POCC.... As a result, in 1996, the UARS mission may be the only... of the multimission facility. The UARS system is NASA's contribution to...'s EOS satellites in 1998. The UARS system includes the flight observatory... Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The UARS observatory is approximately 32 ft... 1 shows the relationship of the UARS observatory to the major system elements. The UARS science mission extension (desired until... 1), and the decision to collocate UARS with TOMS-EP have introduced... best course of action for UARS as a single MSOCC user on..."""" .. · · · UARS ERBS GOES GRO EUVE UARS ERBS GOES UARS • Ground system facilities for UARS... elements provide routine support for UARS. The MSOCC provides the real... (MTPE) budget (which includes the UARS funding) is 2 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I analysis as well... provide special support for the UARS mission. The POCC uses the... centralized processing of UARS science data. Members of the UARS science teams... Dedicated MSOCC Hardware Figure 1. UARS System With UARS as the only potential... with a reduced capability to support UARS operations. Table 2 shows the MSOCC... shows frequency of use. With UARS as a single user. MSOCC staffing... transmission to the observatory. The UARS Test and Training Simulator (UTTS... greatly reduced or eliminated, leaving a UARS-tailored capability: dedicated prime, back... computers for operations from the UARS POCC 3 r- .... - .. _ .... _-, ,I ftL.IQHT DYNAMICS FAC1UTY... TEaT APC) lRA.ItWQ !""Iy ................. UARS POCC· ........ In" I I T_ PROJECT 0PERA..."""" J PGCCCIopI'Y" I I I I I I '''''T PAlHCtPAL 1HVE8'11QAtoft8. Figure 2. UARS and TOMS-EP Ground System... or emergency operations The extended UARS mission guidelines are based on... the possibility of rehosting the UARS system by using COTS products... include the following goals: The UARS FOT is responsible for continuous... to support a degraded spacecraft. The UARS FOT online operations staffing has... shift in 1994. The combined UARS and TOMS-EP operations staffing... all activities associated with the UARS observatory. The current plan to...-EP Lockheed Martin operates the UARS and TOMS-EP FOTs under... and periods of performance. The UARS Project Manager, having the responsibility... each mission. Table 3. TOMS-EP/UARS Mission Profiles After the TOMS... An alternative UARS solution must be quantified by reviewing UARS requirements to... requirements set must satisfy extended UARS operations and data capture needs... the late Fall of 1995. UARS operational requirements include the largest... present. The major concerns regarding UARS rehosting are as follows: Infrequent... for the position. The combined UARS and TOMS-EP FaTs are... test and validation process I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The UARS database software, a major prelaunch software... the main emphasis. The current UARS system is not ideally configured... over the system. As the UARS reengineering continues, serious effort will... is provided. Dec0mmissioning of the UARS observatory does not "'lbviate the... after turnoff to process the UARS data captured, Until the current..., and faster. Using the current UARS observatory as an experimental t~st... by using the exi~ting UARS user's guide to define the... afford separate engineering efforts like UARS, in which the spacecraft design... cost of data returned; the UARS requirement for recovery of 99.... Similarly, the goal of transferring UARS to a university will involve an... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) control center software and managing... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). He is also the NASA... Defense programs. In addition to UARS, WIND, and POLAR, he has...