Спутник ФКИ. UARS. [Редактировать]

UARS – исследовательский спутник для подробного и систематического изучения стратосферы, мезосферы, и нижних слоев атмосферы Земли.
Для выведения спутника в космическое пространство был использован МТКК "шаттл" Discovery во время миссии STS- 48. Спутник был отправлен в самостоятельный полет на третий день полета шаттла 15 сентября 1991 г. Спутник был извлечен из грузового отсека Discovery и вытолкнут в ОКП с помощью манипулятора. Спутник был рассчитан на 3 года эксплуатации, однако окончил работу после 14 лет эксплуатации в 2005 году. После того, как в 2005 году NASA отказалось от дальнейшей эксплуатации спутника, предлагалось увезти спутник с орбиты на шаттле, но этого не было сделано.

15 декабря 2005 года спутник был переведен на более низкую орбиту и перешел в «спящий» режим.

24.09.2011 спутник вошел в плотные слои атмосферы и прекратил баллистическое существование. Согласно оценкам NASA, спутник не должен был сгореть в атмосфере целиком: около 26 фрагментов аппарата общей массой чуть более 500 килограммов должны были достигнуть Земли, самым крупным обломком должна была стать часть каркаса аппарата массой около 150 килограммов. Средства слежения за космическим пространством США, России и Европы сопровождали спутник на последнем этапе его полета.

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... SOLSTICE and SUSIM aboard the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft... was used, for instance, for UARS/SUSIM and SORCE/SIM (Brueckner... stars, as is done for UARS/SOLSTICE and SORCE/SOLSTICE (McClintock... from SCIAMACHY, SORCE/SIM, and UARS/SUSIM (Pagaran et al., 2009.../SOLSTICE is a second generation of UARS/SOLSTICE (Rottman et al., 1993...–420 nm) in the original UARS/SOLSTICE and to extend wavelength... the variability observed by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM over the cycle... times more variability than the UARS/SOLSTICE measurements and most model...., 2004), which are composites using UARS/SUSIM and UAR/SOLSTICE data... in the UV (e.g. by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM) is significantly better... spectral irradiances are derived from UARS/SOLSTICE observations through a multiple regression... long-term stability of the UARS spectral instruments (both SOLSTICE and... NRLSSI is effectively a composite of UARS/SOLSTICE observations (below 400 nm... of 1365.5 W m−2 . The employment of UARS/SOLSTICE data up to 400... 270 nm are rescaled using UARS/SUSIM observations (Krivova et al... (Ball et al., 2011, 2012), UARS/SUSIM spectral irradiance (Krivova et...), as well as with UARS/SUSIM and UARS/SOLSTICE Ly-α measurements (see... or fair agreement with earlier UARS UV observations, TSI measurements and... to the low response of UARS/SOLSTICE to variability above 220... with earlier observations (e.g. by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM) and with SSI... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10695–10711..., L. E., Rottman, G. J., and Pap, J. M.: Status of UARS solar UV irradiance data, Adv... solar UV irradiance measurements from UARS, in: Solar Variability as an..., C. K., and Reiser, P. A.: Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with... 1947 through 1999 based on UARS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 27195... PREMOS Start | NIMBUS SMM ERBS UARS SOHO ACRIM-sat SORCE PICARD..., fromonly left tothe period 2002), UARS/SUSIM only relative WR-2002... in UV; Woods Rottman, 2002), UARS/SUSIM (green, only 2012). The... GOME EURECA Discussion Paper OSO 3,4,6 UARS SME LYRA SEE Fig. 3. Overview... [W/m2/nm] NOAA−11/SBUV2 UARS/SOLSTICE Discussion Paper NOAA−9/SBUV2... Paper SORCE/SOLSTICE Discussion Paper UARS/SUSIM Close Full Screen / Esc... flux [W/m2] NRLSSI SATIRE-S UARS/SUSIM UARS/SOLSTICE SORCE/SOLSTICE SORCE/SIM... 2005 2007 2009 NRLSSI SATIRE-S UARS/SUSIM SORCE/SOLSTICE 1.04 SORCE... COSI (magenta), and measured with UARS/SUSIM SATIRE-S (blue) and COSI...), and measured with UARS/SUSIM (darker (darkergreen), green), UARS/SOLSTICE(light (lightgreen...),SORCE/SOLSTICE SORCE/SOLSTICE (orange) UARS/SOLSTICE (orange) and and SORCE... when the sensitivity of the UARS/SUSIM green shading in the... when the sensitivity of the UARS/SUSIM instrument (and thus the...



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... UV; Woods and Rottman, 2002), UARS/SUSIM (green, only in UV... Spectral Irradiance Monitor) aboard the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft... ISS AE-C, AE-D, AE-E OSO 3,4,6 UARS SME LYRA SEE Fig. 3. Overview... was used, for instance, for UARS/SUSIM and SORCE/SIM (Brueckner... selected stars, as done for UARS/SOLSTICE and SORCE/SOLSTICE (McClintock... from SCIAMACHY, SORCE/SIM, and UARS/SUSIM (Pagaran et al., 2009.../SOLSTICE is a second generation of UARS/SOLSTICE (Rottman et al., 1993...–420 nm) in the original UARS/SOLSTICE and to extend wavelength... the variability observed by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM over solar cycle...., 2004), which are composites using UARS/SUSIM and UAR/SOLSTICE data...] NOAA−9/SBUV2 NOAA−11/SBUV2 UARS/SOLSTICE modulation amplitude 2 [W/nm/m ] 2 −6 1985... SORCE/SOLSTICE SORCE/SIM 10 +π/2 UARS/SUSIM SORCE/SOLSTICE −4 10 0 −π/2 100....dev. (W m−2 ) Reference Nimbus SMM ERBS UARS SOHO ACRIM-sat SORCE PICARD... spectral irradiances are derived from UARS/SOLSTICE observations through a multiple regression... long-term stability of the UARS spectral instruments (both SOLSTICE and... NRLSSI is effectively a composite of UARS/SOLSTICE observations (below 400 nm... and climate NRLSSI SATIRE-S UARS/SUSIM UARS/SOLSTICE SORCE/SOLSTICE SORCE/SIM... 1.06 2007 2009 NRLSSI SATIRE-S UARS/SUSIM SORCE/SOLSTICE 1.04 SORCE... (magenta), and measured with UARS/SUSIM (darker green), UARS/SOLSTICE (light green... when the sensitivity of the UARS/SUSIM instrument (and thus the... nm are re-scaled using UARS/SUSIM observations (Krivova et al... (Ball et al., 2011, 2012), UARS/SUSIM spectral irradiance (Krivova et...), as well as with UARS/SUSIM and UARS/SOLSTICE Ly-α measurements (Figs... or fair agreement with earlier UARS UV observations, TSI measurements, and... of the low response of UARS/SOLSTICE to long-term variability... and TSI observations (e.g. by UARS/SOLSTICE and UARS/SUSIM) and with SSI... v12, TIMED/SEE v10, UARS/SOLSTICE v18, UARS/SUSIM v22, SBUV, and... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10695, doi..., L. E., Rottman, G. J., and Pap, J. M.: Status of UARS solar UV irradiance data, Adv... solar UV irradiance measurements from UARS, in: Solar Variability as an..., C. K., and Reiser, P. A.: Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with... 1947 through 1999 based on UARS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 27195...



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... Landsat 6 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) NASA Upper atmosphere chemistry, winds... since program approval by Congress. UARS, on the other hand, was... w ReXom ~t~but~ t. UARS cost ~fio~nce SUCCIXS include: The UARS project had.... Scientists and engineers in the UARS project were well aware of... exceptions were allowed by UARS management. The UARS project was also able... Earth science satellites, such as UARS, the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon,4 Landsat.... The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), which has already provided measurements... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS —figure 5-3), supplemented by planned Shuttle... to acquire equivalent data after UARS fails .11 However, continued satellite.... The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), which has already provided measurements... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS, the first of the EOS... its development began in 1985, UARS is viewed as the first... Mission to Planet Earth. The UARS platform carries 10 instruments in... earth, ocean and atmosphere, Although UARS may function for over nine... Other instruments carried on the UARS include an improved Stratospheric and... deployed on the Nimbus and UARS satellites, It will be used... ozone depletion as data from UARS, a precursor satellite to EOS, was... 1989, pp. 22-32. 10 UARS is not a long-term monitoring... no planned follow-on to UARS. Although some of its instruments... on UARS, a satellite whose useful Iifeis expsctedto end In 1994. UARS might... TM TOMS TOGA TOPEX TUSK UARS UAVS UNEP UNESCO —Short Wave..., 105 Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer, 106 UARS. See Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...



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Спутник UARS: последние дни жизни Слон или ...» событием – неработающий американский исследовательский спутник “UARS” (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite – Исследовательский... электроэнергии для “UARS” являются его панели солнечных батарей. Рис. 1. Спутник “UARS” [1]. Падение... «Мир» в 2001 году… Не был “UARS” и самым крупным спутником, который неконтролируемо... комичность истерии по поводу падения “UARS” вносит то, что спутник был... ИСЗ “UARS”. Он был старательным рабочим Правильнее всё же назвать “UARS” не..., а в частности озонового слоя. 15 Сентября “UARS” был выведен на рабочую орбиту.... В связи с поднявшейся шумихой вокруг падения “UARS” администрация NASA выпустила специальный буклет... NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)” [6], в котором приводится оценка рисков от... характеристиках. На Рис. 2 показана фотография “UARS”, опубликованная NASA, при его выведения... с учётом того, наклонение орбиты “UARS” порядка 60°, и фрагменты могут выпасть...» в южном. Рис. 2. Основные блоки ИСЗ “UARS”. Красным отмечены элементы, которые могут...ём теперь к рассмотрению эволюции орбиты ИСЗ “UARS” за последние два года. Корабль... ИСЗ использовались орбитальные элементы спутника “UARS” их личного архива автора, которые... Рис. 3 показано изменение периода обращения “UARS” с 4 сентября 2009 г. по 24 сентября... смерти», которая постепенно уменьшалась, заставляя “UARS” обращаться всё быстрее и быстрее. Темп... название Рис. 3. Изменение периода обращения “UARS” с 4 сентября 2009 г. по 24 сентября... г. Рис. 4. Темп уменьшение периода обращения “UARS” с 4 сентября 2009 г. по 24 сентября... нём показано изменение высоты перигея и апогея “UARS” в последние 50 дней его существования.... Рис. 7. Изменение высоты перигея и апогея “UARS” в последние 50 дней его существования.... Дополнительным подтверждением постепенного «округления» орбиты “UARS” может служить график изменения эксцентриситета... Рис. 9 – график изменения эксцентриситета орбиты “UARS” за последние два года. Рис... эксцентриситета “e” [14]. Как видно, орбита “UARS” была почти круговой уже два.... Рис. 9. график изменения эксцентриситета орбиты “UARS” за последние два года. На... до расчётной даты сгорания “UARS” в атмосфере Земли стали появляться прогнозы... показана раскадровка видеоролика со спутником “UARS”, снятый Тьери Легаулем (Therry Legault... видеоролик. Рис. 10. Вращение спутника “UARS” за 9 дней до падения [17]. Как видно из видео, “UARS” вращался с периодом порядка 20-25... и критической период обращения “UARS” вокруг Земли Ткр. Для “UARS” средняя площадь поперечного....space-track.org, средняя высота “UARS” составляла 139,4 км, а период обращения... F10.7 в последние 50 дней существования “UARS” по данным ИЗМИРАН [19]. Рис... даты падения “UARS”. В Таблице 2 ниже указаны прогнозируемые даты схода “UARS” с орбиты, рассчитанные...” указывала на реальную дату падения “UARS”. На Рис. 13 показана хронология изменения предсказываемой даты падения “UARS”, составленная канадским наблюдателем спутников Тэдом... в полпятого утра по Всемирному времени “UARS” должен был упасть. Рис. 13. Изменение прогнозируемой даты сгорания “UARS” от различных источников [22]. Оценить... попробуем оценить «время жизни» спутника “UARS”. Продолжительность жизни τ спутника на орбите... обращения на “dT” [16]. Для “UARS” значение “dT/dt” для выбранной... H ≈ 40 км для средней высоты “UARS” над поверхностью Земли 270 км... 2011 г. Получается, что дата падения “UARS” по нашей грубой оценке – 2 октября... видно, что при наклонении орбиты “UARS” i ≈ 57° коэффициент κ ≈ 0,94. Подставим в (4) выражение... высоты “h” нужно использовать «среднюю» высоту ”UARS” над поверхностью Земли, которая равна...” от OpenOffice. В частности, для спутника “UARS” на 9 сентября 2011 г. получаем: H= 266700... для нескольких значений средней высоты “UARS” – получим набор точек, изображённых... процедуру оценки времени жизни τ для “UARS” на орбите, используя полученное нами..., что τ = 16 дней с 9 сентября 2011 г., т.е. “UARS” должен упасть 25 сентября по... высот H от средней высоты спутника “UARS” над поверхностью Земли. Что бы... атмосферы на разных высотах – хоть “UARS” давно не функционирует, но он...ённость в значении средней площади сечения “UARS” – , т.к. он имеет форму не простого... литературу. «Летучий голландец» В день падения “UARS”, 24 сентября 2011 г., координаты места... слухов – вот уже якобы обломки “UARS” упали в Буэнос-Айресе, разрушили квартал.... 19. Предполагаемое место падения обломков “UARS” по данным NASA [24]. Только... последние данные являются самыми точными: “UARS” упал восточнее Австралии, в Тихом океане... мог. Рис. 20. Место падения “UARS”. Новая цель Не успели ещ... уходящими на дно океана осколками “UARS”, а на подходе новая «сенсация», да... спутники и научные исследования», М., 1963 г. 9. http://uars.gsfc.nasa.gov 10. http...



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... by different instruments on the UARS and SORCE satellites. We find... irradiance or that measured by UARS/SUSIM. Keywords Sun: activity Á Sun.../Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (UARS/SUSIM) 1 Introduction The solar irradiance... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). In addition, SORCE/SIM also... reconstructions with data from UARS/SUSIM and UARS/SOLSTICE, as well as... the SATIRE-S calculations reproduce the UARS/SUSIM measurements well, despite SATIRE... are shown in blue, the UARS/SUSIM measurements are plotted in... inset shows a comparison between UARS/ SOLSTICE (green), UARS/SUSIM (black) and SATIRE...-S (blue line) and measured with UARS/SUSIM (black), SORCE/SOLSTICE (purple... 1991: SATIRE-S (blue), UARS/SUSIM (black) and UARS/ SOLSTICE (green) 123 Surv...) during the lifetime of the UARS/SOLSTICE instrument. As the data quality of UARS/SOLSTICE deteriorated from about 2001... in Table 1; note that the UARS/SUSIM measurements cover a much longer... span compared with SORCE/SIM. UARS/ SOLSTICE data have not been... note, however, that the UARS/SUSIM and UARS/SOLSTICE rotational variability agree... 2004 and April 2006 when UARS and SORCE measurements overlap in... considered (column 6) for the SATIRE-S, UARS/SUSIM, SORCE/SIM and SORCE... rather low correlation coefficient for UARS/SUSIM with either SORCE/SIM... two SORCE instruments compared with UARS/SUSIM and also with SATIRE... compared to the *4% change in UARS/SUSIM and SATIRE-S (recall that...). The relative accuracy of both UARS instruments over a time scale of... cycle variability observed with UARS/SUSIM, with UARS/ SOLSTICE, and modelled with... clear how to reconcile the UARS and SORCE measurements in this... between the irradiances recorded by UARS/SUSIM, SORCE/SOLSTICE and SORCE... pronounced than those measured with UARS/SUSIM or modelled with SATIRE..., after 14 years in space, UARS/ SUSIM suffered from instrumental degradation... al (1996) Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with...



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... Measuring Mission TU . . . . . . . . . . . .Technology Utilization UARS . . . . . . . . . .Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite UCAR... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and planning a similar facility for... the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), planned for launch in 1988... program involves sets of global UARS satellite measurements, in situ field.... The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), which we propose to launch... planned Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS, see Appendix E), which are designed... 1983), Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS, started 1982), Navy Remote Ocean... Research Satellite (UARS). Scheduled for a 1989 launch, the approved UARS program is... key atmospheric constituents, particularly ozone. UARS data will be coordinated with... the Space Shuttle during the UARS mission duration. • Scatterometer (NSCAT) aboard... d’Observation de la Terre-2 1988 UARS: Upper Atmosphere NASA/Launch Research...* Measurement Implementation: Current Era ERBE, UARS Implementation: Space Station Era Eos..., MOS-1, N-ROSS, ERS-1, JERS-1, (WWW) UARS, POES Eos, DMSP, RADARSAT POES... of whom together pushed for UARS many years before measurements of... international efforts. The results of UARS are the first major achievement... answer these and other questions. UARS carries ten instruments that are... at the Earth. Data from UARS will be used to study... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). This problem is important to... launches essentially ten years after UARS, will also carry instruments to... controlling ozone ten years after UARS. Models of the climate system... Stress 607 Phase I Spacecraft NASA UARS Upper Atmosphere TOPEX/Poseidon (with... a good chance of connecting with UARS. The method for continuation of... is probably ACRIM II on UARS; however, it is unlikely that... planned research missions, such as UARS, Topex/Poseidon, ERS, JERS, ADEOS..., 482 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 33, 222, 489, 490, 509...



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... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) [Reber et al., 1993], and... the Space Shuttle and from UARS, comprise several spectrometers and four...] is also part of the UARS instrument complement and monitors the... over the ten-year UARS mission. The UARS SUSIM and SOLSTICE instruments... delay between the launch of UARS and the publishing of this... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite ( UARS), J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10695–10711..., M.R., The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) mission, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10643... 677, 1993. Rottman, G.J., and Woods, T.N., UARS Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment..., B.G., and Pankratz, C.K., Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet 36 2. S PECTRORADIOMETRY FOR... Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor on UARS, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite... some anomalies JMAS-7; calibration rockets; UARS/SOLSTICE d SICWG-9; inter-calibration JOPs... published. b Solar irradiance instruments on UARS report relative uncertainties of 2 % to...]. A cross-calibration with SOLSTICE on UARS (calibrated at NIST before launch... 1200 A SUMER/SOHO and SOLSTICE/UARS, Astron. Astrophys. 352, 321–326... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) [Rottman et al., 1993] have... 1200 A SUMER/SOHO and SOLSTICE/UARS, Astron. Astrophys. 352, 321–326... from the SOLSTICE experiment on UARS [G. Rottmann, personal communication, 1998], and... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was also performed using a set... comparisons between SOHO SUMER and UARS SOLSTICE. With irradiance comparisons, the... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has been making daily measurements... Rocket XPS SOHO SUMER UARS SOLSTICE SOHO SUMER UARS SOLSTICE sequence, early...]. The high accuracy of the UARS SOLSTICE solar UV irradiances [Woods... SUMER in 1996 to the UARS SOLSTICE, as listed in Table... measurements are lower than the UARS SOLSTICE measurements by 14 % and... 1200 A SUMER/SOHO and SOLSTICE/UARS, Astron. Astrophys. 352, 321–326..., C.K., and Reiser, P.A., Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The UARS 350 26. F UTURE S OLAR... an improved version of the UARS SOLSTICE instrument [Rottman et al... 1200 A SUMER/SOHO and SOLSTICE/UARS, Astron. Astrophys. 352, 321–326..., C.K., and Reiser, P.A., Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with...-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (on UARS) SORCE SOlar Radiation and Climate... Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (on UARS) TIMED Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics... Transition Region And Coronal Explorer UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Ulysses...



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ISSI Scientific Report SR-007 Calibration of Particle Instruments in Space Physics M. Wüest, D. S. Evans & R. von Steiger (Eds.) SR-007 September 2007 Calibration of Particle Instruments in Space Physics Editors Martin W¨uest INFICON Ltd, Balzers, Principality of Liechtenstein David S. Evans Space Environment Center, NOAA, Boulder CO, USA Rudolf von Steiger International Space Science Institute, Bern, Switzerland ii Cover: Example calibration data of the ASPERA-4/ELS sensor on the Venus Express mission of ESA (see p. 145). The International Space Science Institute is a Foundation under Swiss law. It is funded by the European Space Agency, the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss National Science Foundation, and the University of Bern. For more information about ISSI see www.issibern. ch. Published for: by: Publication Manager: Cover Design: Copyright: ISSN: Price: The International Space Science Institute Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland ESA Publications Division Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands Karen Fletcher N.N. c 2007 ISSI/ESA ZZZZ-YYYX XX Euros Contents List of Figures xi List of Tables xvii Preface xix 1 2 Introduction 1.1 Particle Environments . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Measurement Requirements . . . . . 1.3 Conversion to Physical Quantities . . 1.3.1 Particle Fluxes . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Velocity Distribution Function 1.3.3 Moments . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Gas Densities . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Required Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Error Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 10 Review of Instruments 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Important Characteristics of Analyzers . . . . . . 2.2 Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Faraday Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Discrete Electron Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Continuous Electron Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Microchannel Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Solid-State Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5.1 Energy Loss of Particles in Matter . . . 2.2.5.2 Silicon Solid-State Detectors . . . . . . 2.2.5.3 Scintillators and Cherenkov Radiators . 2.2.6 Avalanche Photo Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Langmuir Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Overview of the Langmuir Probe Technique . . . . 2.3.2 Types of Probes Used in Ionosphere Measurements 2.3.3 Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Internal Consistency Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5 Implementation Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.1 Boom Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.2 Collector Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.3 Probe Contamination . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.4 Magnetically Induced Potentials . . . . 2.3.5.5 Adaptive Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.6 Spacecraft Design Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 13 13 13 14 15 18 27 27 29 32 34 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv C ONTENTS 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.3.6 Summary of Langmuir Probe Operations in Dense Plasmas . 2.3.7 Langmuir Probe Measurements in Low Density Plasmas . . Faraday Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Instrument Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2.1 System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2.2 Measurement Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plasma Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 The Retarding Potential Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.3 The Cylindrical Curved Plate Electrostatic Analyzer . . . . 2.5.4 Spherical Sector Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5 Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.1 Spherical Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.2 Toroidal Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.3 Electrostatic Deflection to Increase Field of View 2.5.6 Magnetic Sector Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.7 Plasma Analyzer Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass ...



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SR-007 September 2007 Calibration of Particle Instruments in Space Physics Editors Martin W¨uest INFICON Ltd, Balzers, Principality of Liechtenstein David S. Evans Space Environment Center, NOAA, Boulder CO, USA Rudolf von Steiger International Space Science Institute, Bern, Switzerland ii Cover: Example calibration data of the ASPERA-4/ELS sensor on the Venus Express mission of ESA (see p. 149). The International Space Science Institute is a Foundation under Swiss law. It is funded by the European Space Agency, the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss National Science Foundation, and the University of Bern. For more information about ISSI see www.issibern. ch. Published for: by: Publication Manager: Cover Design: Copyright: ISSN: Price: The International Space Science Institute Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland ESA Publications Division Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands Karen Fletcher N.N. c 2007 ISSI/ESA ZZZZ-YYYX XX Euros Contents Preface 1 2 xix Introduction 1.1 Particle Environments . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Measurement Requirements . . . . . 1.3 Conversion to Physical Quantities . . 1.3.1 Particle Fluxes . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Velocity Distribution Function 1.3.3 Moments . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Gas Densities . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Required Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Error Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 Review of Instruments 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Important Characteristics of Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Faraday Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Discrete Electron Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Continuous Electron Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Microchannel Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Solid-State Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5.1 Energy Loss of Particles in Matter . . . . . . . 2.2.5.2 Silicon Solid-State Detectors . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5.3 Scintillators and Cherenkov Radiators . . . . . 2.2.6 Avalanche Photo Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Langmuir Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Overview of the Langmuir Probe Technique . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Types of Probes Used in Ionosphere Measurements . . . . 2.3.3 Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Internal Consistency Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5 Implementation Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.1 Boom Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.2 Collector Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.3 Probe Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.4 Magnetically Induced Potentials . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.5 Adaptive Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5.6 Spacecraft Design Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.6 Summary of Langmuir Probe Operations in Dense Plasmas 2.3.7 Langmuir Probe Measurements in Low Density Plasmas . 2.4 Faraday Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 13 13 13 14 15 18 27 27 29 32 34 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 41 41 43 43 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv C ONTENTS 2.4.2 Instrument Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2.1 System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2.2 Measurement Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Plasma Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 The Retarding Potential Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.3 The Cylindrical Curved Plate Electrostatic Analyzer . . . . 2.5.4 Spherical Sector Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5 Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.1 Spherical Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.2 Toroidal Top-Hat Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5.3 Electrostatic Deflection to Increase Field of View 2.5.6 Magnetic Sector Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.7 Plasma Analyzer Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Mass Spectrometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 Performance Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Introduction to Magnetic and Electric Analyzers . . . . . . 2.6.2.1 Magnetic Mass ...



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..., called Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).21 The political context in... had been planning since 1978. UARS was seen as the principal... would be some time before UARS could be deployed via a Shuttle... governed by the development of UARS, scientific questions, the need to... worked out a strategy for using UARS data when they became available... 1989 (the worst years).74 UARS: VANGUARD OF THE MISSION TO...-million Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). NASA hailed it as the... project scientist for the UARS mission. The UARS mission development had begun... OSSA at NASA Headquarters, called UARS a precursor to EOS.75 Len... heralded the broader significance of UARS. He declared, “A turning point in... measurements of the atmosphere, the UARS findings would be used by... the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). (Source: NASA Fact Sheet HQL... NASA timed the launch of UARS to coincide with the breakup... cycle in the following year. UARS provided a novel and intense view... of Ozone Depletion 29 McNeal, a UARS program scientist. “Having the winds... and latest ozone-measuring tool, UARS, seemed to confirm the findings... materialize as predicted. Data from UARS showed that the concentrations of... scientist Joe Waters. In January, UARS detected concentrations of chlorine monoxide... was on using smaller satellites. UARS was an example of the... built billion-dollar satellites. But UARS had already been launched. Hence... research goals EOS would feature. UARS was in orbit and other... observations in the period between UARS and the development of the... a problem themselves. How long would UARS last? When would NASA have... system to maintain continuous observations. UARS was not expected to last....103 Based upon data from UARS, NASA reported that ozone-destroying....108 On 19 December 1994, UARS confirmed with the most conclusive... hole. Mark Schoeberl, a UARS project scientist, said that UARS data collected for... for some time, the multiyear UARS global data now made it... NASA’s December 1994 statement that UARS data had proved conclusively that... congressional budget cuts, and that UARS was aging, NASA had decided... prevent a data-collection gap between UARS’s demise and the EOS ozone... EARTH PROBE In addition to UARS (the most comprehensive existing ozone... authorized for the interval between UARS and the EOS satellite launch... observations. The satellite’s measurements supported UARS findings. The Japanese ADEOS ended... a sufficient flow of ozone data. UARS was still functioning but was... NASA and the Environment Probe, UARS, and the Earth Radiation Budget... could be in danger. THE UARS CONTROVERSY In August 2000, scientists... NASA had decided to exclude UARS from its FY 2002 budget... would take the place of UARS and the Agency’s other ozone... foresee needing funds for future UARS operations. In September, however, NASA... NASA’s decision to phase out UARS increasingly controversial among scientists in... the view within NASA that UARS should not be kept in... longer than necessary. NASA scheduled UARS to cease operating on 30... for years,” Steitz responded. Originally, UARS had been projected to last... the kind of comprehensive data UARS had provided. In the spring... a last-ditch effort to save UARS. It was to no avail... the data gap-UARS controversy. He said that keeping UARS as a backup... Earth Probe was possible. Postponing UARS’ retirement would be an “insurance... found the money to keep UARS going. In March 2002, the...). NASA had hoped to launch UARS in 1984. Stolarski, 16 December... 1990): A8. 74 Douglas Isbell, “UARS Seen as Earth Observing System...): A3. 76 77 Douglas Isbell, “UARS Launches Earth Study,” Space News... (SAGE II) launched in 1984. UARS also had an instrument to... of the prior years’ experiments . . . UARS data, in fact, disproved the... help provide calibration information for UARS, as there were some comparable...): PA 32. 108 NASA,“NASA’s UARS Confirms CFCs Caused Antarctic Ozone..., 41 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 10, 11, 25, 28, 29..., 41 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 10, 11, 25, 28, 29...