Спутник ФКИ. WMAP. [Редактировать]

WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) — космический аппарат НАСА, предназначенный для изучения реликтового излучения, образовавшегося в результате Большого взрыва. Запущен 30 июня 2001 года. С октября 2001 по 2009 год передавал на Землю результаты сканирования небесной сферы; на основе данных была составлена радиокарта неба на нескольких длинах волн: от 1,4 см до 3 мм. В настоящий момент выведен из эксплуатации. Изначально аппарат назывался MAP (англ. «карта»). После кончины одного из научных руководителей проекта, Дэвида Уилкинсона (Wilkinson) 5 сентября 2002 года, спутник был переименован в его честь.
Собранная WMAP информация позволила учёным построить самую детальную на сегодняшний день карту флуктуаций температуры распределения микроволнового излучения на небесной сфере (если исключить данные полученные с Planck). Ранее подобную карту удалось построить по данным аппарата НАСА COBE, однако её разрешение существенно — в 35 раз — уступало данным, полученным WMAP. Данные WMAP показали, что распределение температуры реликтового излучения по небесной сфере соответствует полностью случайным флуктуациям с нормальным распределением. Параметры функции, описывающей измеренное распределение, согласуются с моделью Вселенной, состоящей: на 4 % из обычного вещества, на 23 % из так называемой тёмной материи (возможно, из гипотетических тяжёлых суперсимметричных частиц) и на 73 % из ещё более таинственной тёмной энергии, вызывающей ускоренное расширение Вселенной.
Данные WMAP позволяют утверждать, что тёмная материя является холодной (то есть состоит из тяжёлых частиц, а не из нейтрино или каких-либо других лёгких частиц). В противном случае лёгкие частицы, движущиеся с релятивистскими скоростями, размывали бы малые флуктуации плотности в ранней Вселенной. Среди других параметров, из данных WMAP определены (исходя из ΛCDM-модели, то есть фридмановской космологической модели с Λ-членом и холодной тёмной материей англ. Cold Dark Matter):

  • возраст Вселенной: (13.73 ± 0.12)·109 лет;
  • постоянная Хаббла: 71 ± 4 км/с/Мпк;
  • плотность барионов в настоящее время: (2,5 ± 0,1)·10−7 см−3;
  • параметр плоскостности Вселенной (отношение общей плотности к критической): 1,02 ± 0,02;
  • суммарная масса всех трёх типов нейтрино: <0,7 эВ.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1MIDEX/WMAPНайтиНайти
2Explorer 80НайтиНайти
3Microwave Anisotropy ProbeНайтиНайти
4Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy ProbeНайтиНайти
5MAPНайтиНайти
626859НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг840
2Спектральный диапазон, мм3.3 - 13.6
3Диаметр (зеркала), метра1.4 х 1.6
4Мощность, Вт419
5Угловое разрешение (максимальный), минут15
6Чувствительность10E-5
7Охлаждение (приемников), кельвинов50
8Измерение интенсивности и поляризации фотоновесть

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2001-027A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость , млн. долл.160

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2001-06-30 at 19:46:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xWMAP
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 607 документов по запросу «WMAP». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Chandra XMM-Newton HETE-2 Odin WMAP Integral Spitzer GALEX Swift Suzaku...). Interstellar chemistry and atmospheric ozone. WMAP (NASA) Explorer to study anisotropy... NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Explorer mission has reported the... added surprise of these first WMAP results is the apparent evidence... WACCM WD WFC WG WIND WMAP WRMISS Xe XEUS XMM-Newton...



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... Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA WMAP Detection of Early Reionization Kogut... The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky... correlations are present in all WMAP frequency bands with similar amplitude.... On small angular scales the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization... ionization history. I will discuss the WMAP data and its implications for... The Undiscovered World: Cosmology from WMAP Bennett, Charles; [2004]; 1 pp.; In... first findings from a year of WMAP satellite operations provide a detailed full... The Undiscovered World: Cosmology from WMAP – 315 Next Generation Transport Phenomenology... Electronics in Collider Experiments – 261 WMAP Detection of Early Reionization – 308... The Undiscovered World: Cosmology from WMAP – 315 COPOLYMERS Development of High... The Undiscovered World: Cosmology from WMAP – 315 COST ANALYSIS An Exploratory...-Based Telescope Cost Model – 303 WMAP Detection of Early Reionization – 308...) The Undiscovered World: Cosmology from WMAP – 315 EVOLVABLE HARDWARE Design Space... of Flight Mass Spectrometer – 134 WMAP Detection of Early Reionization – 308... Films – 280 MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE WMAP Detection of Early Reionization – 308... Scale - Model Measurements – 131 UNIVERSE WMAP Detection of Early Reionization – 308... The Undiscovered World: Cosmology from WMAP – 315 INTEGRAL Studies of Nonthermal... Medline Record Files – 209 Kogut, A. WMAP Detection of Early Reionization – 308...



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... 5, 2007 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Three Year Observations: Implications for... supernova luminosity/distance relationship. Using WMAP data only, the best fit values... new best fit WMAP-only model is close to the WMAP (first year... a given value of τ , indicating that WMAP determinations of cosmological parameters are... from the WMAP Best Fit ΛCDM Model The WMAP data alone is... combinations of WMAP data with other CMB data sets: WMAP + high frequency bolometer experiments (ACBAR + BOOMERanG) and WMAP + low frequency radiometer experiments (CBI... spectrum measurements and WMAP measurements at 800 < l < 1000, the WMAP measurements are.... 4.1.4. Large-Scale Structure With the WMAP polarization measurements constraining the suppression... found in – 29 – 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 WMAP + Weak Lensing W 0.8 Weak Lensing 0.7 WMAP 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Fig. 7.— Prediction for... (σ8 , Ωm ) plane for for WMAP only, CFHTLS only and WMAP + CFHTLS, respectively, for...). 4.1.11. Supernova Fig. 8.— Using the WMAP Λ CDM parameters, we predict luminosity... Ωm h2 h τ ns σ8 Ωm WMAP Only WMAP +CBI+VSA WMAP+ACBAR +BOOMERanG WMAP + 2dFGRS +0.075 2.230... Model WMAP+ SDSS 100Ωb h2 Ωm h2 h τ ns σ8 Ωm WMAP+ LRG WMAP+ SNLS WMAP + SN Gold WMAP... combined data set (WMAP...WMAP+ALL), rather we quote WMAP+CFHT results Fig. 9.— One-dimensional marginalized distribution of Ωm h2 for WMAP, WMAP+CBI+VSA, WMAP+BOOM+ACBAR, WMAP+SDSS, WMAP+SN(SNLS), WMAP+SN(HST/GOODS), WMAP+2dFGRS and WMAP... WMAP ALL 0.00 0.018 0.022 WMAP ALL 0.85 0.018 0.026 0.20 0.022 WMAP... 0.15 0.10 0.05 WMAP ALL 0.00 20 WMAP ALL 0.6 28 24 1.05... 0.90 0.90 WMAP ALL 0.85 20 WMAP ALL 24 WMAP ALL 28 20 0.018 0.022 0.026 WMAP ALL... of parameters for WMAP only (solid lines) and WMAP+2dFGRS+SDSS+ACBAR... for both WMAP only and for the combination of WMAP+ALL. 5. Constraining... +0.038 for WMAP+CBI+VSA, and dns /d ln k = −0.082 ± WMAP only, dns... favor a more negative running. – 39 – 2.0 2.0 WMAP WMAP 1.5 r 0.002 r 0.002 1.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 ns 0.002 1.3 1.4 0.0 –0.20... 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.05 2.0 WMAP + SDSS WMAP + SDSS 1.5 1.5 r 0.002 r 0.002 –0.10... –0.10 –0.05 dns /d ln k 2.0 2.0 WMAP + CBI + VSA WMAP + CBI + VSA 1.5 1.5 r 0.002 r 0.002... k = 0.002 Mpc−1 . (Upper) WMAP only. (Middle) WMAP+SDSS. (Bottom) WMAP+CBI+VSA. Note... constraints from WMAP+lensing and WMAP+2dFGRS are similar to the WMAP+SDSS..., – 43 – 1.0 WMAP r 0.002 0.8 WMAP + SDSS 50 60 50 60 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 1.0 WMAP + 2dF r 0.002 0.8 WMAP + CBI...) WMAP only. (Upper right) WMAP+SDSS. (Lower left) WMAP+2dFGRS. (Lower right) WMAP+CBI...) r (with running) WMAP < 0.65 (95% CL) <1.1 (95% CL) WMAP+BOOM+ACBAR <0.68... H(z) and D(z). – 47 – 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 WMAP WMAP+SDSS WMAP WMAP+2dF –1.5 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 WMAP WMAP+SN(HST/GOODS) WMAP WMAP+SN(SNLS) –1.5 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Fig...) WMAP only and WMAP + SDSS. (Upper right) WMAP only and WMAP + 2dFGRS. (Lower left) WMAP only and WMAP+SN(HST/GOODS). (Lower right) WMAP only and WMAP+SN... Energy Clustering Data Set WMAP + SDSS WMAP + 2dFGRS WMAP + SNGold WMAP + SNLS CMB+ LSS... clusters. – 49 – 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 –1.5 WMAP WMAP+SDSS WMAP WMAP+2dF –2.0 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 –1.5 WMAP WMAP+SN(HST/GOODS) WMAP WMAP+SN(SNLS) –2.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Fig...) WMAP only and WMAP + SDSS. (Upper right) WMAP only and WMAP + 2dFGRS. (Lower left) WMAP only and WMAP+SNgold. (Lower right) WMAP only and WMAP.... The combination of WMAP with SDSS and WMAP with 2dFGRS data constrain... to tighten the constraint on mν . 0.9 WMAP WMAP+SDSS 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Fig. 19.— Joint two...) on (σ8 , mν ) for WMAP only, Model M7 in Table 3, and WMAP+SDSS. By...) Data Set Nν WMAP 1.8 eV (95% CL) − +4.1 WMAP + SDSS 1.3 eV (95% CL) 7.1−3.5 WMAP + 2dFGRS... f . – 56 – 7.3. Non-Flat Universe The WMAP observations place significant constraints... on ΩΛ . – 57 – 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 WMAP WMAP + HST WMAP WMAP + LRGs WMAP WMAP + SNLS WMAP WMAP + SN gold WMAP WMAP + 2dF WMAP WMAP + SDSS 0.4 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Fig...) WMAP+SNLS data. (Middle right) WMAP+SNGold. (Lower left) WMAP+2dFGRS. (Lower right) WMAP... Set ΩK ΩΛ WMAP + h = 0.72 ± 0.08 WMAP + SDSS WMAP + 2dFGRS WMAP + SDSS LRG WMAP + SNLS WMAP + SNGold −0.014... ΛCDM model. The combination of WMAP measurements and other astronomical measurements... a cosmological constant, w = −1. The combination of WMAP data with measurements of the... not a good fit to the WMAP data. The WMAP data requires either tensor...



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... Anisotropy Probe (WMAP): Seven–Year Explanatory Supplement1 The WMAP Science Working Group... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 The Radiometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 The HEMT Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3.1 WMAP Amplifier Build, Qualification 1.2.3.2 Ionizing Radiation... . . . . . . . 4.4.2 COORTRANS . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Widgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 MAP DATE . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 MAPVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 WMAP IDL Procedures . . . . . . v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 129 129... 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 WMAP Optical System Parameters . . . . . . WMAP Feed Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . WMAP Radiometer and HEMT Specifications WMAP Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WMAP Amplifier Components . . . . . . . . . WMAP Maneuver... 5 GHz identifications WMAP DR1 Identification Number WMAP Spectral Index WMAP Spectral Index Error... catalog mask. 2.6. ANCILLARY DATA Mask wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap temperature analysis mask r9 7yr... each of the 10 WMAP detector assemblies. While WMAP’s optical system gain... into a Julian day. Converts a WMAP GMT into a WMAP timestamp. Converts the YYYYDDD... a reduced Julian day. Converts a WMAP timestamp into a WMAP GMT. Converts an array.... 4.6. WMAP IDL PROCEDURES 4.6 147 WMAP IDL Procedures A list of the available WMAP IDL... of in-flight operations. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Selected WMAP Satellite Pre-Flight Preparations: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------... GMT... time stream data mask. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------START: WMAP YEAR-ONE SCIENCE DATA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Transmitter... of year-one data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-ONE DATA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Recorder Memory... of year-two data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-TWO DATA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Safehold Event... of year-three data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-THREE DATA ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Station-keeping... of year-five data -------------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-FIVE DATA --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Station-keeping... of year-six data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-SIX DATA ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Shadow Avoidance... Maneuver #19 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lunar shadow transit -------------------------------------------------------------------------------WMAP will transit the lunar shadow... of year-seven data -------------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-SEVEN DATA -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Appendix C Mnemonics...



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... Anisotropy Probe (WMAP): Five–Year Explanatory Supplement1 The WMAP Science Working Group... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 The Radiometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 The HEMT Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3.1 WMAP Amplifier Build, Qualification 1.2.3.2 Ionizing Radiation... 4.6 v 4.5.1 MAP DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 4.5.2 MAPVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 WMAP IDL Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 A Gain Model... 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 WMAP Optical System Parameters . . . . . . WMAP Feed Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . WMAP Radiometer and HEMT Specifications WMAP Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WMAP Amplifier Components . . . . . . . . . WMAP Maneuver...: NASA Technical Workmanship Standards: NRAO/WMAP: Specific Activity Description General Workmanship... the observatory’s flight configuration. Figure 1.5: WMAP Thermal-Mechanical Distortion Finite Element... Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters From WMAP Data. ApJS... Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters From WMAP Data. ApJS... each parameter. Model wmap 2df bao boom+ acbar WMAP+ cbi+ hst sdss... Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters From WMAP Data. ApJS...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Parameter Estimation Methodology. ApJS....fits wmap ext temperature analysis mask r9 5yr v3.fits wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap wmap polarization...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Galactic Foreground Emission. ApJS... each of the 10 WMAP detector assemblies. While WMAP’s optical system gain... return! PROCEDURES USED: Quat_to_Sky_Coords, Interpolate_Quaternions WMAP Library 112 4.3. MAPPING PROCEDURES 4.3 113... into a Julian day. Converts a WMAP GMT into a WMAP timestamp. Converts the YYYYDDD... a reduced Julian day. Converts a WMAP timestamp into a WMAP GMT. Converts an array.... 4.6. WMAP IDL PROCEDURES 4.6 123 WMAP IDL Procedures A list of the available WMAP IDL... data from a binary FITS table. 4.6. WMAP IDL PROCEDURES FITS_REPROJ_HEALPIX FSC_FileSelect() Get_DEU_Int_Temp.... Convert quaternions to rotation matrices 4.6. WMAP IDL PROCEDURES Quat_to_Sky_Coords Reproj_HEALPIX Scan_Overlay... Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters From WMAP Data. ApJS...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: On-Orbit Radiometer Characterization...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature-Polarization Correlation. ApJS...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Interpretation. ApJS, 2008...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Determination of Cosmological Parameters...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Parameter Estimation Methodology. ApJS... year in-flight operations. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Selected WMAP Satellite Pre-Flight Preparations: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------... GMT... internal power (KSC/GSFC) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Selected WMAP Satellite Launch and In-Orbit Checkout (IOC): ---------------------------------------------------------------------------GMT 20011811946 WMAP Launch Time: 2001181194646.183 GMT... time stream data mask. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------START: WMAP YEAR-ONE SCIENCE DATA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Transmitter... of year-one data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-ONE DATA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Recorder Memory... of year-two data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-TWO DATA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Safehold Event... of year-three data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-THREE DATA ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Station-keeping... of year-five data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------END: WMAP YEAR-FIVE DATA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Appendix C Mnemonics...



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... on smaller scales, from WMAP to fine ✁ ✂ ✄ ✁ ✁ ☎ ☎ ✁ ✆ ✝ ✂ ✂ ✞ ✞ ✂ ✂ ✞ ✡ ✟ ✞ ✠ ✂ ✡ ✠ ✂ ✞ ✂ ✠ ✂ ✞ ✂ 1 WMAP is the result of... COBE and confirmed by WMAP is intriguing. WMAP continues to operate, so... of CMB polarization measurements. The WMAP mission was designed to advance... the Gaussian nature of the WMAP anisotropy, determined in the companion.... 2003). In §8 we highlight the WMAP polarization results, including a detection of... of the WMAP data products. 2. OBSERVATIONS The 840 kg WMAP Observatory was... minimizing systematic errors. Therefore, the WMAP instrument was designed with a back... were permitted anywhere on the WMAP spacecraft. These design features helped.... ✁ ✂ ✁ ✁ ✂ ✆ ✁ –6– Fig. 1.— An overview of the WMAP data flow. The references are..., HEALPix resolution level r = 9 (used in WMAP map-making) corresponds with Nside... = 6 87 arc-min. pix = 3 99       ✂ ✂ ✂ ✂ ✄ ✁ ✠ ☎ ✠ ✁ ✠ ✂ ☎ ✄ ✂ WMAP observes the sky convolved with... a significant source of uncertainty for WMAP since they imply imperfect knowledge.... Comparisons of data between WMAP radiometers, and between WMAP and COBE, are... Galactic coordinates. – 10 – Fig. 2c.— WMAP Q-band sky map in Mollweide... Galactic coordinates. – 11 – Fig. 2d.— WMAP V-band sky map in Mollweide... Galactic coordinates. – 12 – Fig. 2e.— WMAP W-band sky map in Mollweide.... 1996) with the W-band WMAP map. The WMAP map has 30 times... necessary for CMB analyses. The WMAP mission carries radiometers at five... a linear combination of the multifrequency WMAP data that retains unity response... the spectral information from mutliple WMAP bands. Q-band is red, V-band... index (with of −2 2 between the WMAP Ka-band and V-band, approximating..., causing a temperature decrement in the WMAP bands (the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect... not a significant “contaminant” to the WMAP data. ✂ ✞ ✂ ✂ ✞ ✂ ✂ ✞ ✂ 6. LIMITS ON NON-GAUSSIANITY... beam pattern of the experiment. WMAP samples all angular scales limited... from the WMAP data during processing. Examination of the WMAP maps allow... amplitude is limited by the WMAP 0.5% calibration uncertainty, which will improve... range 6 9 K et al. (1996a). ✂ ✂ ✁ ✁ ✟ ✟ ✂ ✂ ✁ ☎ ☎ ✟ ✁ ✁ ✂ ✁ ✁ ✁ The WMAP quadrupole, Qrms = 8 2 K or T22 = 154... properties. The fact that the WMAP data use a nearly azimuthally symmetric...-diagonal (cross-correlations) in the WMAP power spectrum analysis. In dropping... shown for the WMAP data in Figure 12. The WMAP power spectrum..., C( ), shown in Figure 13. The WMAP correlation function is computed using... directly, without corrections, to the WMAP W-band map. These plots emphasize the consistency of the WMAP and COBE measurements. The slightly.... 12.— The WMAP angular power spectrum. (top:) The WMAP temperature (TT) results... models. ✆   ✁   ✁ ✂ ✁     – 29 – 1500 COBE/DMR WMAP C(θ) µK2 1000 500 0 C(θ) µK2 -500... function of the WMAP and COBE data. The WMAP correlation function is..., an excellent fit to the WMAP power spectrum. However, a correlation plot... directly, without corrections, to the WMAP W-band map. These plot emphasize the consistency of the WMAP and COBE measurements. The slightly... the construction of the synthesized WMAP 53 GHz map. ✆ ✄ – 30 – emphasizes... & Henderson 1979). Polarization measurements from WMAP are consistent with previous observations... 0 28 at 95% confidence). Although WMAP measures the integrated optical depth... the values of the new WMAP best-fit parameters (see §9.1). ✝ ✂ ✞ ✂ The... summarize the cosmological intepretation of WMAP first year results, which are... of the standard model. The WMAP detection of temperaturepolarization correlations (Kogut... spatially. The analysis of the WMAP temperature data demonstrates Gaussianity (Komatsu... Cl=10 = 44 4 K2 . ✂ ✁ ✂ ✁ The WMAP data alone enable accurate determinations... Peiris et al. (2003). ✂ ✂ ✂ ✂ ✁ ✟ ✂ The WMAP data constrains the properties of...; Spergel & Steinhardt 2000). (c) While the WMAP data alone are compatible with... ✑A rs ✂ – 34 – 9.2. Best Fit Parameters WMAP’s measurements of the baryon density... Bang model. ATOMIC DENSITY ( b h2 ): WMAP measures the atomic density at... technique. ✠ ✠ ✂ ✞ ✂ ✠ HUBBLE CONSTANT (H0 ): The WMAP measurements of the age and... equality epoch. From these effects WMAP measures the matter density, m h2..., which is consistent with the WMAP result of m = 0 27 0 04. ✠ ✠   ✠ ✠ ✡ ✠ ✠ ✠ ✂ ✞ ✂ ✠ ✂ ✞ ✂ Cluster... a value of +0 009 −1 −1 0 01 from WMAP. b m = 0 081−0 011 h (Grego et al... 0 17 ✡ ✠ ✠ ✂ ✂ ✡ ✞ ✂ – 35 – 9.3. Implications for Inflation WMAP data tests several of the...-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. The WMAP detection of an anti-correlation... of fluctuations, as seen by WMAP. The WMAP data, in combination with... a specific workable inflationary scenario. The WMAP data place significant constraints on... of on-going WMAP observations and future improved analyses, WMAP will be... provides detailed information about the WMAP in-flight operations and data... analysis. 11. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS (1) WMAP has produced high quality full..., J. 2003, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP): Explanatory Supplement, http://lambda.gsfc...



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... Anisotropy Probe (WMAP): Three–Year Explanatory Supplement1 The WMAP Science Working Group... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 The Radiometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 The HEMT Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3.1 WMAP Amplifier Build, Qualification 1.2.3.2 Ionizing Radiation... . . . . . . 4.4.2 COORTRANS . . . . . . . . 4.5 Widgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 MAP DATE . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 MAPVIEW . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 WMAP IDL Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 71 . . . . . . 72... 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 WMAP Optical System Parameters . . . . . . WMAP Feed Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . WMAP Radiometer and HEMT Specifications WMAP Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WMAP Amplifier Components . . . . . . . . . WMAP Maneuver...: NASA Technical Workmanship Standards: NRAO/WMAP: Specific Activity Description General Workmanship...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature Results. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameters. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature Results. ApJ, submitted... each parameter. Model wmap 2df bao boom+ acbar WMAP+ cbi+ hst sdss...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Parameter Estimation Methodology. ApJS...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature Results. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature Results. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature Results. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature Results. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature Results. ApJ, submitted... 2.5. DERIVED FOREGROUND PRODUCTS Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature Results. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Polarization Analysis. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameters. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Polarization Analysis. ApJ, submitted... each of the 10 WMAP detector assemblies. While WMAP’s optical system gain... into a Julian day. - Converts a WMAP GMT into a WMAP timestamp. - Converts the YYYYDDD... a reduced Julian day. - Converts a WMAP timestamp into a WMAP GMT. - Converts an array... center of the zoomed image. 4.6 WMAP IDL Procedures AIHK_Arch2Mnemonic() AIHK_GetMnemonic() AIHK_Pckt2Mnemonic... analog instrument housekeeping (AIHK) PRT. 4.6. WMAP IDL PROCEDURES AIHK_Mnem2Serial_List AIHK_MnemTime AIHK_MnemTimeStamp... of a digital instrument housekeeping mnemonic. 4.6. WMAP IDL PROCEDURES DIHK_Mnem_Coefs DispGMT() DispTS... a WMAP GMT datetime string into a reduced Julian date. Converts a WMAP GMT into a WMAP timestamp. 4.6. WMAP IDL PROCEDURES GMT2YMD Grid_Overlay.... Converts a WMAP timestamp into a WMAP GMT. Converts a time stamp into a WMAP Reduced Julian.... Supporting routine for sci getmnemonic. 4.6. WMAP IDL PROCEDURES TextRead TimeStamp_AddTime timestamp_diff...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: On-Orbit Radiometer Characterization...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Temperature-Polarization Correlation. ApJS...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Polarization Analysis. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Determination of Cosmological Parameters...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameters. ApJ, submitted...-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Parameter Estimation Methodology. ApJS...



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... current data, and indicates how WMAP furthers our understanding of cosmology... free to contact us directly. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt.... Will, Clifford, "Was Einstein Right?" wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... ultimate fate of our universe. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... is following the red curve. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... the Big Bang model predicts. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... analogy breaks down. The current WMAP results show the Hubble Constant....0 ± 2.5 (km/sec)/Mpc. If the WMAP data is combined with other... is 70.4 ± 1.4 (km/sec)/Mpc. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... elements becomes highly constrained. The WMAP satellite is able to directly... a by-product of this work. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... including Dave Wilkinson of the WMAP science team, were devising an... instruments, such as COBE and WMAP, can cosmologists detect fluctuations in..., explanation of the above puzzles. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... point across the sky. The WMAP satellite measures these small fluctuations... fluctuations on large angular scales. WMAP re-measures the fluctuations with... offers a quick introduction to how WMAP achieves this sensitivity - more details... models predict a smaller characteristic scale. WMAP, with its superb sensitivity, indicates... released on January 15th, 1996. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... temperature. Several members of the WMAP science team help lead the... experiment. Comparison of COBE and WMAP sky images Fluctuations seen by... of what the WMAP experiment detects. Note that WMAP detects much finer... scale structure in the universe. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... significant problems: The Flatness Problem: WMAP has determined the geometry of... Theory of Cosmic Origins", 1998. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... of our understanding of cosmology. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... the cosmic microwave background fluctuations, WMAP is able to measure the... and composition of the universe. WMAP measures the relative density of... cosmic microwave background fluctuation spectrum. WMAP determined that the universe is... day. In 2003, the first WMAP results came out indicating that... with the WMAP data. However, with 5 years of data, WMAP is able... of galaxies and clusters, with WMAP's measurements of cosmic microwave background... the current state of cosmology. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... value of the Hubble constant. WMAP AND THE HUBBLE CONSTANT By... the cosmic microwave background fluctuations, WMAP has accurately determined the basic... Universe", Scientific American, July 1993. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... theory, even without a cosmological constant. WMAP CAN MEASURE THE AGE OF THE UNIVERSE Measurements by the WMAP satellite can help resolve this... universe and its expansion rate. WMAP has been able to determine....7 ± 0.13 billion years! How does WMAP data enable us to determine.... The expansion age measured by WMAP is larger than the oldest... collected by WMAP. If the expansion age measured by WMAP had been... from other kinds of measurements. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt...". However, the results of the WMAP mission and observations of distant... of paper. MEASUREMENTS FROM WMAP The WMAP spacecraft can measure the basic...% accuracy prior to the WMAP results. WMAP has confirmed this result with... volume we can directly observe. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... of galaxies and clusters, with WMAP's measurements of cosmic microwave background... observed properties of X-ray clusters. WMAP AND THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT By... the cosmic microwave background fluctuations, WMAP is able to accurately determine... the current state of cosmology. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... THE UNIVERSE START AND EVOLVE? WMAP found that the universe is... a tremendous amount of light. Today, WMAP measures that there is more.... WE AREN'T MADE OF HYDROGEN! WMAP determined that about 4.6% of the..., and then rapidly inflated apart. WMAP has verified that other predictions... to ever form. In addition, WMAP has confirmed the existence of...) program pioneered searches for life. WMAP itself is, in a small way... a wide range of microwave frequencies. WMAP was not optimized to search... cosmic microwave background using the WMAP space mission we are learning... is characteristic of human life. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... forever exponentially. MEASUREMENTS FROM WMAP The WMAP satellite measures the basic parameters... NOVA show The Runaway Universe. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... with cosmic microwave background photons, WMAP observations help to elucidate the... electrons in the early universe. WMAP is designed to detect polarized... nature of these first objects. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt...", An excellent popular astronomy book. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... Neutron Stars Black Holes Supernovae wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... that directly contradict the theory. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt... the Big Bang (discusses the WMAP Mission) by Michael D. Lemonick Just... Cosmological Physics by John A. Peacock wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov Webmaster: Britt...



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... this paper. With the 5 year WMAP data, we detect no convincing... by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic 1 WMAP is the result of a partnership... guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team. 2 Code 665, NASA... scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of... The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX... cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the... processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data (Bennett et al. 2003... the large-scale polarization anisotropy, WMAP data have enabled the following... the atomic density derived from WMAP and the density inferred from... with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the density puts... et al. 2003). Further, the WMAP measurement of the primordial power... the CMB fluctuations measured by WMAP are close to Gaussian; however... the universe at z ∼ 10. The WMAP data imply that the universe... optical depth of the universe, WMAP not only constrains the age... results compiled from 5 years of WMAP data that are fully presented... reports on changes in the WMAP data processing pipeline, presents the... physical optics model of the WMAP telescope, and use the results to better determine the WMAP beam response. Gold et al... diffuse foreground emission in the WMAP data and update previous analyses... parameter results based on 5 year WMAP data. They also develop an... cosmological parameters by combining 5 year WMAP data with a host of other... described in detail in the WMAP Explanatory Supplement (Limon et al...), also available on LAMBDA. The WMAP instrument is composed of 10... temperature (Mather et al. 1999). A WMAP band-by-band tabulation of... the CMB dipole due to WMAP’s motion. We describe the revised... has decreased from 0.5% to 0.2%. • The WMAP beam response has now been... 5 of the flight data. • Each WMAP differencing assembly consists of two... et al. (2008) update the WMAP point source catalog and present...). 3. OBSERVATIONS AND MAPS The 5 year WMAP data encompass the period from... in each band. Recall that WMAP is insensitive to absolute temperature... linear combination (ILC) of the WMAP multifrequency data (Gold et al... a linear combination of all the WMAP frequency bands. We analyze the... the –9– dipole anisotropy induced by WMAP’s motion with respect to the... differential dipole anisotropy induced by WMAP’s motion, and ∆Tai is the... , (4) where the first term is WMAP’s velocity with respect to the... latter velocity is constant over WMAP’s life span, any error in... to a single linear polarization state. (WMAP measures polarization by differencing orthogonal... 0.2% per channel for the 5 year WMAP archive. 4.2. Summary The series of... physical optics model of the WMAP telescope based on flight measurements... to sidelobe data collected during WMAP’s early observations of the Moon... of 5 bands. The analysis of WMAP polarization data is complicated by... which rely heavily on the WMAP l = 3 BB data should be treated... is relatively poorly measured by WMAP, as discussed in Page et... time dependent emission from the WMAP optics as a candidate for explaining... frequency roughly like ν 1.5 across the WMAP frequency range, as expected for... solar radiation diffracting around the WMAP sun shield reaching the tops... in Equation 10. Recall that a WMAP differencing assembly consists of two... that thermal emission from the WMAP optics cannot explain the excess... the overall polarization sensitivity of WMAP. 7. SUMMARY OF 5-YEAR SCIENCE RESULTS... with previous analyses by the WMAP team and others (Eriksen et... multi-year coverage. The 5 year WMAP source catalog now contains 390... source flux scale for all 5 WMAP frequency bands. This information is... the new version of the WMAP likelihood code. The most notable... cosmological implications of the 5 year WMAP data are discussed in detail... is determined with 6% uncertainty using WMAP data only (Dunkley et al. 2008), and with 3% uncertainty when WMAP data is combined with BAO... latter is measured to 5% with WMAP data, and to 3% when combined... zreion = 6 is rejected at 3.5 σ. The WMAP data continues to favor models... we provide estimates using WMAP data alone and WMAP data combined with... a more complete analysis of the WMAP beam response made possible by... ruled out at >3 σ confidence. The WMAP observatory continues to operate at... important epoch in cosmology. The WMAP data continues to uphold the... to support further analysis. The WMAP Explanatory Supplement provides detailed information about the WMAP in-flight operations and data.... 2008, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP): Explanatory Supplement, http://lambda.gsfc... spectra based on the 5 year WMAP data. The addition of 2 years... cut, l(l + 1) Cl /2π, in µK2 . Table 4. WMAP 5 year CMB Dipole Anisotropya Cleaning... 7. Cosmological Parameter Summary Description Symbol WMAP-only Parameters for Standard ΛCDM... a 13.69 ± 0.13 Gyr 71.9+2.6 −2.7 WMAP+BAO+SN ∆2R (2.41 ± 0.11... using WMAP data only (Dunkley et al. 2008), then using WMAP+BAO... using WMAP data only (Dunkley et al. 2008), then using WMAP+BAO...



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... seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results... improvements are described in detail. 1 WMAP is the result of a partnership... guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team. 2 Dept. of Physics... for this model, using the WMAP data in conjunction with baryon... 3196−133 , using WMAP data alone. The new WMAP data, when combined... additional external data sets, the WMAP data also yield better determinations...’dovichPeebles spectrum by > 3σ These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of... The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP ) is a NASA sponsored satellite designed...). –3– The primary data product of WMAP are sets of calibrated sky... Linear Combination map (ILC) of WMAP data, both of which are... anomalous results detected in previous WMAP data releases. Weiland et al... point-like objects observed by WMAP in the context of their... ongoing efforts to characterize the WMAP beam shapes, while Section 4 presents... results obtained from the latest WMAP data set. –4– 2. Data Processing Updates... sixth and seventh years of WMAP ’s operation span the interval from... to telemeter data to Earth. WMAP was subsequently reconfigured to use... 1 August 2008 (day number 141) WMAP flew through the Moon’s shadow... incident solar flux lasting ≈ 6h. WMAP remained in normal observing mode... velocity dependent dipole resulting from WMAP ’s orbit about the solar system... as for the uncleaned maps. –6– WMAP calibration that can be seen... uncertainty. 2.3. Gaps in Observations The WMAP instrument provides the highest quality... release. Using the new procedure WMAP still achieves an overall observing... fewer contiguous pixels. The two 1 WMAP uses the HEALPix (Gorski et... reconstruction of the sky maps. WMAP ’s differential design means that the... to be introduced. In the WMAP first year results an asymmetric... that would be obtained if WMAP observed a sky corresponding to the... the noise terms optimally. The WMAP three-year (Jarosik et al... iterative procedure used in the WMAP first year results, in that... Window Functions The seven-year WMAP beams and window functions result... within the scan pattern of WMAP . Each planet typically has two...) and B side (right) of the WMAP instrument. The ordinate is scaled... for the sources in the WMAP point source catalog, are given... Stokes Q and U components for all 5 WMAP frequency bands. Polarized Galactic emission... a time dependent dipole due to WMAP ’s motion about the solar system... poorly measured by WMAP , since its symmetry, combined with WMAP ’s geometry and... power spectrum. 4.2. Science Highlights The WMAP data remains one of the... measured from the seven-year WMAP data (Larson et al. 2010... values for this model using WMAP data alone, and in combination... al. (2010). The seven-year WMAP results significantly reduce the uncertainties... to their amplitude, determined using WMAP data alone, is nearly 20% lower. By combining WMAP data with the latest distance... sources traceable to WMAP ’s precise calibration. 5. Summary The WMAP observatory has successfully... the precise absolute calibration of WMAP , were used to measure the... of parameters of cosmological models. WMAP is funded by the Science... spectra for the seven-year WMAP data set. The solid lines...-year observational data. – 35 – Table 4. WMAP Seven-year Main Beam Parameters... flux density from the peak WMAP antenna temperature, for a freefree spectrum... -0.013 -0.021 -0.061 – 37 – Table 6. WMAP Seven-Year CMB Dipole Parameters... – Table 8. WMAP Seven-year Cosmological Parameter Summary Description Symbol WMAP -only Parameters for Standard ΛCDM Model WMAP +BAO+H0... flat ΛCDM model, first using WMAP data only (Larson et al. 2010), then using WMAP +BAO+H0 data (Komatsu et... the ΛCDM model, first using WMAP data only (Larson et al. 2010), then using WMAP +BAO+H0 data (Komatsu et... is obtained from a combination k of WMAP +BAO data and luminosity distance.... 2010, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP): Seven Year Explanatory Supplement, http...