Спутник связи. Zhongxing 20. [Редактировать]

Китайское космическое агентство никогда не публиковало данные об этом космическом аппарате,однако по данным агентства Синьхуа данный спутник построен Китайской академией космической техники (CAST). Аппарат является частью системы спутниковой связи «Фэн Хуо».

Дополнительные наименования

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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Китай
2Страна производитель - Китай
3Тип оператора(владельца) - военные
4Все спутники связи

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2300

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град1.2
2Апогей, км35802.8
3Перигей, км35786.5
4Период, минут1436.1
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км42165

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-052A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2003-11-14 at 00:00:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xZhongxing 20
3Ракета-носитель 1xВеликий поход 3A

Найдено 102 документов по запросу «Zhongxing 20». [Перейти к поиску]


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0.09/5
... from Beijing to Selected Cities.. . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.12. International and Domestic RPK... new jetliners over the next 20 years. Actual purchases could be..., previous work experience, and nearly 20 years of combined experience at... world demand during the next 20 years. The markets for cargo... comparison, China’s RPK is about 20 percent that of U.S. airlines, more... Chinese commercial fleet is approximately 20 percent the size of the... MG1100-2.5 not in the top 20 for international RPK. In total... freighters worldwide over the next 20 years (Boeing, 2010, p. 10), but... freighters built over the next 20 years are sold in Asia... at 5.3 percent over the next 20 years. This implies 3.3 percent growth... new airplanes over the next 20 years, with more than one... new aircraft, over the next 20 years for their domestic market... regional aircraft over the next 20 years (Francis, 2010c). 4 Boeing predicts... 5 4 70 4 60 3 50 3 40 2 30 2 20 1 10 1 0 Brazil China Japan Germany... 10 percent) over the next 20 years to bound our projections... require replacement in the next 20 years. Boeing’s projection is equivalent... GDP growth for the next 20 years, or following a U.S.-like RPK..., 10 percent growth rates for 20 years and the current RPK.../ GDP ratio would cut the 20-year projection to about 2,000... take only 5 to 6 hours, roughly 20 Ready for Takeoff: China’s Advancing... Domestic 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Brazil China Japan SOURCE... purchase nine. Over the next 20 years, COMAC hopes to build... C919s. Hainan Airlines ordered another 20, General Electric Commercial Aviation Services... (Perrett, 2010b, p. 49; Perrett, 2010c, p. 20). 28 Ready for Takeoff: China... 2010 had delivered a total of 20 A320s and five A319s. The... payload. Under the initial contract, 20 helicopters will be assembled. This... flight in 1989. Only about 20 of these aircraft have been... for another 150 A320s and 20 A350s in 2006. In 2007... market once every 15 to 20 years” (Layne, 2010). • Undetermined interest... and propulsion engineers from almost 20 Chinese operators received training in... (“Chengdu Aerotech Manufacturing Co., Ltd.”). • 20-percent interest in Xi’an... (“Industrial Cooperation and Technology Transfers”). • 20-percent interest in Hafei Airbus... with the capacity to produce 20 aircraft per year was opened... Singapore UAE 25 Brazil Canada 20 China Germany 15 Japan United... China 40 Germany 30 Japan 20 United Kingdom France 10 0 2005... known spacecraft launches between October 20, 1996, and June 15, 2010... satellites. Fenghuo, officially known as Zhongxing 22 or ChinaSat 22, was... January 2000. A replacement, Fenghuo 1A (Zhongxing 22A/ChinaSat 22A), was launched... and data communications (“Feng Huo [Zhongxing 2X/ShenTong Series],” 2010; “UCS...”). Shentong, officially known as Zhongxing 20 or ChinaSat 20, is described as a “strategic... data-processing capability (“Feng Huo [Zhongxing 2X/ShenTong Series],” 2010). China...”; “Venesat (Simon Bolivar),” 2010; “Chinasat/ Zhongxing/STTW Series,” 2010; de Selding... a 113-km-wide swath with 20-m spatial resolution in five spectral... Earth Resources Satellite”). Images with 20-m resolution, such as those provided... equipped with a CCD camera of 20-m resolution. Huanjing 1A also carries... at night with a resolution of 20 m. As noted above, 3 See “Zi...’s Space Capabilities 99 images of 20-m resolution have limited military utility....reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5931LT20091004 “Chinasat/Zhongxing/STTW Series,” Jane’s Space Systems... Aviation (巴航工业:绿色飞行),” Business Watch Magazine, August 20, 2010. “Embraer in China,” Embraer..., June 17, 2010. “Feng Huo (Zhongxing 2X/ShenTong Series),” Jane’s Space... for China,” Seattle Times, June 20, 2005. Herrnstadt, Owen, “Offsets and..., U.S. Aerospace Industry Statistics, visited October 20, 2010. As of January 29... Sharp Images,” Defense News, October 20, 2008. As of January 29... Ownership Structure,” Flight International, July 20, 2010. As of January 29....flightglobal.com/articles/2010/07/20/344475/eadss-complexownership-structure.html... Space Technology, November 22, 2010c, p. 20. ———, “Longer Marches,” Aviation Week and... and Security Review Commission, May 20, 2010. As of January 29... Week Intelligence Network website, July 20, 2010. “World Bank Data Book...



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0.07/5
... VOLNA-21 GALS-15 NSS-20 TELECOM-3C SYRACUSE-3E VIDEOSAT... E F/EUT F/EUT F F/EUT F/EUT 16.20 E I I 16.80 E CHN 17.00.../IK 19.00 E LUX 19.20 E LUX LUX LUX Space Network....2 E 19.2 E 19.2 E C1.19 C1.20 C1.21 C1.22 2011...) AfriStar 1 Astra 2G Eutelsat 21B 20.0 E C1.23 2013-011A 1998-063A 2014-089A 2012-062B 20.6 E 21.0 E 21.1 E 21.6 E 2C2.2 C2... IVB, i=11.4 33.8 E C2.17 20.00 E ARS/ARB ARABSAT 2-C ARS... E 23.50 E 24.00 E 24.20 E 25.00 E 25.50 E 26.00 E 28.20 E 28.50 E 29.00 E 30... VIII F-3 (NSS 803)i=2.1 50.5 E C2.20 1998-056B Sirius 3, i=4.9 51.2 E C2...-6 TOR-17M TONGASAT-h70 STATSIONAR-20 VOLNA-19 GALS-16 EUTELSAT... 176 (DSP f22), i=6.4 Intelsat IS- 20 USA 171, i=7.7 65.0 E 66.0 E 65... 2011-035B 2012-067A Kazsat-2 Zhongxing 12 86.5 E 87.5 E C1.98... 92.00 E USA USA 92.20 E CHN CHN CHN CHN 93... CHN CHN CHN RUS 98.20 E CHN 98.50 E UAE 99...), i=4.8 92.2 E 2C2.15 2008-028A Zhongxing 9 92.2 E C1.105 2003-013A....110 2013-020A 2012-028A Zhongxing 11 Zhongxing 2A 98.0 E C1.111... 2014-090A 2009-042A USA 20 (FLTSATCOM F7),i=14.4 Fengyun 2E....113 2006-038A 1989-035A Zhongxing-22A (FengHuo-1)i=4.2 101.5 E USA 37....41 2C2.19 2003-052A Zhongxing-20(ShenTong1,ST-1) 103.3 E C2.42... Page 6 Nominal Admin. Longitude 108.20 E G LUX 109.00 E G 109.65... E 115.50 E 116.00 E 116.20 E 118.00 E 119.50 E 120... E 121.00 E 122.00 E 122.20 E 123.00 E 123.50 E 124...), i=6.9 110.1 E 2C2.20 2010-024A 2011-026A Beidou DW 4 Zhongxing 10 110....128 C1.129 2007-031A Zhongxing 6B 115.5 E C1.130 1999... 124.0 E C1.137 2010-042A Zhongxing 6A 125.1 E C1.138 1995... Page 7 Nominal Admin. Longitude 128.20 E KOR 130.00 E RUS RUS...-047A 2010-064A 2010-033A Zhongxing 1A Zhongxing 20A USA 159 (DSP... W USA 165.00 W USA 164.20 W USA Space Network Name 160... CAN CAN CAN CAN 110.20 W USA CANSAT KA-4 ANIK E-B CANSAT... CAN-BSS19 USASAT-70W 101.20 W USA USABSS-1 101.00 W USA... 100.00 W USA USA 99.20 W USA 99.00 W USA USA...-8 B-SAT-IJ 86.50 W 85.20 W 85.10 W 85.00 W 67....50 W 22.00 W 21.50 W 20.20 W 20.00 W 19.00 W 18.00....0 W C1.284 2002-19A NSS-7 20.0 W C1.285 1998-052A PAS....5E INTELSAT8 338.5E SATCOM-4/20.2W INTELSAT6 340E INTELSAT7 340E...



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0.08/5
...-22 NSS-32 suspended NSS-20 TELECOM-2C TELECOM 3C SYRACUSE... LUX EUT EUT EUT EUT 20.00 E ARS ARB 21.00... E 15.00 E 16.00 E 16.20 E 16.50 E 17.00 E 19.00 E 19.20 E 23.00 E 23.30 E 23.50 E 24.00 E 24.20 E 25.00 E 25.50 E 26.00 E 28.20 E 28.50 E 28.75 E 29....19E 19.22E 20.01E 19.22E 20.32E 20.98E 21.18E... VOLNA-19 USGON-1 USTRO-6 STATSIONAR-20 GALS-16 TOR-17M TONGASAT... E 91.50 E 92.00 E 92.20 E 93.00 E 93.50 E 95...), i=4.98 92.12E 2008-028A Zhongxing 9 92.18E Dec 2011 2003... 2003-052A Zhongxing-20 98.02E Dec 2011 2000-003A Zhongxing-22, i=3.27... 1986-096A 2009-042A USA 20,(FLTSATC. F7)i=12.73 Asiasat... 148 (DSCS III B-08),i=2.98 Zhongxing-22A, FH1, i=1.83 Ekspress 2A....00 E INS INS INS 108.20 E G 109.00 E G 109.65 E J 109... INS KOR INS KOR 113.20 E CHN 115.50 E CHN CHN....00 E CHN KOR KOR 116.20 E KOR 118.00 E INS INS... 2011 Dec 2011 2007-031A Zhongxing 6B 115.54E Dec 2011... J RUS RUS J RUS RUS J 128.20 E KOR 130.00 E RUS CHN....87E Dec 2011 2010-064A Zhongxing 20A 130.09E Dec 2011... Dec 2011 1997-036A Superbird C, i=20.80 158.03E Dec 2011....10 W CAN CAN CAN 110.20 W USA ANIK D-2 CANSAT-17 MEXSAT...-6 110.00 W USA USABSS-5 109.20 W MEX MEX MEX MEX 107... USASAT-31L USASAT-35H 101.20 W USA 101.00 W USA USA....50 W HOL HOL HOL HOL 20.20 W BEL USGCSS PH3 MID- ATL....5E INTELSAT7 338.5E SATCOM-4/20.2W 2002-011A TDRS 9, i=1.47... 14 24.49W Dec 2011 20.00 W USA USA USA HOL...



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0.43/5
... over ideology in 1980. In a 20 years. This development is Maoist... based on the so-called 20 China´s Posture in Space. Implications...) FSW 2-4 CZ-2D Observation (recoverable) Zhongxing 20 CZ-3A Communication Tan Ce...-6A CZ-4B Science FSW-20 CZ-2D Observation (recoverable) Feng... Observation SJ 8 CZ-2C Science Zhongxing 22A CZ-3A Communication SJ... Year Resolution Status CBERS 1 1999 20 to 200 m according to end... 2B 2002 ? ? CBERS 2A 2003 20 to 200 m according to operational... and China. “Shanghai the multipolarity 20 Five”. as In the members... US one within less than 20 years21. yet substantial. After a meeting... State Statistics specified it as 20.3 billion US mutual interest and... Europe’s security over the next 20 However, years, Europe has a major... Policy (of the year 2005) 20 cf. Wolkow, Vladimir, 31 August... borders,” The New York Times, 20 November 2006, http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/11/20/news/china.php 61 Sanjoy...



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0.08/5
... in space and more than 20 optical and electrooptical facilities at... Japanese H-2A second-stage rocket < 20 (short-lived) The Space Environment... tourism has led at least 20 states to develop national laws... Programs and Global Utilities 05 20 00 20 95 19 90 19... satellites.7 25 The USSR was 20 the first space actor to... of satellites 25 20 15 10 5 05 20 00 20 95 19 90... Russian segment of the ISS.20 The first US human mission.... In 2005 JAXA released its 20-year vision statement, which includes... 60 40 60% 30 40% 20 20% 10 Other US Russia 2006... at an altitude of approximately 20,000 kilometers in Medium Earth... determine its location, accurate within 20 meters depending on the precision... launch vehicle explosion, which destroyed 20 microsatellites from seven countries – mostly... $70 $60 $50 $40 $30 $20 $10 $0 TREND 4.2: Declining commercial launch... the commercial space flight market.20 Today, Ariane, Proton, and Zenit... Ukraine 30 Multinational 25 China 20 Europe 15 Russia 10 US... rates have stabilized at around 20 percent but terms have become... highest point since 2002, increasing 20 percent over 2005. Figure 4.4: Commercial...) Alcatel Alenia (6) ASIA/MIDDLE EAST (20) Asia ME – Other (17) Europe... 2002 with an increase of 20 percent over 2005, reflecting the... Soyuz capsule at a cost of $20-million.117 The potential for... Telecoms LMCSS GEO 2006-012A 4/20/06 Atlas V 411 Astra 1Kr... at an altitude of about 20,000 kilometers. On the battlefield... directly by deployed US commanders.20 The Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle... of flight using a system of 20-30 sensor-satellites in Low... and monitor the surrounding space.20 The first ANGELS launch is... might represent more than 10-20 percent of the satellite cost... The program has a budget of $20-million.72 The program could... to enable space control operations.”20 However, funding issues have bedeviled... Space Systems Negation Boeing completed a $20-million contract with USAF to... the current US launch capacity.20 An examination of the technical... Zhongxing-22A Chang Zheng 3A China Communications GEO 12/09/2006 Zhongxing-20... Zheng 3A China navigation GEO 20/12/2000 Beidou Chang Zheng... Atlas IIA US Communications GEO 20/10/1998 UHF F/O F8 Atlas... delta 7925-9.5 US navigation MEO 20/03/2004 navstar GPS IIr... (date accessed: 24 April 2007). 20 “European Space Debris Safety and... from Orbiting Debris” 311 Science (20 January 2006) at 340. 95...-fist session, Supplement No. 20 (UN Doc. A/61/20), paras. 121 to... Deep Space Imager,” Space News (20 February 2006). 106 David Pugliese...” 4(8) Satmagazine.com (December 2006) at 20. 116 “Integral Satcom Initiative Holds... to Blast Off” Space Daily (20 June 2006), online: Space News..., Strategic Treaty Documents no. 102-20. 26 Treaty Between the United..., UN General Assembly document A/60/20 (2005). 45 See “Working Paper... the 2004 UN First Committee” (20 October 2004), online: Acronym Institute...’s satellite destruction,” CanWest News Service (20 January 2007), online: Canada.com... of arms race,” The Australian, (20 January 2007), online: couriermail.com... China’s antisatellite test,” The Hindu, (20 January 2007), online: Hindu.com... Outer Space, UN Doc. A/61/20 (2006). 110 United Nations, Report... Outer Space, UN Doc. A/61/20 (2006). 111 United Nations General... Vulnerabilities in Space,” at 88. 20 “Russia Approves Space Funding” CNN... Develop Heavy Launcher” Space News (20 February 2006). "Russia and South... in mid-2007” India Daily (20 June 2006), online: India Daily... Satellite Navigational System” India Defence (20 July 2006), online: India Defence... (date accessed: 25 April 2007). 20 “China Eyes Commercial Space Flights in 20 Years” Agence-France Presse (3 November... Industry” Aviation Week & Space Technology (20 May 2002) at 47. 57... (EC) No 2432/2001 of 20 November 2001 amending and updating... Journal of the European Communities (20 December 2001); Department of Foreign... Europe Prepare for Space Tourism” (20 July 2006), online: ESA (date... the Emerging Space Tourism Industry” (20 October 2006), online: GAO (date... Own Birds,” Government Computer News (20 March 2006), online: Government Computer... Page (date accessed: 9 February 2007). 20 M. Hurley, “Tactical Microsatellite Experiment (TacSat... Seen Facing Budget Cuts” Reuters (20 November 2006), online: Reuters (date... Win Back Congress” Space News (20 February 2006), online: The Eisenhower... De-orbited over Breakdown” NOVOSTI (20 November 2006), online: RIA Novosti... to be Orbited in 2006” (20 March 2006), online: Aerospace - Knowledge... Build-up” Yahoo! Asia News (20 January 2006), online: Yahoo! Asia... Print News (21 May 2007). 20 Jeremy Singer, “Air Force ANGELS...” Aviation Week and Space Technology (20 November 2006), online: Aviation Week... Next-Generation Processor Router Capability” (20 June 2006), online: Boeing (date... Computing Workshop, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 20 September 2006. 91 NASA Jet... the US Rubicon” (Fall 2004) 20 International Security at 66. 4 In... Deep Space Imager,” Space News (20 February 2006). 102 “China Enhances... (date accessed: 25 April 2007). 20 David Barton et al., Report...



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0.08/5
... space debris population increases by 20.12 percent Space security impact... relevant technologies are used and 20 Executive Summary how transparent the... intercept in January 2007 ended a 20-year pause in known ASAT... the original inclination of 98.7°.20 It is estimated that the... space debris population increases by 20.12 per cent By the... increase of 2,507 objects or 20.12 percent over yearend data... in space and more than 20 optical and electro-optical facilities... on UNGA Resolution 1721 B of 20 December 1961.11 As of... 0 55 0 81 United Kingdom 6 1 27 20 54 European Space Agency 1 0 39... first negative votes in 2005.20 Israel has since reverted to... tourism has led at least 20 states to develop national laws... and operate its first microsatellite.20 In cooperation with China, Nigeria... reduced to $309-million — about 20 percent of the 1989 expenditure.... In 2005 JAXA released its 20-year vision statement, which includes... at an altitude of approximately 20,000 kilometers in Medium Earth... determine its location, accurate within 20 meters depending on the precision.... According to Russian media sources, 20 GLONASS satellites are needed to... two GPS-2RM satellites on 20 December 2007 as part of... 2002 with an increase of 20 percent over 2005, reflecting the... highest point since 2002, increasing 20 percent over those for 2005... an impact in the future.20 92 Commercial Space 2007 Development....2-billion in 2007, a growth of 20 percent.29 Satellite radio also... Satellite Services have grown by 20 percent and 18 percent respectively... India claimed to have captured 20 percent of the global market..., with the cost increasing from $20-million to between $30- and... anomalies forced rates up to 20 percent and higher.83 In... has subsequently risen from between $20- and $25-million to between..., it now takes “nine to 20 months on average to gain...-centimeter resolution, was launched on 20 September 2007. It is part...-031A 4/5/07 Chang Zheng 3B Zhongxing 6B China China Communication Thales... Boeing SSO 2007-048A 10/20/07 Soyuz-FG Globalstar M067... Loral LEO 2007-048B 10/20/07 Soyuz-FG Globalstar M070... Loral LEO 2007-048C 10/20/07 Soyuz-FG Globalstar M066... Loral LEO 2007-048D 10/20/07 Soyuz-FG Globalstar M068... a resolution of up to 6 inches.20 The US operates between 18... at an altitude of about 20,000 kilometers. On the battlefield... in the budget request by $20-million to $700-million. The... from delays as well as a 20 percent cost increase, but is... fifth 2R-M satellites on 7 and 20 December 2007. The constellation currently... cost is estimated at between 20 and 25 billion dollars.90... 0.5-meter resolution, was launched on 20 September 2007. It is part.... According to Russian media sources, 20 GLONASS satellites are needed to... Service with position accuracy of 20 meters and an Authorized Service... LMA HEO 2007-062A 12/20/07 Delta 7925-9.5 Navstar GPS... defense interceptor using a system of 20 to 30 sensor-satellites in... US ballistic missile defense program.20 Another early warning system has... might represent more than 10–20 percent of the satellite cost..., such as EHF/SHF (40/20 gigahertz), can also be used... its second test flight on 20 March 2007. The next flight... strike on a facility in Syria.20 Originally thought to have been... surveillance radar GRAVES detected between 20 and 30 satellites in LEO... Responsive Space program also received $20-million above the original $87... intercept in January 2007 ended a 20-year pause in known ASAT... vehicle miniaturization.66 The potential 20-year cost of such a system... Zhongxing-22A Chang Zheng 3A China Communications GEO 12/09/2006 Zhongxing-20... Zheng 3A China Navigation GEO 20/12/2000 Beidou Chang Zheng... Kosmos-11K65M Russia Navigation LEO 20/01/2005 Kosmos-2413 Proton... Atlas IIA US Communications GEO 20/10/2000 USA 179 Atlas... Atlas IIA US Communications GEO 20/10/1998 UHF F/O F8 Atlas... Titan 404A US Imaging LEO* 20/12/1996 USA 69 Titan...) Delta 7925-9.5 US Navigation HEO 20/12/2007 Navstar GPS IIR... Delta 7925-9.5 US Navigation MEO 20/03/2004 Navstar GPS IIR....org (date accessed: 1 February 2008). 20 Data compiled from the public...-dyn/content/story/2008/02/20/ ST2008022001497.html. 36 Orbital Debris... Deep Space Imager,” Space News (20 February 2006). 73 “The SSS...



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0.08/5
... of the two registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-20 4 IV. Application of the articles... as at 31 December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 List of functional (or formerly... Assembly resolution 1721 B (XVI) of 20 December 1961 and the other... record of the space object. 20. While the Registration Convention specifies.... 45. As indicated in paragraph 20 above, States that register space... in the Globalstar constellation and 20 per cent of the satellites... as at 31 December 2004 20 Space object Party Registration document... Feb. 1980 1987-029A (AGILA 1) 20 Mar. 1987 1981-093A (SJ... Jun. 1988 1983-060C (USA) 20 Jun. 1983 1988-052A (NOVA... 2-1) 9 Aug. 1992 1996-022A (MSAT M-1) 20 Apr. 1996 1992-064B (FSW... 1) 26 Sept. 1993 1996-048A (ZHONGXING 7) 1993-061F (ITAMSAT) 26 Sept...-053A (INMARSAT 3 F-2) 1993-073A (SOLIDARIDAD 1) 20 Nov. 1993 1996-059A (FSW 2-3) 1993-073B (METEOSAT 6) 20 Nov. 1993 1996-063A (ARABSAT.... 1996 5 Sept. 1996 a 6 Sept. 1996 20 Oct. 1996 13 Nov. 1996... 1 Mar. 1997 1997-025A (THOR 2) 20 May 1997 a 1994-049A (BRAZILSAT... Jun. 1997 1998-048A (IRIDIUM 3) 20 Aug. 1998 1997-030F (IRIDIUM.... 1997 1998-048B (IRIDIUM 76) 20 Aug. 1998 1997-030G (IRIDIUM...) 26 Feb. 1999 4 Nov. 1998 20 Nov. 1998 1997-077A (IRIDIUM...) 7 Apr. 1998 1999-027A (NIMIQ 1) 20 May 1999 1998-021D (IRIDIUM... 28 May 2002 2000-003A (ZHONGXING 22) 25 Jan. 2000 2002... Feb. 2000 2002-058B (LATINSAT B) 20 Dec. 2002 15 Jul. 2000 2002-058C (SAUDISAT 1S) 20 Dec. 2002 2000-039C (RUBIN... Aug. 2000 2002-058D (UNISAT 2) 20 Dec. 2002 2000-046B (NILESAT... Aug. 2000 2002-058H (LATINSAT A) 20 Dec. 2002 1 Sept. 2000 2002... Feb. 2003 2000-074A (QUICKBIRD 1) 20 Nov. 2000 2003-009A (IGS... (Eurasiasat 1) 24 Date of launch 20 Dec. 2000 9 Jan. 2001 10... Date of launch 2003-052A (ZHONGXING 20) 14 Nov. 2003 2003-055A... Apr. 2004 2004-047A (SWIFT) 20 Nov. 2004 2004-012B (NAXING... Dec. 2004 2004-018A (ROCSAT 2) 20 May 2004 2004-049A (HELIOS...



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0.06/5
... as a leading space power. Japan’s 20-year space plan outlined manned... advanced in 2005. More than 20 companies are developing a suborbital, reusable.... France is due to launch 20 Executive Summary two missile-launch... end of their operational lifetime.20 All major national debris mitigation... in space and more than 20 optical and electro-optical facilities... India (111) France (300) Other (20) China (310) US (2 949) CIS... the causes of more than 20 percent of incidents were unknown... fractional orbital bombardment systems (FOBS)20 Launch Notification Agreement (1988)* Notification... tourism has led at least 20 states to develop national laws... Agency (JAXA) unveiled its new 20-year plan. Entitled “JAXA 2025... for Russian civil space programs.20 It is known that, in... at an altitude of approximately 20,000 kilometers in Medium Earth... fix its location, accurate within 20 meters. GPS operates a Standard Positioning... March 2005, JAXA released its 20-year vision statement, which covers... equator in the Pacific Ocean.20 ILS is a partnership between Khrunichev...-15 commercial satellite orders with 20 new commercial satellites, up from... I Prize, there are currently over 20 companies developing a suborbital, reusable launch..., and the Netherlands.159 At a 20 April 2005 hearing convened by... in premium payments.164 On 20 December, Paradigm Secure Communications Ltd... at an altitude of about 20,000 kilometers. On the battlefield... less expensive access to space.”20 The satellite will be controlled... successful launches in 2005. On 20 January, the Parus-96 navigation... is currently available.153 On 20 December, QinetiQ announced that TopSat... of flight using a system of 20-30 sensorsatellites in Low Earth... critical infrastructure” (see Commercial Space ).20 Electronic protection Most, if not... might represent more than 10-20 percent of the satellite cost... program has a projected budget of $20-million, and exact capabilities are... missiles (for example a SCUD missile).20 Kinetic hit-to-kill technology... at Fort Greely, Alaska on 20 December 2005, joining seven others... spacecraft succeeded in landing on 20 November 2005, but apparently failed... at the International Space Station.20 involved to some degree in... effect Somewhat reduced Reduced 3 6 61 20 14 2.88% 5.77% 58.65... LEO 10/07/1998 China Zhongxing-20 (Feng Huo) Chang Zheng 3A... Zheng 3A China Navigation GEO 20/12/2000 Beidou Chang Zheng...-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 20/07/2001 Raduga-1 Proton-K/DM...-2 Proton-K/DM-2 Russia Communications GEO* 20/05/1994 163 Space Security...-K/DM-2M Russia Communications GEO* 20/01/1994 Kosmos-2380 Proton... Kosmos 11K65M Russia Navigation LEO 20/12/1996 Kosmos-2342 Molniya... Kosmos 11K65M Russia Navigation LEO 20/01/2005 Kosmos-2362 Proton... Delta 7925-9.5 US Navigation MEO 20/03/2004 NNS O-31 Scout..., UN General Assembly document A/60/20, 2005. 112 “Notice Concerning JSAT.../rech/spatres/Loi/Loi_en.pdf. 20 131 “Agreement on the Activities..., Strategic Treaty Documents no. 102-20. 23 “Treaty Between the United..., UN General Assembly document A/60/20, 2005. 87 88 Draft Elements...,” Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, 20 October 2004. Online: http://www... for Aerospace Command,” The Hindu, 20 July 2005. Report of the... it Cost?” ESA, last updated 20 October 2004. Online: http://www... of Foam Shedding,” Washington Post, 20 August 2005, p. A10; “Discovery is... Moon by 2018,” Washington Post, 20 September 2005. 74 75 “NASA.... Mark Wade, “Shenzhou 6,” Encyclopedia Astronautica, 20 November 2005; Jonathan Watts, “China....sea-launch.com/history.htm. 20 “Sea Launch Facilities,” Sea Launch... eyes commercial space flights in 20 years,” Agence-France Presse, 3 November... Industry,” Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 May 2002, p. 47. 35 36... (EC) No 2432/2001 of 20 November 2001 amending and updating... Journal of the European Communities, 20 December 2001; “Definitions for Terms....org/Civil-Presentations/Dave%20Whalen%20-%20Satellite%20101.pdf. 162 Peter... Another Satellite Instead,” Space News, 20 December 2005. “Paradigm signs 2 year... Secure Communications Ltd., Press Release, 20 December 2005. Online: http://www....skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/tacsat-1.htm. 20 43 “No more reductions of..., EADS Space,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 20 April 2005. 59 “China Military... with resolutions of 8 meters and 20 meters. “An in-depth look.... Mark Wade, “Shenzhou 6,” Encyclopedia Astronautica, 20 November 2005. Online: http://www.../Satellite%20Task%20Force%20Fact%20Sheet%20(March%2020 04).pdf; Theresa....gov/new.items/d02781.pdf. 20 M. R. Frater, and M. Ryan, Electronic Warfare... the US Rubicon,” International Security 20 (Fall 2004), p. 66. In July... attack. Deblois et al., p. 61. 20 Funding appropriated by Congress for... During Flight,” Missile Defense Agency, 20 May 2005. Online: http://www... would have a beam quality exceeding “20.” 85 David A Fulghum, “Lights, Laser... Demonstration To 2006,” Defense Daily, 20 October 2005, p. 5A; “Aerospace Relay...,” Missile Defense Agency, 05FYI-0071, 20 December 2005. Online: http://www... International Space Station,” EADS Space, 20 December 2004. 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... antenna. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 600 800... Greenberg R. (1993) Geophys. Res. Letters, 20, 879881. [7] Kessler D.J. and Cour-Palais... apogees in the 15,000-20,000 km range. A number of... at R = 18th magnitude (corresponding to a 20 cm diameter sphere) is due... 195 325 63.0 1 2 2003-052A ZHONGXING 20 CHINA 35777 35797 0.2 1 0 2003-053A...



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... and Launch Forecast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Table 20. Distribution of Payload Masses in... History and Forecast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Figure 20. Forecast of COTS, CRS, and... the GSO market, demand averaged 20.5 satellites per year, compared to... (COMSTAC) 18 26 23 20 20 20 19 20 20 19 205 20.5 NGSO Forecast (FAA... Forecast Number per Year 25 20 15 10 GSO Launch Actual... Medium-toHeavy Launch Actual 30 20 10 0 1993 1995 1997 1999... 25 2011 NGSO Launch Forecast 20 15 10 GSO Launch Actual... of Satellites/Launches 30 25 20 15 10 2011 Satellite Demand... Demand 18 26 23 20 20 20 19 20 20 19 205 20.5 Dual Launch Forecast... shows an average demand for 20.5 satellites to launch annually in... per year. An average of 20.7 satellites launched per year was forecast in 2010, and 20.8 satellites launched per year in... 2013. Last year’s forecast predicted 20 launches in 2011, 18 in... discounted realization range. In 2010, 20 commercial GSO satellites were launched... 2009. The 2010 forecast projected 20 satellites to launch in 2010... Astra 4B Echostar 16 Intelsat 20 Intelsat 21 Intelsat 22 Jupiter.... Near-Term Manifest Actual 25 20 Over 5,400 kg (>11,905... launch averages approximately 19 to 20 satellites per year. 40 35... 20 15 10 5 20 11 20 12 20 13 20 14 20 15 20 16 20 17 20 18 20 19 20 20 20 10 20 09 20 08 20 07 20 06 20 05 20 04 20 03 20 02 20 01 0 20... average annual demand forecast is 20.5 satellites per year. The differential... of total satellites is only 20 percent for aggregate international inputs... launch Single manifest launch Satellites 20 15 10 Figure 7. COMSTAC GSO... Figure 8, the 2010 report forecasted 20 satellites for launch in 2010. In fact, 20 satellites were launched last year...-Term Manifest Past Years 40 20 Historical 1st Year Satellite Figure... the provision of transponder capacity. • 20 • 2011 Commercial Space Transportation Forecasts... channels, transponders, and subscribers of 20 percent to 30 percent over... 800 40 600 30 400 20 200 10 0 1993 1994 1995... Year [kg] 100,000 1,000 20,000 500 0 1993 1994 1995... an average annual demand of 20.5 satellites to launch from 2011... to the 2010 forecast of 20.7. The Working Group forecasts 18... Total Launches 24 19 18 20 12 Total Satellites 28 23... 3 2004 2005 2006 Total Launches 20 12 13 15 15 Total... Total Satellites 18 23 22 20 Over 5,400 kg (>11,905... 200 SC1^ Yamal 200 SC2^ Zhongxing 20 2006 3 3 Express AM 2 Express AM... Space Transportation Millions   $40   $30   $20   $10   $0   2005   2006   2007   2008... of 1992. There are now 20 active remote sensing licenses. Ten... system (Worldview satellites). Northrop Grumman 2/20/04 MEO system with 0.5-meter... to DISH. Skybox Imaging, Inc. 4/20/10 Issued for LEO satellite... license for SkySat-1 on April 20, 2010, and has applied to... demand is relatively stable, with a 20 year average of about four... Orbital Cygnus (8 flights) CCDev I 2010 $20 million Sierra Nevada Corp. Dream... contracts to Sierra Nevada Corporation ($20 million, for the Dream Chaser... follow-on CCDev work. Figure 20 shows the distribution of ISS... flight (in Science & Engineering) Figure 20. Forecast of COTS, CRS, and... Payloads Satellites 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2011 2012 2013... of commercial transportation capability. Table 20 shows the mass distributions of... payloads on its rockets. Table 20. Distribution of Payload Masses in...-600 kg (441-1,323 lbm) 5 20 1 0 26 29% 601-1,200 kg... 17 8 89 100% Note: Table 20 includes only satellites with known... 24. Small (<2,268 kg LEO) 20 Medium to Heavy (>2,268 kg... Payloads Launched Commercially 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 15 9 9 8 5 25 20 11 15 121 Total Satellites... per Forecast 30 Launches 25 20 15 10 5 0 9 19 t as ec or 9f 0 20 t as ec or 0f 0 20 t as ec or 1f 0 20 t as ec or 2f 0 20 t as ec or 3f 0 20 t as ec or 4f 0 20 t as ec or 5f 0 20 t as ec or... 2 Medium-to-Heavy Remote Sensing 6/20/10 TanDEM X Dnepr M Medium-to... 3/17/09 11/2/09 2008 20 Satellites 6 Telecommunication 6 Remote Sensing 8 Science... 2004 Science & Engineering LatinSat (2 sats)3 5/20/04 6/29/04 2003 9 Satellites...-Heavy 2 Small Telecommunication 2/11/02 6/20/02 2002 Iridium (5 sats) Iridium... Science & Engineering 3/17/02 12/20/02 GRACE (2 Sats) SaudiSat 1C... Medium-to-Heavy Science & Engineering 2/20/01 Odin START 1 Small F Launch...