Двигательная установка. BE-4. [Редактировать]

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-07-07. Ракетный двигатель BE-4, остается наиболее вероятным решением которое будет использоваться на ракете Атлас-5 вместо РД-180.
Blue Origin продолжает опережать Aerojet Rocketdyne в соревновании на создание нового двигателя для РН Атлас 5 и последующей модификации под названием Вулкан.
Основным преимуществом новой компании является то, что она обещает создать двигательную установку на 16 месяцев раньше чем ее конкурент.
При этом, в данном случае победу одерживает та компания которая не вполне удовлетворяет требованиям конгресса который хотел создать керосиновый аналог РД-180, а создает новое решение которое будет работать на природном газе.
Подробнее...Тэги: BE-4РД-180Blue OriginAerojet Rocketdyne
22015-09-13. United Launch Alliance и Blue Origin расширяют свое сотрудничество.
United Launch Alliance (ULA) и Blue Origin подписали соглашение которое расширяет сферу применения ракетных двигателей BE-4. В целом, согласно соглашению, данный двигатель должен будет через три года не только заменить ракетный двигатель РД-180 на первой ступени РН серии Атлас 5, но и использоваться в составе ракеты Вулкан. В совместном пресс-релизе обе компании подтвердили, что новый двигатель будет использовать в качестве топлива жидкий метан. Первый квалификационный запуск ракеты с новым двигателем должен состояться в 2017 году, а первый пуск РН Вулкан в 2019 году.Тэги: United launch alliance, L.L.C.Серия РН Атлас 5BE-4Blue Origin
32015-09-16. Компания Blue Origin объявила о желании построить во Флориде производство средств выведения и стартовый комплекс.
15 сентября Blue Origin объявила, что она построит завод по производству и стартовую площадку для нового ракеты-носителя собственного производства. Первый пуск ракеты обозначен 2020 годом. В связи с этим, основатель компании также обозначил что его изделие будет многоразовым и помимо аппаратов позволять запускать на низкую орбиту экипажи.
Также он отметил, что считает данный проект достаточно перспективным поскольку он будет создаваться не с нуля, а на основе существующей инфраструктуры (стартовый комплекс не эксплуатировался уже более 10 лет). В качестве двигателей для своей ракеты он планирует использовать Be-4 на первой ступени и Be-3 на второй. Первая ступень ракеты будет приземляться вертикально, как и предусматривалось в патенте компании (относительно последнего компания судится со своими конкурентами из SpaceX). В компании также объявили о том, что само производство ракет будет происходить рядом со центром Кеннеди, что позволит компании сэкономить на логистике. В целом компания планирует инвестировать в данный проект до 200 млн. долл.
В целом данные планы находятся в тесной корреляции с существующими рыночными трендами, однако, если большинство из подобных проектов по созданию новых средств выведения реализуется, то к 2020 году на рынке будет наблюдаться переизбыток предложений со стороны коммерческих производителей средств выведения, что не позволит компании найти своего потребителя.Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4
42015-09-17. Aerojet Rocketdyne решила увязать сроки ввода в строй нового ракетного двигателя с размерами финансирования со стороны Пентагона.
15 сентября 2015 года компания Rocketdyne обнародовала данные о том, что разработка нового ракетного двигателя может быть задержана из-за недостаточного финансирования со стороны гос. заказчика.
В связи с этим, в компании отдельно подчеркнули, что если компания не сможет выиграть достаточное количество конкурсов, то сертифицирование к 2019 году двигательной установки AR 1 окажется под вопросом. В тоже самое время компания отказалась комментировать вчерашнее заявление компании Blue Origin относительно разработки ракетного двигателя BE-4 и не собирается давать комментарии относительно своего предложения о покупке за 2 млрд. долл. компании United Launch Alliance.Тэги: AR 1Aerojet RocketdyneBE-4United launch alliance, L.L.C.
52015-10-01. Компания Blue Origin обнародовала данные о ходе тестирования двигателя BE-4.
На фоне возможных закупок новых РД-180 компания Blue Origin обнародовала данные согласно которым компания осуществила уже около 100 тестов новой двигательной установки, которую она хочет использовать как в составе собственной ракеты, так и в составе нового изделия United Launch Alliance. В компании также отметили, не собираются выпрашивать финансовые средства на разработку у ВВС США, а планируют обойтись собственными ресурсами. Также компания не упустила своего шанса раскритиковать конкурентов из Rocketdyne, обвинив последних в технологической отсталости. Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4
62016-03-02. Aerojet Rocketdyne и ULA выиграли контракты от ВВС США.
ВВС США смогут инвестировать до $536 млн. (текущий объем контракта 115 млн. долл.) в разработку двигательной установки AR-1 компании Aerojet Rocketdyne и около $202 млн. (текущий объем контракта 46 млн. долл.) в создание нового поколения ракет-носителей Вулкан. При этом, согласно обнародованным данным новое поколение ракет будет обладать не только новой двигательной установкой на первой ступени (ДУ BE-4), но и обладать криогенной верхней ступенью. Работы по обоим контрактам должны быть завершены не позднее 31 декабря 2019 года. Отличительно особенностью нового предложения от ВВС США является то обстоятельство, что оно подразумевает софинансирование работ вместе с предприятиями-изготовителями в соотношении 2 к 1. Таким образом, лимитная цена на создание альтернативы ракетному двигателю РД-180 может составить около 804 млн. долл. Что составит около 50 процентов от общего объема Федеральной космической программы России (при курсе доллара 80 руб.). Также в рамках нового цикла финансирования ВВС США планирует выделить от 33.6 до 61 млн. долл. компании SpaceX(для продолжения работ над многоразовым метановым двигателем) и от 47 до 180 млн. долл. компании Orbital ATK на разработку ракетных технологий, которые будут использоваться в новой ракете.Тэги: Военно-воздушные силы СШАAR 1BE-4Orbital ATK
72016-03-27. ULA завершила экспертизу проекта создания РН Вулкан.
United Launch Alliance (ULA) успешно завершила предварительный ревью дизайна своего нового семейства ракет. В качестве двигательной установки на новом изделии рассматривалась возможность установки двух ракетных двигателей серии BE-4. В ходе анализа конструкции, по заявлению компании, ей удалось подтвердить возможность успеха нового ракета-носителя как на рынке государственных услуг, так и на рынке коммерческих заказов на пусковые услуги. При этом, полученные показатели были достигнуты при условии 14 запусков в год.Тэги: Серия РН VulcanBE-4United launch alliance, L.L.C.
82016-04-14. Компания Blue Origin не будет производить спутники.
Основатель компании Jeff Bezos подтвердил, что Blue Origin не будет создавать спутники, а сосредоточится на работах в области ракетной тематики и пилотируемых полетов. Также он высказал мнение о том, что именно BE-4 является аналогом РД-180. Относительно ближайших планов компании Jeff Bezos обнародовал информацию о намерении совершить тестовый пилотируемый полет в 2017 году, а первый платный пуск осуществить в 2018 году.Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4РД-180
92016-04-26. Законодатели США решили ограничить возможности ВВС США по нецелевому использованию средств.
Согласно последним инициативам законодателей США они собираются существенно ограничить возможности ВВС США по управлению выделенным на развитие ракетных двигателей средств с целью заставить их сконцентрироваться на создании альтернативы РД-180. В частности они решили запретить военным использовать выделенные на эти цели средства на:
1. Разработку компанией Orbital ATK твердотопливной первой ступени (размер контракта около 317 млн. долл.).
2. Разработку компаниями SpaceX и ULA двигательных установок верхней ступени и т.д.
При этом, законодатели решили проигнорировать заявления компании ULA о том, что им, в принципе, ракетный двигатель AR-1 не является необходимым поскольку они рассчитывают на двигательную установку BE-4. Кроме этого, в очередной раз, законодатели США решили разобраться с тем, как министерство обороны расходует средства на такие проекты как модернизация наземных систем слежения за околоземным пространством и т.п. С этой целью они затребовали у военных дополнительную информацию о составе и структуре мероприятий программ. Тэги: РД-180Военно-воздушные силы СШАAR 1BE-4
102016-06-02. Французский министр по космосу обнародовал свое мнение относительно рынка пусковых услуг.
Французский министр по космосу призвал удвоить усилия ЕС в области космической деятельности, особенно подчеркнув важность создания серий ракет нового поколения (Вега и Ариан 6). Также в своем выступлении он подверг сомнению царящее в Европе мнение относительно существенного отставания европейских производителей от SpaceX. Также он напомнил, что подобные настроения уже царили после первых запусков космической системы Space Shuttle, однако будущее показало что это была тупиковая ветвь развития. Также французы отметили и то, что их новый двигатель Prometheus (прогнозируемая поставочная стоимость 1 млн. евро) значительно дешевле чем криогенный двигатель Be-4, который будет стоить около 10 млн. евро. По своим энергетическим характеристикам 5-7 новых европейских двигателей предоставят первой ступени Ariane 6 большую тягу будет у первой ступени перспективной ракеты Вулкан. Также он подтвердил, что стоимость пуска РН Ариан 6 будет равна половине стоимости пуска РН Ариан 5 ECA. Также как и американская Вулкан новая ракета будет использовать центральный блок на первой ступени, который будет оснащен 2-4 твердотопливными ускорителями. верхняя ступень будет использовать в качестве топлива водород. Также французский министр отметил, что успехи РН Фалькон 9 отчасти могут быть объяснены относительной простотой изделия, что позволило снизить стоимость пуска. Вместе с тем, для европейских изделий характерно, что в стоимости РН двигательные установки составляют около 50 процентов, так что у новой европейской ракеты есть радужные коммерческие перспективы.Тэги: Космическое агентство ФранцииСерия РН Ариан 6BE-4Prometheus
112016-09-26. Компания SpaceX провела испытания двигательной установки Raptor.
Компания SpaceX провела первые испытания двигательной установки Raptor, которая должна будет использования в 2024 году при полете к Марсу. Отличительной особенностью нового изделия является то, что как и Be-4 компании Blue origin, он использует в качестве компонентов метан и кислород. Тэги: RaptorBE-4SpaceX
122017-04-06. Blue Origin обнародовала данные о своих планах.
Согласно сообщению компании:
- в скором времени ULA подтвердит выбор кислородно-метанового двигателя BE-4 в качестве маршевой ДУ первой ступени РН серии Вулкан. При этом, по мнению компании, конкурирующая с ними Aerojet Rocketdyne отстает от них в разработке кислородно-керосинового AR1 на 18-24 месяца;
- она собирается начать предоставление услуг по суборбитальным полетам в 2018-2019 годах;
- стоимость создания РН New Glenn будет стоить 2.5 млрд. долл. Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4AR 1
132017-04-14. Компания ULA объявила о том, что она еще не утвердила окончательный выбор ДУ для РН серии Вулкан.
United Launch Alliance (ULA) опроверг циркулирующие на рынке слухи и объявил о том, что двигатели AR1 от компании Aerojet еще имеют шансы быть установленными на первой ступени РН серии Вулкан. Ранее руководство компании констатировало, что разработчик кислородно-керосинового двигателя отстает от конкурента на 18-24 месяца.Таким образом, оператор пусковых услуг оценил шансы BE-4 все таки выше поскольку он имеет большую вероятность быть готовым к 2019 году.Тэги: Серия РН VulcanAR 1BE-4United launch alliance, L.L.C.

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Тяга (Земля), килоньютон2400
2Тип топливакислород+СПГ
3Турбонасосный агрегат
4Давление, фунтов на кв. дюйм5000
5Количество (оборотов), оборотов в минуту19000
6Мощность, лошадиных сил70000

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «BE-4». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.14/5
... open. The mains disconnect must be locked in its "OPEN" position... work. • EMERGENCY STOP buttons must be installed at each control desk... motor, nor will the drive be disconnected from any dangerous potential... measures for the installation must be provided by the customer during... material below the installation should be non-flammable. Free space around... of the remaining entries must be blocked. BG_800_001_A7_a.ai BG_800_001_A7_a.ai... contains the instructions that must be followed when selecting the motor... line, etc), different criteria must be applied for selecting a line reactor... in Configuration A will then likewise be satisfied, since the uk is... .... If 2 or more converters should be supplied by one transformer the... capability. Configuration A or B has to be used, if the drive system... rated line choke current must be considered. For further information see... during regeneration. DC fuses must be rated for the same current... fault sources may not always be applicable. Due to special system... circuit-breakers must be used. Semiconductor fuses will be tripped, for example... emitted interference if a converter shall be run at a public low voltage... ADC field current can be / have to be connected to a singlephase. If... EMC Guideline expects EMC to be taken into account when a product... being developed; however, EMC cannot be designed in, it can only... other loads which have to be protected from the system disturbances... other loads which have to be protected from the system disturbances..., the following EMC standards must be satisfied: Product Standard EN 61800... industrial facilities. This standard must be complied with in the EU... emissions in light industry can be satisfied with special features (mains... some cases, commutating reactors will be required. SB_800_004_emv-classif_a.ai Converter... first environment) is intended to be installed and commissioned only by... case supplementary mitigation measures my be required. The field supply is... their own synchronization and must be supplied from independent mains supply... their own synchronization and must be supplied from independent mains supply... their own synchronization and must be supplied from independent mains supply...) is required. K1 can also be controlled by the armature converter... (latching interface relay) can also be generated by a PLC and transferred... communication. Even a mixed solution can be realized by selecting different possibilities... D1. The DC-contactor should be controlled by CurCtrlStart1 (6.03) bit 10. The acknowledge signal can be connected to either MainContAck (10... cooling air volume can only be detected indirectly, a differential-pressure switch...). The differential pressure switch should be connected to the converter fan... inputs of the drive can be implemented by 3 alternate ways: 1. There... DC. The insulation resistance must be higher than 1 Mohm. C1, D1... of existing dedicated transformers must be grounded. For installation without low... Analog and digital signals can be connected in four different ways...-ended encoders tracks A and B must be exchanged. PosCountLow (3.07) should look... voltage or current signals can be used. Line termination (current signals.... A burden resistor of 120  must be activated via jumper S10:1-2 on...) connection; only voltage signals can be used. Pulse encoder connection principles... than 5 V each terminal X5:2, 4, 6 must be connected via a resistor R to GND... power cables and control cables be installed on separate trays. Avoid... ground. Aluminium tray systems can be used to improve equalizing of... Please note: Special consideration must be taken for voltage deviation in...-POW-4. The supply voltages can be measured to ground. X37:2,3,4 = 48... (e.g. 10 Mb) are allowed to be connected together. Technical data 3ADW000194R0801... DriveWindow NETA internet module can be connected, see Manual 3AFE64605062 Internet... DriveWindow NETA internet module can be connected, see Manual 3AFE64605062 RxD... Mb component) are allowed to be connected together. ADDRESS 8 RXD V117... firmware and hardware ➅ Should always be used directly at SDCS-CON... 5 V, 12 V, 15 V or 24 V can be selected the following way: ➀ ➁ ➂ Relay... adaptation, all 5 resistor chains must be cut the same way. Residual... TL_PIN51_001_a.ai The converters can be used at lower mains voltage...+. Line voltages below 100 V must be adapted using smaller resistance and thus the measurement channel must be rescaled. The rescaling provides improved... serial > 2 x 500 V galvanic isolation must be used. It is used to... removed wires 27,4 kŸ resistors, to be soldered in parallel to the... inside cabinet Two supports should be mounted inside the cabinet in... S800 Same node address must be selected in the corresponding armature... motor at top speed must be higher than 0.3 A. Electronic power supply... communication drivers. The voltages can be measured at following terminals: Voltages... S800 Same node address must be selected in the corresponding armature... standard maximum 2 field exciters can be controlled by one DCS800. 3ADW000194R0801... ➀ The 690 V autotransformer input cannot be used for the field converters...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.13/5
... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... of the Sentinel-2 products to be generated by the Sentinel-2 Payload... GMES services. This capability will be achieved with the implementation of... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... community, the DIMAP format will be supported for encapsulating the Sentinel..., whereby the download performance can be maximised according to the user... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... imager. 2.4.3 ORBIT Each satellite will be deployed in a polar sun-synchronous... cycle, the reference altitude will be 786km. MSI image-acquisition is... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... on-line quality check will be performed on certain quality indicators... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... METADATA STRUCTURE Additional information can be appended to the previous structure... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... auxiliary and ancillary information to be used in subsequent processing. Level... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... example, the Level-0 “granule” could be identified as _ where: The observation... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... in confidence and shall not be reproduced, copied or communicated to... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... systematic processing steps that must be applied before any further processing... resolution. The sub swath can be displayed using standard commercial image... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... default, Level-1B Nominal shall be geometrically refined. Some Level-1B.../Val purposes). These products will be identified with a dedicated flag in... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... longitude). The vertical resolution can be up to 90 vertical (pressure...). Spatial resolution Climatological data can be available in different global resolutions... longitude). The vertical resolution can be up to 90 vertical (pressure... control checks provided here will be complemented and consolidated with the... data file(s)] be replace by the product_ID --> L1C...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.05/5
... success increases, investment flows should be optimally increasing…The optimal staging... which other satellite companies can be assessed. Table 3: Amount Invested ($ Million... shows how a microgravity environment may be conducive to enhanced protein crystallization... LEO-oriented companies, whether they be miniature satellites or microgravity-enabled... Network notes, “In order to be seriously considered,                                                                                                                         195 Andrew Wong...; Promus Ventures                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               While we cannot be sure if other institutional investors... this information would encourage R&D to be done earlier than otherwise. Specifically... to address innovation challenges will be reduced for future missions? 5.1 Directionality... outlined three challenges that should be considered (a) the issue of directionality... with substantial economic potential can be more efficiently advanced in a microgravity... appropriate portfolio management framework must be developed using ongoing technology and... generic technology (technology platform) can be applied across a number of terrestrial..., the following “policy elements” should be considered in formulating a technology commercialization... technology commercialization promotion pursued must be regularly assessed and their impacts...); i.e., a real-time evaluation mechanism should be implemented (4) Label funded projects using... of the required investment (R&D) must be undertaken years before initial commercialization... a comprehensive technology commercialization strategy can be expected to eventually generate must... R&D investment and commercialization, which can be years. Corporations apply a significant discount...  more  generic  research  stages  may  be  addressed  through  a   collaborative  agreement  between...  more  applied  research  stages  may  be  addressed  with  better   information  about...  expose  a  specific  model   that  can  be  utilized  to  empirically  analyze  the...  in  commercial  drug  costs  would  be  quite  significant.         v   EARLY DRAFT - NASAWATCH...  protein  crystallization.    Better   crystals  can  be  considered  as  part  of  better....  Since  diffraction-­‐quality   crystals  can  be  hard  to  produce,  thousands  of...  on  diffraction  patterns,  proteins  can  be  accurately  modeled  in  three  dimensions...  protein  crystallization  are  said  to  be  virtually  endless.     Pharmaceutical  companies  often...  a  leading  target,  protein  crystallization  can  be  used  further  during  the  drug...  true  and  which  proteins  may  be  exceptions.  According  to  CASIS,                                                                                                                   4  See...  duration:    Length  of  experiment  may  be  a  most  important  issue.   What  might...  crystallization  has  the  potential  to  be  a  strong  piece  of  a   commercial  space...  determine  why  these  proteins  could   be  so  important  to  medicine.    Appendix...  in  microgravity.  This  information  can  be  seen  in  Appendix  II.     3.  Policy...  policy   intervention.    The  stages  can  be  seen  below:     5. Production  of  high....    The  more  generic  stages  may  be  addressed  through  a   collaborative  agreement  between....    The   more  applied  stages  may  be  addressed  with  better  information  about...?   2) Assuming  significant  additionality,  should  there  be  a  collaborative   undertaking  involving  protein  crystallization...  private  sector  –  specifically  pharmaceutical  research  –  be  considered  in   these  calculations?   5) What...   answer  the  second  question  should  be  affirmative.    A  recent  study  of  the...).  Generic  protein  crystals  could  then  be   distributed  (or  sold)  to  pharmaceutical...  Section  3).    All  four  stages  should   be  considered  instead.    The  estimation  can...  explore  a  specific  model  that  can  be  utilized  to   empirically  analyze  the...  reductions.  A  government-­‐subsidized   consortium  may  be  the  best  plan  to  alleviate....  While  pharmaceutical  companies  would  still  be  in  competition,   improving  their  overall...  easing  of  a  consortium  –  must  also  be  measured  to  gauge  private  interest...  bacterial  cellulose.  Bacterial  cellulose  can   be  tailored  to  have  specific  desirable...  fuel  cells,  alcohol  dehydrogenases  can  be  used  to   catalyze  the  breakdown... attachments, contains information that may be confidential, Center Confirmed Public Release...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.05/5
... rights of Authorized Agents may be further described in the Recordkeeping... §1.402(c)-2. Other distribution amounts may be excluded from the definition of... sole discretion and determined to be reasonably necessary for the accurate... his or her Account shall be nonforfeitable (disregarding rights to future... nonforfeitable, all unvested amounts shall be held in a deemed Code Section.... e. Nonassignment. The Account shall not be subject to alienation, assignment, trustee... following contribution types (which may be named differently on the Custodian... Salary Reduction Agreement, and (4) shall be recordkept in a separate source. c. (3) Pretax... after-tax basis and shall be recordkept in a separate source. (5) Employer.... Rollover Contributions. A separate source shall be established for rollover contributions, which... over. The Custodian shall not be responsible for confirming any information... designated Roth contribution amounts will be accepted into the Account only... Roth contributions. Rollover contributions may be recordkept in separate sources, based.... Once vested, such amounts shall be transferred to the 6 appropriate source.... If any unvested amounts should be forfeited, the Employer shall immediately... described in §1.403(b)-10(b)(2) shall be allocated among the appropriate sources... contribution. The Custodian shall not be responsible for confirming any information... Section 4(g). Rollover contributions shall not be taken into consideration for this... other contributions (if required to be included in this calculation, such... or Deferrals. The Employer shall be responsible for taking reasonable measures... Nondiscrimination Requirements. The Employer shall be responsible for taking reasonable measures... to required corrective distributions to be made from the Account, consistent... Excess Contributions. The Participant shall be responsible for determining and paying... Account is primarily intended to be a custodial account for investments by... of the Participant’s Account may be exchanged prior to a distribution event... 4(g)(5) of this Agreement shall not be subject to this Section 6. Notwithstanding... the earnings thereon), which shall be distributed pursuant to the special...). (3) Hardship Rules. Hardship distributions shall be available from the Account if...(b) elective deferral contributions may not be made by the Participant during..., the Eligible Rollover Distribution shall be subject to 20% federal income... designated Roth contribution source shall be treated as a separate contract for... under Code Section 401(a) shall be determined under §1.402A-1 and subject... exceed the amount that can be distributed without the Participant’s consent... Credit. The Participant’s Account may be transferred to a qualified defined benefit... will therefore (pursuant to §1.403(b)-6(g)) be deemed to satisfy the incidental... required minimum distributions. It shall be the Employer’s responsibility to provide... spouse, the remaining interest will be distributed over the surviving spouse... after the spouse’s death will be distributed over such spouse’s remaining... spouse, the remaining interest will be distributed over the Beneficiary’s remaining... after the spouse’s death will be distributed over such spouse’s remaining... Beneficiary, the remaining interest will be distributed over the remaining life... date, the remaining interest will be distributed in accordance with subsection... (2)(B) below. A. The remaining interest will be distributed in accordance with subsections..., then the remaining interest will be distributed in accordance with subsection... satisfy the amount required to be distributed from the Participant’s Account... permitted under §1.403(b)-6(e)(7). It shall be the responsibility of the Employer...’s Account and this Agreement shall be deemed terminated upon the purchase... §1.72(p)-1. A Plan loan offset shall be treated as a distribution hereunder. No... any Fidelity Affiliate shall be deemed to be a fiduciary in performing the... Indemnification a. Identity. The Custodian shall be fully protected in relying on... shall cause the Custodian to be such a fiduciary or administrator. Accordingly... the Participant and shall not be considered a resignation of the Custodian... obligations under this Agreement cannot be modified without its previous written... circumstances shall, to any extent, be invalid or unenforceable, the remainder... invalid or unenforceable, shall not be affected thereby. c. Force Majeure. No... Fidelity BrokerageLink® account is to be established. 2. Section 5(b) is amended by..., the remaining 26 interest will be distributed over the Beneficiary’s remaining... Participant, the Participant’s Beneficiary shall be the Participant’s surviving spouse. In... spouse, the Participant’s Beneficiary shall be the Participant’s estate. d. Death of...; otherwise, the successor Beneficiary shall be such Beneficiary’s estate. e. State Unclaimed... order, distributions to Beneficiaries shall be made in accordance with the... in the Account shall be deemed to be a termination of the Account... part of a Plan intended to be a “safe harbor arrangement” under Department...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.05/5
... publication (with reference) may only be pursued due to agreement with... missions less sophisticated methods can be used to recover after faults... sufficient fault-tolerance it should be possible to significantly reduce the... hardware level, all techniques will be working natively in the VM... platform, potentially the VM could be implemented directly on an FPGA... project. The fault injection should be implemented in a way that isolates... and satellites it would not be acceptable. 5 KESO and jino Another... to our project will now be described. The article [21] mentions... avoid. 7 2.3 Fault Model Faults can be divided into two groups: Hard... permanent meaning that they can be corrected using software solutions. Our... execution engine. The translator will be skipped since its primary purpose.... A large amount of instructions can be executed each second and if... the instructions further they can be split into opcodes and arguments... aritcode, the instruction will still be able to run because subtraction... impact on the system can be anywhere between unnoticeable and disastrous... the wrong class which could be viewed as a silent data corruption... our fault tolerance implementation should be focusing on codes, values, and... bit patterns. Hamming distance can be utilized by making sure that... fault detection. Fault recovery can be done by consulting a reference copy... A impacts how many errors can be corrected and the storage overhead.... A boolean value for instance can be presented as a byte and the... use all bits that should be 0 will be set to 0 negating any... instructions whereas Trump can only be used on arithmetic expressions. Trump... while booleans will not normally be compatible with Trump in our... for instruction duplication and should be implemented in the compiler we...-encoding stores enough information to be able to both detect and...] requires a corrective bit pattern to be created and XOR’ed over..., not all CRC polynomials can be used for error correction, which... and the program structure will be presented. Following the notation of... 3.1.1. 3.1.1 Notation Hansen defines a domain to be a set. With this set corresponding... the method type. This should be sufficient for our purposes, while... semantics of that syntax will be provided. The constructed semantics is... formal notation and domains will be introduced followed by the four... in methods. Local variables can be primitive types, or references to... call stack. A running configuration can be defined as: RunConf = Heap × CallStack A terminating configuration can be defined as: TermConf = Heap × { } The... the semantics can, as mentioned, be found in appendix A. 26 3.4 Exceptions... are several problems that must be addressed before we can proceed... the program code, this will be described in detail in subsection... The entries in Figure 4.1 should be read as: A given instruction will... these techniques. Each techniques will be described and their pros and... instructions we can support would be severely limited if we assume..., the implementation presented here should be sufficient for handling any of... revision this technique could potentially be used. Finally there are several... class, details will be omitted here but can be found in Appendix... intervals, thus there needs to be a way of accessing and altering... simulate a running satellite which will be exposed to cosmic radiation resulting..., as this overhead will not be present in a real world application... an object model. Metrics can be implemented by adding the needed..., all these join points can be accessed by a pointcut. Pointcuts are... the desired code that will be injected. There are also different... operand stack so a check must be made before choosing this option...(int input). The function can be seen in Listing 4.9. The function... value 00000001 which will then be left-shifted a random number of.... These functions however should not be available outside of fault injection... 10000 times. These results can be seen in Figure 5.1, all values..., meta-data injection will not be detected immediately as this data... decoding. An alternative approach would be to keep everything encoded and... considering that these numbers should be compared to running the baseline.... Fault-tolerance is and should be the prime concern. With regards... the instructions for arrays should be the first order of business... exceptions. The semantics could also be extended to encompass the heap... purpose of runtime optimization would be a logical next step. The TinyBytecode... fault-tolerant design, examples could be monitors, semaphores, lists, maps or... semantic rules concerning objects will be presented. The first rule is... method invocation and return will be presented. As mentioned earlier a choice... version of the method will be returned as desired. The pseudocode... stack. This case needs to be handled differently since the program... in the string it should be without storing redundant information, the... error, the value will then be an integer larger than 0 corresponding... a program running on a satellite must be hardened to not run the...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.04/5
... the nonlinear regime will be investigated. Tunability can be provided with a gyroelectric... property, a considerable enhancement factor can be achieved in lossy transition metamaterials... microscopy (NSOM) characterization results will be presented. Improvements to device performance... refractive index dielectrics can be designed to be transparent in the visible...” nanocrystal quantum dots need to be giant? F. García-Santamaría, R. Viswanatha, R. D. Schaller... plasmonic nanostructures, spontaneous emission can be enhanced across the entire spectral... devices. Crystalline vanadium dioxide can be transformed from a relatively transparent insulating... the surrounding will be reexamined. Experimental results will be presented, emphasizing the... nanoparticles whose resonance properties can be substantially improved through annealing. It... individual nanoplasmonic tructures and must be understood. Usual microcavities exploit resonant.... Approximately a monomolecular antibody layer could be covalently immobilized onto current mixed... autofluorescence. Furthermore, nanodiamonds could be targeted selectively to intracellular structures... compared. Novel sorting strategies will be briefly discussed. 4. V. Karasek, O. Brzobohaty and... electric field calculations, which will be discussed. Semiconductor nanowires enable enhanced...-V semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical cells will be presented using current-potential curves...fic applications and examples thereof will be presented. A. J. Ferguson, M. T. Lloyd, D. C. Olson, G. Rumbles... wavelength. These metamaterial structures can be made using standard semiconductor fabrication...-cost metal foil substrates will be presented.* [1] L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, O. Sulima... with gradient lattices can be expected to be applied in different fields... of organic photovoltaic cells will be discussed. Reference [1] N. M. Kronenberg, M. Deppisch, F. Würthner... the biological recognition elements can be actuated by assembling supramolecular structures... fields. Selected biosensing examples will be critically discussed, along with straightforward... confinement. It can be designed to be strongly resonant, with very.... The recorded grating can be read be the same single recorded beam.... GaInN/InGaN heterostructures can be engineered to be responsive from UV to... ellipsometric analysis results will also be compared to spectrophotometric measurement for... Aerial Vehicle) system should be designed to be lighter and smaller products... the optical interferometry techniques) will be obtained. Consequently the surface resistivity... more accurately. Aspheric surfaces can be measured effectively using standard interferometers... twenty specialized diagnostic subsystems must be automatically stored, analyzed with complex... of the signal to be processed should be known. In order to..., the received video must be deinterlaced to be displayed on PS displays... with a given performance characteristics can be iteratively synthesized. Computer simulation results... alternative pixel-based approach will be made in [5]. References: [1] L.T. Dechevsky, B. Bang... without the changes to be detected may be difficult to obtain... problems by expectation maximization cannot be applied. A maximum likelihood solution computed...-iterative, holographic reconstruction method may be preferable. 7800-25, Session 6 Orientation... performance of present LTP will be presented. · S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. M. Scott, Diamond... tomography require projections/sinograms to be smooth functions. In addition, scintillators... modeling and subsequent experiments will be discussed. G. Yang, A. E. Bolotnikov, Brookhaven National... because this structure can be tailored to be completely depleted. In this... OLI requirements. Performance parameters to be discussed include: wavefront, effective focal... 150m. These two bands could be use be separate cloud, snow, dust... more complex semiconductor materials to be combined compared to conventional semiconductor.... Different sensor configurations will be described. S. G. So, E. Jeng, C. Smith, D. Krueger... environmental conditions. Specialized instrumentation will be developed, including primary blackbody sources.... Innovative “smart” compression techniques will be then required, performing different types... orthogonal subspace projection (MOSP) can be further developed where determining a stopping... using entropy coding compression to be appended. A. G. Villafranca, I. Mora, P. Ruiz, Institut... a scene, enabling transient events to be characterized. The shortwave spectral information... the system performance. Results will be shown characterizing system performance degradation... compared to fixed ones will be also be discussed, as well as... traditional imagers. Such a difference can be particularly pronounced in application-speci.... A nucleotide sequence fractal dimension can be calculated from a numerical series consisting.... A nucleotide sequence fractal dimension can be calculated from a numerical series consisting... archaeal viruses would also be expected to be presence in a sustainable archaeal...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.05/5
... apply: 0xkk: digits 'kk' should be interpreted as a hexadecimal number active...: ⎢x⎥ ⎥ ⎣ y⎦ x mod y = x − y ⎢ nnD: digits 'nn' should be interpreted as a decimal number normal...(i) 1TR a m,l,p ACP AP2 ASP bBS,j be,do c(x) C/N C/N+I Cbal(m) ′ ( m) Cbal Exclusive OR..., further stream specific optimizations may be performed to reduce signalling overhead... 8 MHz channel). A GSE stream shall be characterized by variable length packets... field, see clause 5.1.7. A GCS shall be characterized by a continuous bit-stream... optional ISSY appended field, shall be transmitted while null-packets (i.e. TS... optional ISSY appended field, may be removed. See figure 3. After transmission... in time (although it may be statically reconfigured). • ISSYI (1 bit), (Input... Field (see clause 5.1.6) shall not be performed. Tim e G eneric C ontinuous S tream... scrambling The complete BBFRAME shall be randomized. The randomization sequence shall... d ( x) = d Nbch − Kbch −1 x Nbch − Kbch −1 + ... + d1 x + d 0 be the remainder. • Construct the output... (L0(q) < Ncells) q = q+1; } The shift P(r) to be applied in FEC block index... the permutation for r =0, 1, 2, 3, etc. would be 0, 8 192, 4 096, 2 048, 10 240... the Interleaving Frame (index n) shall be calculated as follows: ⎧ ⎢ N BLOCKS _ IF... a maximum value NFEC_TI_MAX. NFEC_TI_MAX may be determined from NBLOCKS_IF_MAX (see clause... PLP, NBLOCKS_IF_MAX and NTI shall be chosen such that: NFEC_TI_MAX × NCELLS... cells. This condition will automatically be satisfied because PI and Nsubslices... of Kpost_ex_pad (see clause 5.8.2.2.3.2) may be calculated by adding 32 (the... minimum value of NUM_T2_FRAMES shall be 2. NUM_DATA_SYMBOLS: This 12-bit field..., STATIC_FLAG and STATIC_PADDING_FLAG, shall also be set to 0. RESERVED: This 6-bit... are used, and clause 8.3.7 shall be ignored. AUX_CONFIG_RFU: This 8-bit field... the associated PLP. PLP_PAYLOAD_TYPE shall be signalled according to table 31... the value '0' and TIME_IL_TYPE shall be set to '0'. TIME_IL_LENGTH and TIME_IL_TYPE... the puncturing operation, Npunc shall be as follows: ( ) ⎛ ⎞ 1 − 1⎟ = 11 488 ⎟ R ⎝ eff... L1-post signalling, Npost_FEC_Block shall be determined as follows: ⎡ K post _ ex... of L1_PADDING field, KL1_PADDING shall be calculated as: ⎡ K post _ ex _ pad... used, bit interleaving shall not be applied. Demultiplexing is then performed... defined in clauses 7.3.1.1 and 7.3.1.2 shall be encoded into a 16K (Nldpc=16... the bit group X π S ( N group −1) ( shall be additionally padded. Otherwise, for the... last part of X π S ( N pad ) shall be additionally padded. • Step 4) Finally, Ksig... from step (2) these groups would be those with numbers 7, 3, 6, 5, 2. From step... − 360× N punc _ groups group shall be additionally punctured. ETSI ) parity bits... Order of parity group to be punctured, { π P ( j ) , 0 ≤ j < Qldpc = 36} Modulation and... 1/2 7.3.2.5 Order of parity group to be punctured, { π P ( j ) , 0 ≤ j < Qldpc = 25} πP(0) πP(13) 6 22... - Npunc) LDPC parity bits, shall be bit-interleaved using a block interleaver... bit-interleaved LDPC codeword shall be mapped onto constellations. Each bit... f ′_prem, i = f_prem, i f ′_post m,i = f_post m,i . Let L be the maximum value of the...(m) < 0, Lim(m) = L otherwise Lim(m) = –L. 6. Let Npre(m) be the number of L1-pre... FIRST_FRAME_IDX. FRAME_INTERVAL and FIRST_FRAME_IDX shall be signalled in the L1-post... 6.5.1), and the Interleaving Frame shall be divided into PI(i) slices, each... data. Hence the NBLOCKS_IF (i,n) shall be allocated such that the resulting... ∑ ∑x l =0 m, l , p p =0 The bias balancing cells shall be set to a value Cbal(m): x m, l , p = Cbal... for a particular T2-frame shall be mapped sequentially into a single contiguous... a particular T2-frame shall also be mapped sequentially into a single contiguous... a common or Type 1 PLP, shall be calculated as follows: slice_end = PLP_START..., including coding and modulation, will be defined either in future editions... direction of the peak to be cancelled: u 4) (i ) = x m( i ) + c (i −(i1) ) m y (i ) For each reserved... magnitude of correction α k(i ) that can be applied without causing the reserved... used, the guard intervals shall be inserted following PAPR reduction. 9.8 P1... field (ISSY, 2 or 3 bytes) shall be transmitted according to clause 5.1.8. An... clause C.1.2. NOTE 2: Particular attention should be paid to the frame length... carefully. For example it may be necessary to make PLP_NUM_BLOCKS a multiple... the processing (remultiplexing) that shall be applied for transporting N (N≥2) MPEG-2 TSs... TS source, or may alternatively be generated by centrally-controlled parallel... operations described in clause D.2.4.1 shall be performed when the conditions described... the same time position shall be replaced by null packets. D.2.4.2 Conditions... Type 2 PLP is mapped should be determined as follows. E.2.7.2.3 Allocation of... the mapping described, SUB_SLICE_INTERVAL will be equal to DType 2 N subslices _ total... 2: Both SUB_SLICE_INTERVAL and RF_SHIFT will be integer numbers as a result of... n ≥ 1 : g i ∈ {0,1} , i = 1.....n − 1 and: The CRC calculation may be performed by means of a shift...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.06/5
... can a satellite communications interception station be recognised? ................48 Criterion 1: accessibility of... State Security ......................................................................................................76 6. Might there be other global interception systems? ........................... 77... such interference; whereas interference must be proportionate, so that competing interests... of protection can hardly be said to be adequate; whereas it is... (satellite) can a communications surveillance system be used for competitive intelligence-gathering... the implications for individuals should be foreseeable, and to introduce corresponding... communications may, under certain circumstances, be intercepted; insists that this information... privacy against telecommunications surveillance should be held in order to provide... 4, 4.2.5.), satellite communications throughout Europe can be intercepted using receiving stations in..., communications from a mobile phone can be intercepted if the interception station... countryside). - Closed-circuit communications can be intercepted within the USW-radio... characteristics of satellite communications must be regarded as drawbacks: the relatively... using appropriate antennae microwaves can be very effectively focused, allowing cables... which all satellite communications can be intercepted (see Chapter 4, 4.2.5.). It would... for a worldwide interception system to be constructed, subject to three conditions... can a satellite communications interception station be recognised? 5.2.1. Criterion 1: Accessibility of the... essential information beyond what can be gathered from publicly accessible sources.../194 RR\445698EN.doc 6. Might there be other global interception systems? 6.1. Requirements... communications via satellite were to be intercepted. Any other interception system.... This second aspect will therefore be discussed separately. 7.2. Compatibility of an... obvious that intelligence services cannot be allowed to circumvent these requirements... and effective monitoring arrangements must be introduced commensurate with the powers... principle of telecommunications secrecy may be breached for law enforcement purposes... of the monitoring can be said to be high, and far-reaching... intelligence service as a whole should be subject to monitoring by a parliamentary... its monitoring activities. It must be said, however, that comprehensive, monitoring... democratic principles would be desirable. Consideration should also be given to the..., 10.6) the information sought cannot be obtained by intercepting international telecommunications... (satellite) can a communications surveillance system be used for industrial espionage. This...; - when important contracts have to be negotiated locally (construction of facilities... to global political leadership would be drastically undermined. Middle-ranking powers... information. The associated risks cannot be overemphasised. Inadequate network administration Alongside..., a meaningful sequence of letters can be transformed into a meaningless sequence which... present, all possible combinations must be tried systematically. Given the present... fact of their polarisation cannot be established without altering that polarisation..., and under what circumstances, should be advised to employ encryption, a distinction... the entire working environment must be protected, thereby guaranteeing the security... existing forms of cooperation, cannot be avoided. However, the further development... intelligence policy. These advantages may be described as follows. 12.2.2.1. Practical... hand, growing European awareness should be accompanied by greater European responsibility... intelligence capacity should therefore not be seen as weakening transatlantic relations... European Union intelligence capacity should be considered necessary and inevitable. Cooperation... particular the United States, should be maintained and, very possibly, strengthened... European SIGINT activities should automatically be integrated in an independent European... field of intelligence collection must be actively considered. An integrated European... undertake such interference. Interference must be proportionate: thus competing interests need... of protection can hardly be said to be adequate. It is in... (satellite) can a communications surveillance system be used for competitive intelligence-gathering... the implications for individuals should be foreseeable, and to introduce corresponding... implementing comprehensive protection strategies must be established. PE 305.391 EN... security, some Member States will be intercepting communications from institutions, citizens... home country. Should interception measures be required in a foreign RR\445599EN.doc... interests. Interception measures may, therefore, be determined solely with regard to... that an offence may be about to be, or may have been...; each party in Parliament must be represented) 1 legal protection representative PE...; each party in Parliament must be represented) 1 legal protection representative RR\445698EN... proposed that a surveillancetype committee should be established; Nos 1951 and 2270...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.08/5
.... Some differences in operation may be observed when comparing the information... part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded... subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used without the express permission... aircraft. GPS altitude should never be used for vertical navigation. Always.... WARNING: XM Weather should not be used for hazardous weather penetration... practical. Although unlikely, it may be possible for erroneous operation to..., Perspective™ system operational procedures must be learned on the ground. WARNING... by the Perspective™ system can be misused or misinterpreted and, therefore... Operation NOTE: V-speed values cannot be adjusted on SR22T. Index Appendix... system is not intended to be used for hazardous thunderstorm penetration.../Audio Reversionary display mode can be manually activated by pressing the... are unavailable. FD may still be available. Cirrus Perspective™ by Garmin... Not Available” “Terrain Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal... Not Available” “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Abnormal Operation The PFD... memory. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The MFD configuration settings... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Appendix Index Cirrus Perspective... a problem. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Hazard Avoidance MFD1 CONFIG... times. The Perspective™ system should be serviced if the problem persists... low. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Database Message Advisories Message... persists, The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Cirrus Perspective™ by Garmin... persists, The Perspective™ system should be serviced. AFCS Procedures The MFD... persists, The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Hazard Avoidance Annun/ Alerts... persists, The Perspective™ system should be serviced. MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1... persists, The Perspective™ system should be serviced. DB MISMATCH – Aviation The... memory. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Abnormal Operation Annun/ Alerts... configuration. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Appendix Index The GIA1... persists, the Perspective™ system should be serviced. Cirrus Perspective™ by Garmin... unavailable. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1 config..., communication halted. Perspective™ system should be serviced. The audio panel self... unit. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. A GIA mismatch has been... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The system has detected... persists, the Perspective™ system should be serviced. Index Appendix Annun/ Alerts... persists, the Perspective™ system should be serviced. Cirrus Perspective™ by Garmin... receiver. The receiver may still be available. The Perspective™ system should... persists, the Perspective™ system should be serviced. LOI – GPS integrity lost... receiver. The receiver may still be available. The Perspective™ system should... receiver 2. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs... receiver 2. The receiver may still be available. The Perspective™ system should... memory. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. MANIFEST – GEA1 software The... memory. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The transponder has incorrect... Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible... airspeed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #2 AHRS is not... airspeed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #1 AHRS is using... failed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced when possible. The #2 AHRS... failed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced when possible. The #1 AHRS... limitations. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #2 AHRS is not... limitations. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #1 AHRS is not... information. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #2 AHRS is not... information. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #1 AHRS is operating... mode. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #2 AHRS is operating... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. The #2 AHRS has incorrect... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Comments A fault has occurred... operation. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. A fault has occurred in... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Cirrus Perspective™ by Garmin... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. Abnormal Operation Message ADC1... memory. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. A failure has been detected... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. EIS Message GDL69 CONFIG... memory. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. A failure has been detected... installed. The Perspective™ system should be serviced. A key is stuck on... times. The Perspective™ system should be serviced if the problem persists... times. The Perspective™ system should be serviced if the problem persists... system. The traffic device should be serviced. Stormscope has failed. The...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
Скачать документ
0.06/5
... types of analysis that may be conducted using integrated environmental-economic... scientific coherence. Indicators should therefore be regarded as summary measures that... 2.2.2 Compiling indicators 2.8 Many indicators may be compiled within the SEEA Central... for various topics. Annex 1 (to be developed) provides a more detailed explanation... and ecosystems. There may also be cultural implications when natural resources... they provide is unlikely to be sustainable. Similarly, a development pattern that... population. Environmental efficiency indicators can be disaggregated by institutional sector and... Section 3.3), these indicators can further be decomposed to reflect the extent... contextual information which may commonly be found within the underlying accounts... efficiency between countries must also be interpreted carefully. Differences in industry... activity generated. Such indicators can be calculated at the aggregate, economy... industry. These intensity ratios can be compiled for individual industries and... economic activity. The ratios can be calculated for industries, institutional sectors.... Ideally, consumption-based indicators should be based on multi-regional input... waste generation). 2.50 Decoupling can be either absolute or relative. Absolute... being addressed. 2.52 Decoupling can be measured by efficiency indicators that... is significant, a decoupling factor can be calculated as follows: Decoupling factor... production, value added and can be supplemented with information on employment... classifications additional industry analysis may be completed considering resource use per..., several different household characteristics can be analysed, such as the size... burden. This should however not be interpreted as reflecting environmental impacts... energy for different industries can be estimated. Further, from this information... different frameworks 2.89 Emissions may be accounted for in different frameworks... the definitions and classifications to be used. 2.106 Indicators and aggregates... environmental concerns. Such information may be useful to compare against aspects... a regional level. Accordingly, it may be established whether EGSS activities are... have been specifically modified to be more “environmentally friendly” or “cleaner... economy. These indirect effects can be determined by calculating multipliers derived... Multipliers and multiplier effect may be calculated for different activities of... similar transfers. This information can be combined with information on physical... For environmental taxes there may be particular interest in constructing implicit... cover within a country and can be particularly important in understanding changes... environmental assets will not be able to be readily compared since the... environmental purposes, these indicators should be accompanied with information on forest... measures of environmental assets may be particularly relevant in the assessment... assets and incomes, information may be organised to consider  More comprehensive... Framework. These adjusted aggregates may be compared with non-adjusted aggregates... associated analytical tools can generally be disaggregated at an industry level... (enterprises, governments and households) may be broken down into different types..., headline indicators, dashboards need not be mutually exclusive. Aggregation and the... more significant environmental pressures but be relative small in total quantity... is applied these aggregates can be directly incorporated with standard economic... described in Chapter 2 may often be completed with straightforward consideration of... sections two static applications will be discussed: multipliers (section 3.3.2) and the... demand 3.46 Environmental pressures can be attributed to consumption, gross capital..., and households are assumed to be fully rational utility optimizers functioning... modelling of unemployment that may be differentiated between different types of... data may not all be able to be easily attributed to the... household activity, additional columns may be introduced into the industry section... resources (particularly timber resources) may be particularly relevant with a focus on... for these resources may therefore be of particular relevance although attributing... tourism activity. Another example would be activities around health (e.g. hospitals, pharmaceuticals.... Within this scope aspects to be considered particularly important include: current... complementarity between inputs: output cannot be increased by substituting one input... the Leontief inverse. This can be expressed formally as: mj   [I  A ] 1 D ij... of interest. These coefficients could be energy intensities or employment intensities per industry j. Mathematically, this can be expressed as: f z j  e z i [ I  AD ] ij 1 [2] i f e where... DRAFT Multipliers A.12 Multipliers can be derived by normalizing the multiplier... j. Likewise, average multiplier effects can be calculated by weighting the industry...      c 0    p 0 cp Δ How decomposition works can be explained with the help of... anticipated that additional references will be incorporated in the final document...