Двигательная установка. BE-4. [Редактировать]

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#Новостная лента.
12015-07-07. Ракетный двигатель BE-4, остается наиболее вероятным решением которое будет использоваться на ракете Атлас-5 вместо РД-180.
Blue Origin продолжает опережать Aerojet Rocketdyne в соревновании на создание нового двигателя для РН Атлас 5 и последующей модификации под названием Вулкан.
Основным преимуществом новой компании является то, что она обещает создать двигательную установку на 16 месяцев раньше чем ее конкурент.
При этом, в данном случае победу одерживает та компания которая не вполне удовлетворяет требованиям конгресса который хотел создать керосиновый аналог РД-180, а создает новое решение которое будет работать на природном газе.
Подробнее...Тэги: BE-4РД-180Blue OriginAerojet Rocketdyne
22015-09-13. United Launch Alliance и Blue Origin расширяют свое сотрудничество.
United Launch Alliance (ULA) и Blue Origin подписали соглашение которое расширяет сферу применения ракетных двигателей BE-4. В целом, согласно соглашению, данный двигатель должен будет через три года не только заменить ракетный двигатель РД-180 на первой ступени РН серии Атлас 5, но и использоваться в составе ракеты Вулкан. В совместном пресс-релизе обе компании подтвердили, что новый двигатель будет использовать в качестве топлива жидкий метан. Первый квалификационный запуск ракеты с новым двигателем должен состояться в 2017 году, а первый пуск РН Вулкан в 2019 году.Тэги: United launch alliance, L.L.C.Серия РН Атлас 5BE-4Blue Origin
32015-09-16. Компания Blue Origin объявила о желании построить во Флориде производство средств выведения и стартовый комплекс.
15 сентября Blue Origin объявила, что она построит завод по производству и стартовую площадку для нового ракеты-носителя собственного производства. Первый пуск ракеты обозначен 2020 годом. В связи с этим, основатель компании также обозначил что его изделие будет многоразовым и помимо аппаратов позволять запускать на низкую орбиту экипажи.
Также он отметил, что считает данный проект достаточно перспективным поскольку он будет создаваться не с нуля, а на основе существующей инфраструктуры (стартовый комплекс не эксплуатировался уже более 10 лет). В качестве двигателей для своей ракеты он планирует использовать Be-4 на первой ступени и Be-3 на второй. Первая ступень ракеты будет приземляться вертикально, как и предусматривалось в патенте компании (относительно последнего компания судится со своими конкурентами из SpaceX). В компании также объявили о том, что само производство ракет будет происходить рядом со центром Кеннеди, что позволит компании сэкономить на логистике. В целом компания планирует инвестировать в данный проект до 200 млн. долл.
В целом данные планы находятся в тесной корреляции с существующими рыночными трендами, однако, если большинство из подобных проектов по созданию новых средств выведения реализуется, то к 2020 году на рынке будет наблюдаться переизбыток предложений со стороны коммерческих производителей средств выведения, что не позволит компании найти своего потребителя.Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4
42015-09-17. Aerojet Rocketdyne решила увязать сроки ввода в строй нового ракетного двигателя с размерами финансирования со стороны Пентагона.
15 сентября 2015 года компания Rocketdyne обнародовала данные о том, что разработка нового ракетного двигателя может быть задержана из-за недостаточного финансирования со стороны гос. заказчика.
В связи с этим, в компании отдельно подчеркнули, что если компания не сможет выиграть достаточное количество конкурсов, то сертифицирование к 2019 году двигательной установки AR 1 окажется под вопросом. В тоже самое время компания отказалась комментировать вчерашнее заявление компании Blue Origin относительно разработки ракетного двигателя BE-4 и не собирается давать комментарии относительно своего предложения о покупке за 2 млрд. долл. компании United Launch Alliance.Тэги: AR 1Aerojet RocketdyneBE-4United launch alliance, L.L.C.
52015-10-01. Компания Blue Origin обнародовала данные о ходе тестирования двигателя BE-4.
На фоне возможных закупок новых РД-180 компания Blue Origin обнародовала данные согласно которым компания осуществила уже около 100 тестов новой двигательной установки, которую она хочет использовать как в составе собственной ракеты, так и в составе нового изделия United Launch Alliance. В компании также отметили, не собираются выпрашивать финансовые средства на разработку у ВВС США, а планируют обойтись собственными ресурсами. Также компания не упустила своего шанса раскритиковать конкурентов из Rocketdyne, обвинив последних в технологической отсталости. Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4
62016-03-02. Aerojet Rocketdyne и ULA выиграли контракты от ВВС США.
ВВС США смогут инвестировать до $536 млн. (текущий объем контракта 115 млн. долл.) в разработку двигательной установки AR-1 компании Aerojet Rocketdyne и около $202 млн. (текущий объем контракта 46 млн. долл.) в создание нового поколения ракет-носителей Вулкан. При этом, согласно обнародованным данным новое поколение ракет будет обладать не только новой двигательной установкой на первой ступени (ДУ BE-4), но и обладать криогенной верхней ступенью. Работы по обоим контрактам должны быть завершены не позднее 31 декабря 2019 года. Отличительно особенностью нового предложения от ВВС США является то обстоятельство, что оно подразумевает софинансирование работ вместе с предприятиями-изготовителями в соотношении 2 к 1. Таким образом, лимитная цена на создание альтернативы ракетному двигателю РД-180 может составить около 804 млн. долл. Что составит около 50 процентов от общего объема Федеральной космической программы России (при курсе доллара 80 руб.). Также в рамках нового цикла финансирования ВВС США планирует выделить от 33.6 до 61 млн. долл. компании SpaceX(для продолжения работ над многоразовым метановым двигателем) и от 47 до 180 млн. долл. компании Orbital ATK на разработку ракетных технологий, которые будут использоваться в новой ракете.Тэги: Военно-воздушные силы СШАAR 1BE-4Orbital ATK
72016-03-27. ULA завершила экспертизу проекта создания РН Вулкан.
United Launch Alliance (ULA) успешно завершила предварительный ревью дизайна своего нового семейства ракет. В качестве двигательной установки на новом изделии рассматривалась возможность установки двух ракетных двигателей серии BE-4. В ходе анализа конструкции, по заявлению компании, ей удалось подтвердить возможность успеха нового ракета-носителя как на рынке государственных услуг, так и на рынке коммерческих заказов на пусковые услуги. При этом, полученные показатели были достигнуты при условии 14 запусков в год.Тэги: Серия РН VulcanBE-4United launch alliance, L.L.C.
82016-04-14. Компания Blue Origin не будет производить спутники.
Основатель компании Jeff Bezos подтвердил, что Blue Origin не будет создавать спутники, а сосредоточится на работах в области ракетной тематики и пилотируемых полетов. Также он высказал мнение о том, что именно BE-4 является аналогом РД-180. Относительно ближайших планов компании Jeff Bezos обнародовал информацию о намерении совершить тестовый пилотируемый полет в 2017 году, а первый платный пуск осуществить в 2018 году.Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4РД-180
92016-04-26. Законодатели США решили ограничить возможности ВВС США по нецелевому использованию средств.
Согласно последним инициативам законодателей США они собираются существенно ограничить возможности ВВС США по управлению выделенным на развитие ракетных двигателей средств с целью заставить их сконцентрироваться на создании альтернативы РД-180. В частности они решили запретить военным использовать выделенные на эти цели средства на:
1. Разработку компанией Orbital ATK твердотопливной первой ступени (размер контракта около 317 млн. долл.).
2. Разработку компаниями SpaceX и ULA двигательных установок верхней ступени и т.д.
При этом, законодатели решили проигнорировать заявления компании ULA о том, что им, в принципе, ракетный двигатель AR-1 не является необходимым поскольку они рассчитывают на двигательную установку BE-4. Кроме этого, в очередной раз, законодатели США решили разобраться с тем, как министерство обороны расходует средства на такие проекты как модернизация наземных систем слежения за околоземным пространством и т.п. С этой целью они затребовали у военных дополнительную информацию о составе и структуре мероприятий программ. Тэги: РД-180Военно-воздушные силы СШАAR 1BE-4
102016-06-02. Французский министр по космосу обнародовал свое мнение относительно рынка пусковых услуг.
Французский министр по космосу призвал удвоить усилия ЕС в области космической деятельности, особенно подчеркнув важность создания серий ракет нового поколения (Вега и Ариан 6). Также в своем выступлении он подверг сомнению царящее в Европе мнение относительно существенного отставания европейских производителей от SpaceX. Также он напомнил, что подобные настроения уже царили после первых запусков космической системы Space Shuttle, однако будущее показало что это была тупиковая ветвь развития. Также французы отметили и то, что их новый двигатель Prometheus (прогнозируемая поставочная стоимость 1 млн. евро) значительно дешевле чем криогенный двигатель Be-4, который будет стоить около 10 млн. евро. По своим энергетическим характеристикам 5-7 новых европейских двигателей предоставят первой ступени Ariane 6 большую тягу будет у первой ступени перспективной ракеты Вулкан. Также он подтвердил, что стоимость пуска РН Ариан 6 будет равна половине стоимости пуска РН Ариан 5 ECA. Также как и американская Вулкан новая ракета будет использовать центральный блок на первой ступени, который будет оснащен 2-4 твердотопливными ускорителями. верхняя ступень будет использовать в качестве топлива водород. Также французский министр отметил, что успехи РН Фалькон 9 отчасти могут быть объяснены относительной простотой изделия, что позволило снизить стоимость пуска. Вместе с тем, для европейских изделий характерно, что в стоимости РН двигательные установки составляют около 50 процентов, так что у новой европейской ракеты есть радужные коммерческие перспективы.Тэги: Космическое агентство ФранцииСерия РН Ариан 6BE-4Prometheus
112016-09-26. Компания SpaceX провела испытания двигательной установки Raptor.
Компания SpaceX провела первые испытания двигательной установки Raptor, которая должна будет использования в 2024 году при полете к Марсу. Отличительной особенностью нового изделия является то, что как и Be-4 компании Blue origin, он использует в качестве компонентов метан и кислород. Тэги: RaptorBE-4SpaceX
122017-04-06. Blue Origin обнародовала данные о своих планах.
Согласно сообщению компании:
- в скором времени ULA подтвердит выбор кислородно-метанового двигателя BE-4 в качестве маршевой ДУ первой ступени РН серии Вулкан. При этом, по мнению компании, конкурирующая с ними Aerojet Rocketdyne отстает от них в разработке кислородно-керосинового AR1 на 18-24 месяца;
- она собирается начать предоставление услуг по суборбитальным полетам в 2018-2019 годах;
- стоимость создания РН New Glenn будет стоить 2.5 млрд. долл. Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4AR 1
132017-04-14. Компания ULA объявила о том, что она еще не утвердила окончательный выбор ДУ для РН серии Вулкан.
United Launch Alliance (ULA) опроверг циркулирующие на рынке слухи и объявил о том, что двигатели AR1 от компании Aerojet еще имеют шансы быть установленными на первой ступени РН серии Вулкан. Ранее руководство компании констатировало, что разработчик кислородно-керосинового двигателя отстает от конкурента на 18-24 месяца.Таким образом, оператор пусковых услуг оценил шансы BE-4 все таки выше поскольку он имеет большую вероятность быть готовым к 2019 году.Тэги: Серия РН VulcanAR 1BE-4United launch alliance, L.L.C.
142017-05-15. Blue Origin в ходе испытаний нового кислородно-метанового двигателя BE-4 потеряла турбонасосный агрегат.
Американская Blue Origin объявила о том, что в ходе последних тестов она потеряла ключевой компонент (Powerpack) своего двигателя BE-4. В своем сообщении компания также отметила, что элемент конструкции не находится в производстве, однако в ходе инцидента никакие другие элементы двигателя и стенда не были испорчены.
Powerpack это ключевой компонент ракетного двигателя который включает в себя турбонасос, который подает жидкий кислород и метан в камеру сгорания. Powerpack генерирует около 75 тыс. лошадиных сил мощности, которые он получает от малого насоса, который называется preburner. Тэги: Blue OriginBE-4
152017-08-08. Стоимость разработки ДУ AR1 достигла $288.4 млн.
Стоимость разработки ДУ AR1 по состоянию на 30 июня достигла $288.4 млн. При этом максимальная цена контракта составляет около $536 млн. Ожидаемый срок окончания разработки 2019 год. При этом, ULA отметила в связи с этим, что AR1 остается реальной альтернативой ДУ BE-4 на первой ступени РН серии Вулкан.
В СМИ США также отмечается, что вполне вероятно в будущем новая РН серии Вулкан будет обладать как метановой так и керосиновым вариантом первой ступени. Тэги: AR 1Aerojet RocketdyneРД-180BE-4
162017-10-06. Blue Origin объявила об интересе к военным запускам.
Новый исполнительный директор компании Blue Origin объявил о том, что компания в ближайшее время проведет переговоры о сертификации своих РН серии New Glenn в интересах их допуска к запуску военных космических аппаратов. Таким образом, Боб Смит официально подтвердил изменение стратегии компании, которая ранее была ориентирована исключительно на коммерческих потребителей. Помимо этого представитель Blue Origin также подтвердил, что:
1. Новая ракета будет выводить 45 тонн на НОО и до 13 тонн на ГПО.
2. На первой ступени будет находиться семь, а на второй одна ДУ BE-4. Тэги: Серия РН New GlenBlue OriginBE-4
172017-10-10. ASRC провела испытания модели инжектора.
Компания ASRC провела огневые испытания напечатанной на 3-Д принтере уменьшенной копии топливного инжектора, который будет совместим с ДУ BE-4 и AR1. Таким образом United Launch Alliance сделала еще один шаг в сторону отказа от российских ДУ РД-180 на РН Atlas 5.
В апреле 2017 года ASRC планирует провести испытания полномасштабной модели своего инжектора. Тэги: United launch alliance, L.L.C.РД-180AR 1BE-4
182017-10-21. Blue Origin провела испытания ДУ BE-4.
Blue Origin объявила о том, что она провела успешное огневое испытание метановой двигательной установки BE-4 (двигательная установка планируется к установке на РН серий Вулкан и New Glenn).
С успешными испытаниями BlueOrigin уже поздравил альянс ULA (United Launch Alliance), совместное предприятие Boeing и Lockheed Martin, производитель носителя Atlas 5, на первую ступень которого устанавливается РД-180. Тэги: BE-4Blue OriginСерия РН Vulcan
192017-11-10. ULA обнародовала данные о предпочтительном маршевом двигателе своей новой ракеты.
Согласно заявлению главы United Launch Alliance, оператор пусковых услуг пока что не определился с тем какой двигатель будет установлен на первой ступени РН серии Вулкан, а предпочитает еще немного подождать. При этом, у компании есть обозначенный ВВС США срок 20 ноября, когда она должна будет сделать окончательный выбор.
По этому поводу руководитель компании отметил, что новая ракета разрабатывается за счет средств компаний Боинг и Локхид Мартин, а следовательно он не очень волнуется по поводу требований ВВС США и их проблем с невозможностью сформировать перспективную программу пусков. Также он отметил, что ULA является прибыльной компанией, что отличает ее от большинства операторов пусковых услуг. Также в своем заявлении Бруно отметил, что компания не собирается возвращать ступень целиком на Землю, а ограничится спасением только хвостового отсека с двигательной установкой. В конце своего выступления руководитель оператора привел крылатую фразу о том, что рынок даст объективную оценку всем его участникам. Тэги: United launch alliance, L.L.C.Серия РН VulcanAR 1BE-4

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Тяга (Земля), килоньютон2400
2Тип топливакислород+СПГ
3Турбонасосный агрегат
4Давление, фунтов на кв. дюйм5000
5Количество (оборотов), оборотов в минуту19000
6Мощность, лошадиных сил70000

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... of a lightning protection system would be required to achieve sufficient protection... FlashShield™ Flexible Gas Piping must be performed by a qualified installer who...®/FlashShield™ flexible gas piping will be installed. Accordingly, installers should also... of a lightning protection system would be required to achieve sufficient protection... protection where striker plates cannot be easily installed. MATERIAL / SPECIFICATIONS •  Striker.... (LBS. OR IN.) COMMENTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O To be copied: For Planning and Design... meter, a multiple manifold system may be used (Fig. 3-5, 3-6). Elevated pressure systems... proper appliance operation but should be reviewed with the manufacturers’ input... appropriate code approved tables must be used when sizing Gastite®/ FlashShield... for measurement, approximated lengths should be rounded up. 3.2 SIZING PROCEDURES AND...: Gastite® recommends that trunk lines be 1/2" minimum. Therefore, this trunk run should be upsized to 1/2" GASTITE DIVISION, TITEFLEX... PRACTICES 4.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS a) Precautions must be taken to ensure any exposed... Gastite®/FlashShield™ CSST — Tubing shall be supported in a workmanlike manner with... electrical wiring and cables should be avoided. When supporting FlashShield™ tubing... acceptable. h) Gastite®/FlashShield™ CSST must be rigidly terminated with a FS-Series... field torque requirements. Lubrication must be chloride free. * Minimum torque values...: Metallic shield contact feature must be utilized with FlashShield. STEP 4 POSITION... field torque requirements. Lubrication must be chloride free. * Minimum torque values...: Metallic shield contact feature must be utilized with FlashShield STEP 6 POSITION... field torque requirements. Lubrication must be chloride free. * Minimum torque values... horizontal support spacing requirements will be considered sufficiently supported. See Figures... Gastite®/FlashShield™. Gastite®/FlashShield™ may be routed beneath, through and alongside... ceiling joists. Due consideration must be given to future construction possibilities..., the Gastite®/FlashShield™ CSST shall be protected from mechanical damage inside... exist, mechanical strike protection must be used. 1) Concealed – View is obstructed... horizontally through structural members shall be protected from puncture threats with... movable appliances, Gastite®/FlashShield™ must be rigidly terminated before the appliance... and shut-off valves must be securely mounted. Additionally, Gastite®/FlashShield... a) Barbecue Grills – Movable grills shall be connected using an approved outdoor... following requirements must be met: 1. Support materials will be selected to provide... support materials must also be selected to be non-damaging to the... instructions. d) Yard Mounted Lights – Shall be connected to the Gastite®/FlashShield... flow velocity. Acoustics can usually be avoided by restricting Gastite®/FlashShield... a parallel arrangement. The manifold may be manufactured from a one-piece malleable.... A manifold assembly without a regulator can be concealed. The Gastite®/FlashShield™ CSST... regulation, the following information must be established: •  Available inlet pressure range... 2017 4.8.3 INSTALLATION a) The regulator shall be installed in an accessible location... port, the ventlimiting orifice must be removed for outdoor installations. OUTDOOR... 2017 4.8.4 PERFORMANCE a) A performance test should be conducted while operating all appliances... OUTLET PRESSURE ADJUSTMENT a) Adjustment can be accomplished by first removing the...®/FlashShield™ system, careful consideration must be given to the regulator performance...®/ FlashShield™ CSST, the tubing shall be routed inside a non-metallic, watertight...’s installation instructions. FlashShield™ is to be bonded in accordance with the... gas piping system shall be considered to be directbonded when installed in... ordinances • The bonding conductor shall be installed and protected in accordance... 3 inches of a potential threat must be protected against damage using protection.... 3) Gastite®/FlashShield™ CSST should not be connected to moveable appliances. Connections... ranges and clothes dryers should be accomplished with a flexible appliance connector... concrete, Gastite®/FlashShield™ CSST must be routed in a non-metallic watertight... installation. 10) Gastite® CSST must be physically separated from other continuous... different manufacturers, the systems can be joined through standard pipe couplings..., local codes must be followed. b) Pressure testing must be performed during rough... outlets for appliance connections should be capped during pressure testing. 6.2 ELEVATED... PRODUCTS INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 1) Installation must be performed strictly in accordance with....gastite.com. 3) Pressure testing must be performed during rough construction with... SECTIONS 1 & 2) 1) Gastite/FlashShield CSST must be installed by a qualified installer who... tubing. a) ½" b) ¾" c) 1" 12) Gastite/FlashShield can be directly buried in the ground... areas where chlorides may be present shall be wrapped with a self bonding...



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... ............................... 62 Figure 1.4: Genes shown to be upregulated by the Ketogenic diet..., and clinical manifestation [1], seizures may be classified as generalised (‘originating at... decision regarding whether spasms should be classified as focal, generalised, or... effects [166]. Ketones may also be neuroprotective (for example, protection against... serine peptidase inhibitor, may also be relevant for protection against seizures.../glycolysis in seizures, it may be specifically (depleted) glycolytic energy, rather...], although hypothalamic leptin signalling may be impaired, indicated by decreased phosphorylation... apparently most consistent evidence must be interpreted with caution. For example... further study. Further detail will be given in Chapter 4. 1.3.1 Differential response... encoding proinflammatory cytokines may be expected to be reduced with the KD..., 428]. Seemingly contradictory findings may be explained by an initial induction... respond favourably; dietary treatment may be avoided, or other treatment options.... A variety of genetic analyses will be conducted, including a candidate gene analysis... a) AROS Applied Biotechnology A/S, Denmark to be genotyped with the Infinium HumanOmniExpressExome... selection and genetic analyses, will be described in Chapters 4-7. 2.3.2 Research question... heterozygosity. Such detailed understanding may be especially challenging, but nevertheless important... phenotyping patients with epilepsy must be highlighted. Determination of seizure localisation... have required all participants to be recruited prospectively. The compliance data... hospital follow-up appointments could be recruited retrospectively, which may have... baseline seizure frequency could not be ascertained. Classifying diet response was... dataset-dependent [509]. Phenotypes may be quantitative, such as biochemical parameters..., recruited 154 individuals should ideally be as ethnically-homogenous as possible... bands. Alternatively, each dideoxynucleotide can be labelled with different colour dyes... a relative risk of approximately 2.5 could be detected; assuming a recessive penetrance model... association analyses.  No conclusions can be drawn from previously unreported variants..., UK). Further international collaboration would be needed to obtain a larger cohort... AROS Applied Biotechnology A/S, Denmark to be genotyped with the Infinium HumanOmniExpressExome... somewhat arbitrary. Ideally, there would be standardised phenotypic criteria for defining..., controlling for population stratification may be particularly important, as there may... PAX3 expression; different factors may be involved as development progresses [707...-synonymous variants are estimated to be deleterious [814]. Non-synonymous variants...<0.5%), indicating that these mutations can be highly deleterious, whatever the level... and functional transcripts can still be generated from alternative splicing; they... that a substituted amino acid will be tolerated) on multiple sequence alignments... lower the p-value has to be to be declared statistically significant), it... genome influences KD response will be conducted. Various methods, including extreme... the Illumina chip, power would be greatly reduced to detect a genotypicphenotypic... selecting those individuals thought to be most genetically enriched for variants... of coding variants, studies may be underpowered to detect phenotypic associations... many basecalling algorithms, uncertainty can be quantified, as each nucleotide base... authors acknowledge that thresholds may be dataset-specific. The authors recommended... from nonsynonymous SNVs will be most probably be filtered out. Filtering according..., differences in population structure must be balanced between responders and non... fully penetrant, they would be expected to be present in all members... statistically significant p-value could not be generated, unless the cohort size... (predominantly post variant-calling) can be manipulated with quality control procedures... aspects that could potentially be improved would be a) use of multi-sample...- and array-based methods would be appropriate [994]. 7.4.3 7.4.3.1 Results of interest... the L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme may be partially affected – not necessarily enough... harbour damaging variants, individuals may be able to synthesise enough triglycerides... size, particular genes will be shown to be more relevant than others... (but individuals may still be asymptomatic), may be a contraindication for starting KD...]. Increased insulin/IGF1 signalling may be a compensatory mechanism in response to... population; other phenotypes may subsequently be explored. 8.2.2 Compliance to treatment Misclassification... closely monitored, seizure frequency could be more accurately quantified and other... markers. Association analyses could also be conducted with individuals with specific... individuals, unfavourable KD response may be explained by a specific variant that... participated. Seizure frequency data will be obtained from that already collected... participated. Seizure frequency data will be obtained from that already collected...



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... confidentiality this database may only be accessed by accredited EuroStat personnel... household dimension, causes it to be frequently used for general publications... "seeking work". Unemployed persons can be classified by reason for unemployment... labour status and underemployment must be obtained by interviewing the person... the household. Other information may be obtained from alternative sources, including... under Article 4(1)(g), (h), (i) and (j), - and may be Collected from a sub-sample defined..., a method of statistical imputation shall be applied where appropriate. 5. The weighting.... Article 4 Survey characteristics 1. Data shall be provided on; (a) demographic background: - sequence.... Article 8 Procedure The Commission shall be assisted by the Statistical Programme... variables.’ 4. The following paragraph shall be added: ‘4. On a proposal from the... requirements and structural variables should be collected for the total sample... codification of the variables should be amended. (7) Commission Regulation (EC) No... requirements, and structural variables should be collected for the total sample... it). The week to be skipped should be typical with regard to... cohabiting partner The identification should be done using the sequence number... (derived from ISO) Nationality should be interpreted as citizenship. Citizenship is... question, current national boundaries should be considered, rather than any applying... off-season, seasonal workers cannot be considered as having a formal attachment... (code 3). A freelancer should in general be classified as self-employed. However... or trainees receiving remuneration should be considered as employees. Priests (of... week. Sometimes job titles can be misleading. For example, a ‘playground supervisor... of their job, they should be coded 1. Persons having supervisory responsibilities... an absent superior should not be considered as having supervisory responsibilities... is satisfactorily carried out) should be considered as having supervisory responsibilities... the most recent spell should be coded (e.g. seasonal workers). Company changed... the public employment office should be effective, i.e. having contributed to the... a contract for a probationary period should be coded 2 (see definition of probationary... a rotating pattern, and which may be continuous or discontinuous, entailing the..., however, "evening work" must be considered to be work done after the... national circumstances. Paternity leave should be included here. Code 09: Parental... work. The subsequent period to be specified when determining workers' availability... statistics, were below a threshold, to be chosen according to national circumstances. This threshold may be determined by e.g. the boundary between... the order of priority should be 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 2, and 7, with 1 being the highest... spontaneous reasons. Main reason should be collected. Col 119: (PRESEEK) Situation... persons having declared themselves to be seeking employment this question should... expression "level successfully completed" must be associated with obtaining a certificate or... no certification, successful completion must be associated with full attendance. When... and vocational education/training should be taken into consideration. Persons who... expression “level successfully completed” must be associated with obtaining a certificate or... no certification, successful completion must be associated with full attendance. Situation... occupying a housing unit) can equally be accepted. These definitions comprise all... the survey sample may be considered to be "representative" of a certain number... countries) this weighting factor should be calculated for each person composing... focusing on a particular specialisation should be classified in this category. Pre... technical qualification. For a programme to be considered as pre-vocational or... used. The reduction should however be relatively significant and regular, i.e. occur... expression "level successfully completed" must be associated with obtaining a certificate or... question, current national boundaries should be considered, rather than any applying.... Working during school holidays should be coded 2. Interruptions of studies should... reference week), code 000000 should be used. Apprenticeship/unpaid traineeship, compulsory... that case, the duration should be counted from JOBSTART. Apprenticeship/unpaid.... Holidays after stopping education should be excluded (the question asks about... of the mother. Nationality should be interpreted as citizenship. Citizenship is... national legislation. Reference should always be made to existing citizenships. Code... unlimited durations. These cases should be coded 7. When designing the questionnaire... the host country system should be taken into account. E.g. national authorities.... Public and private services should be included. E.g. services provided by public... B LA N K N o form a l ed ucation or be low IS C E D 1 IS C E D 1 IS C E D 2 IS... Kingdom IN T W A V E (E W A V E ): S e q ue n ce nu m be r of th e s u rv ey w a ve... quarterly variables are available should be coded as IN T Q U E S T = 1. LFS User...



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... should note that responses will be published on a publicly-accessible website... consultation, including personal information, may be subject to disclosure in accordance... conservation areas. 2. Planning permission must be obtained from the Council for... area designation 4. Special publicity must be given to planning applications for... loading or unloading a vehicle) would be prohibited between 8.00 a.m. and 6.30... 1 and 2 to this Notice would be revoked; (g) make minor drafting amendments..., HA9 0FJ. 5. Further information may be obtained by telephoning the Transportation... consultation, including personal information, may be subject to publication or disclosure... pedestrianization of Price’s Street will be:- (a) to revoke the designation of.... Objections and other representations may be communicated to other persons who... determining whether the Liquidator should be granted his release from office... determining whether the Liquidator should be granted his release from office... determining whether the Liquidator should be granted his release from office... exceptional circumstances, creditors will not be entitled to vote unless their... determining whether the Liquidator should be granted his release from office... following resolution: 1. That the Liquidator be granted his release. Members or... enquiries by creditors. Resolutions to be taken at the aforementioned meeting... enquiries by creditors. Resolutions to be taken at the aforementioned meeting... enquires by creditors. Resolutions to be taken at the aforementioned meeting... a Liquidation Committee. Resolutions may also be taken at the meeting deciding... remuneration. Additional information will also be given relating to the costs... exceptional circumstances, a creditor will not be entitled to vote unless his... how the Liquidators intend to be remunerated. Names of Insolvency Practitioners... exceptional circumstances, a creditor will not be entitled to vote unless his.... At the Meeting, Creditors may be requested to consider a Resolution specifying... exceptional circumstances, a creditor will not be entitled to vote unless his... exceptional circumstances, a creditor will not be entitled to vote unless his... how the Liquidators intend to be remunerated. Names of Insolvency Practitioners... 2015 (2445929) Company’s creditors will be available for inspection free of... exceptional circumstances, a creditor will not be entitled to vote unless his... exceptional circumstances, a creditor will not be entitled to vote unless his... Resolution respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily and that... Thomas Barriball and Helen Whitehouse be appointed as Joint Liquidators for... Ordinary Resolution:1. That the Company be wound up voluntarily. 2. That Neil... Resolution respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily, and that... Resolutions respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily, and that... Resolution respectively “That the Company be wound up voluntarily, and that... Thomas Barriball and Helen Whitehouse be appointed as Joint Liquidators for... Ordinary Resolution. 1. That the Company be wound up voluntarily 2. That Elizabeth... Resolution respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily, that Stephen... Resolution respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily, that Stephen... resolutions respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily and that... determining whether the Liquidator should be granted his release from office... of the Joint Liquidators shall be distributed to shareholders absolutely. Office... hands of the Liquidator shall be distributed to shareholders absolutely. Note... Resolution respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily, and that... and severally.” Further information can be obtained by contacting: Kelly Jones... Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire WD6 2BT, be and is hereby appointed Liquidator... Resolution respectively: That the Companies be wound up voluntarily and that... Ordinary Resolution: "That the Company be wound up voluntarily." "That Susan... Resolution respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily, and that... Ordinary Resolution: "That the Company be wound up voluntarily." "That Christopher... Street, Sileby, Leicestershire LE12 7NN be and is hereby appointed Liquidator... Ordinary Resolution: "That the Company be wound up voluntarily." "That Christopher... Resolution respectively: “That the company be wound up voluntarily, and that... resolution, respectively: “That the Company be wound up voluntarily and that..., Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, HD3 4TG be and is hereby appointed Liquidator... passed: 1. THAT Verbatext Reporting Limited be wound up voluntarily. 2. THAT Steve... respect the following resolutions will be sought: • The Joint Trustees’ remuneration... the bankruptcy. • The Joint Trustees’ be authorised to draw disbursements for... any time. Such modifications shall be effective immediately upon publication of... duplications of information; 4.4 Notices can be edited to re-position material... as a consequence of 4.1 - 4.5 above) shall be made without confirmation from the..., subcontractors and/or employees) shall be liable for any liabilities, losses...



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... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all...&SS workforce profiles. 9 Consideration will be given to whether further actions...’s Flexible Working Policy. Consideration will be given to whether further actions... circumstances. The potential impact cannot be more specifically defined at this... potential for a protected characteristic to be disadvantaged by an adverse impact... Project: Tick 9 9 1 Further efficiencies will be achieved by charging relevant payroll... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... equally i.e. any disproportionate impact will be consistent with the current workforce... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... equally i.e. any disproportionate impact will be consistent with the current workforce... Project: Tick 9 9 1 Administrative support would be provided through the new HR... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... equally i.e. any disproportionate impact will be consistent with the current workforce... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... people/Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... restructure applies. Consequently, there may be variances between the data shown... a potential for a protected characteristic to be disadvantaged as a consequence of the... identified, mitigating to be progressed. actions will be considered and due regard... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... potential for a protected characteristic to be disadvantaged by an adverse impact... frequency of monitoring arrangements will be determined based upon the indicative... for customers and stakeholders will be communicated through reports, meetings and presentations as appropriate. Consultation will be undertaken with customers and other... appropriate. Approval for implementation will be obtained via the Council’s standard... people / Protected Characteristics that may be affected by your proposals? (9 all... characteristic is low. There may be a potential for a differential impact based... as that may be affected will be considered will be determined in as... implementation. Where a potential proposals to be under implementation for adverse impact... of proposal monitoring arrangements will be determined having regard to specific... the end column C. 5 4 3 2 1 0 disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... Post) Directorate: 216 8 disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... equality implications. The proposal will be reviewed following staff consultation and... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact.... In addition further efficiencies to be achieved in Environmental Service delivery... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... parking locations that otherwise would be obstructed by overstaying vehicles. No... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... parking locations that otherwise would be obstructed by overstaying vehicles. Summary... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... Neutral Neutral N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A The impact would be the same on all motorists... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact... a protected characteristic. This disadvantage may be differential, where the negative impact...



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... climate change. The consequences would be particularly severe for those countries... competitiveness. A country’s business environment can be assessed on several dimensions, including... which a foreign business license may be granted; ◆◆ Council of Ministers Resolution...-term leasehold. ◆◆ Infrastructure: Zones may be endowed with superior infrastructure, such... endorsement and active collaboration—can be critical. Governance structures and procedures... such circumstances, private involvement may be limited to construction contracts for... authorities. The zone should already be designated by planning and environmental... qualitative conclusions and should not be considered a representative sample that warrants....7% 10.3% 3.4% Table 6.9  Would you be willing to be contacted at a later date... business. Kuwait’s proximity seems to be a natural competitive advantage in this... and special incentives should be offered will be discussed in detail in... Minerals. Together, these components can be considered as a single entity reflecting... also domestic alternatives that might be considered as competition for attracting... recognize that their initiatives can be complementary instead of competitive, or... services. The KEG should be designed to be complementary to these efforts... bridges these institutional barriers should be a very proactive effort and should... Gateway offering may be, a concerted marketing effort will be required to attract... Gateway’s value proposition may be, it must be communicated in a way that.... Effective communication, in turn, must be a coordinated effort involving all of..., the Kuwait Energy Gateway will be mindful of environmental sustainability, equal... market. The Gateway should be designed to be a complementary market pull on... buildings. The physical facilities should be designed to facilitate the processes.... However, the units should be designed to be capable of easy re... Gateway. The Gateway facilities should be developed in phases, anticipating demand... international companies. The companies would be identified as having a proprietary technology... performance of the project will be monitored. ◆◆ Development and prototyping projects... which a foreign business license may be granted; ◆◆ Council of Ministers Resolution... tenants; ◆◆ Requirement that a customs post be established within each zone; ◆◆ Requirement... of these buildings could be designed to be built in phases, with... proposed that two other committees be established: ◆◆ Policy Advisory Committee; and... technologies that the Gateway should be prioritizing for demonstration and development..., Furthermore, there would need to be relevant international advertising, production of...; ◆◆ Environmental and safety precautions to be taken during construction, maintenance and... commercialization specialists Additional resources will be needed for geographic information system...-up years. ◆◆ The Gateway should be a geographically-bounded location with a common... is fully built, would not be unreasonable. Institutional Collaboration During the... start of construction, it should be possible to complete sufficient infrastructure... technologies otherwise not proven to be effective under Kuwaiti operating conditions... services, the KEG should be designed to be complementary to these efforts... R&D initiatives, but it will be designed to be highly complementary. The KEG... park. Prospective Gateway stakeholders may be interested in the organizational forms... manufacturing or processing enterprises” could be conducted within RTP, the decision... commercial principles. (b) The KFTZA shall be legally constituted and organized within... government, and as such, shall be ineligible for compensation.3 Article 7. Activities... proposed FTZ; (4) the services to be provided; (5) the construction schedule, including... indicates that these criteria will be violated. (d) Submission of a completed application... describe such a company, obviously, must be adjusted to reflect Kuwaiti corporate... formalities, these office facilities shall be equipped with the equipment required... declaration and accompanying documentation may be submitted to the Customs Office... and trustworthiness. This privilege may be temporarily suspended for FTZ entities... FTZ. The entry declaration shall be supported by detailed documentation establishing... commercial documents. (j) Should any discrepancies be detected by Customs inspectors between... and trustworthiness. This privilege may be temporarily suspended for FTZ entities... cleaning services. Temporary transfers must be supported by the appropriate declaration... approvals. (d) FTZ entities shall not be penalized for discrepancies between actual... environmental legislation. (b) A FTZ Certificate shall be automatically denied by a FTZ Developer... environmental impact. (c) A FTZ Certificate may be issued subject to conditions relating... competent authorities. (b) A FTZ Certificate shall be automatically denied by a Developer to... these Regulations. These investigations may be made without prior notification; however... _____ 25. Would you be willing to be contacted at a later date...



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... other nationalities, Italians appeared to be a relatively „marginal‟ migrant population, being..., implies multiple options: mobility may be many-directional and multiple, temporary... reinforce the country‟s claim to be a successful multicultural society (through apparent... regular interaction. It can also be defined as a social identity (...) characterised... group boundaries, for example, must be repeatedly renegotiated, while expressive symbols of ethnicity (ethnic traditions) must be repeatedly reinterpreted.44 Therefore, like...‟s sense of ethnic membership may (...) be internalised during early primary socialisation... has observed: „although ethnicity may be a primary social identity, its salience... that British-Italians started to be academically investigated. This coincided with... its age profile appeared to be very diversified: first generation interviewees... pre-war contingent appeared to be under-represented (only 7 respondents). 29... Monmouthshire).79 A similar trend could be observed in Scotland where Italians....117 Such a demographic increase cannot be explained without reference to exPOWs... a recruiting campaign turned out to be unsuccessful, with some foreign workers... reserve‟ potentials. Another reason could be that the Italian Government tried... continued employment in coalmining will be available‟. 195 MLNS, „Conditions for... recruited Italian workforce appeared to be volatile, individual migrants, especially those..., a slight tendency toward urbanisation could be observed. Within a few years, some... a significant concentration of Italian migrants be found. In addition, the involvement... sector caused their settlements to be fundamentally market-orientated. As Vecoli... a definition of mobility. Mobility can be economic, social, self-perceived or... tinplate workers proved themselves to be more economically mobile than miners... economic and psychological pressure to be successful and prove that migration...: a tolerant nation? Wales‟ claim to be a „tolerant nation‟ is a long-standing...'s Housing Sites: Should German Prisoners Be Employed?'. Although anti-German attitudes..., fourteen „malcontent‟ Italians had to be transferred to a different camp. The... swopped identity a thousand times...To be a Welsh local...Because of bullying..., a past constraint has ceased to be operative. (...) I believe that mind reconstructs... testimony suggests, there appeared to be a slight sense of „bitterness‟ among... amongst indigenous workers could easily be resolved by increasing their wages... universally celebrated, that Italianness can be more safely articulated‟.272 A similar... national history, Italians tend to be still depicted as a „distinct‟ cultural..., they still considered themselves to be „outsiders‟. For example, third generation..., integrated and respected minorities, to be strongly identified [by the receiving...‟, p. 79 173 they should be to be proud of) and, secondly, showing... Canada, Spain and Britain could be the chapter „National Identity, Devolution... promoting forms of multiculturalism could be observed in Britain, the country... from the Llŷn peninsula I wouldn‟t be saying that (...) but I‟m not, I‟m from... Italian ethnic group appeared to be still numerically remarkable if compared... of national pride appeared to be particularly strong among Italians residing..., Italian national identity appeared to be stronger among first generation Italians..., national identities turned out to be strictly related to integration. Jackson... English schools considered themselves to be „more English than Irish‟, while... Italian identity may appear to be an unproblematic circumstance in a society... „oppressed people (the Welsh) cannot be 129 Interview with G. Vasami, 4 August... Catholic resilience among Italians could be that Italian institutions had, since... maintenance (press, schools, organisations) cannot be maintained (…) relatively small groups may... Welsh fluently. This circumstance could be partially explained in merely numerical......I suppose that‟s a heritage I should really be encouraging, but it‟s not the... (...) which is something that should be appreciated because it‟s their language... Welsh speaking minority seems to be advantaged in achieving better professional... (...) That this occurred should not be surprising for language – whether English... acts). (...) integration and cohesion cannot be fostered merely by instilling knowledge... civilintegration is about (...) cohesion cannot be manufactured from the top down..., (…) Italian shops today have to be a restaurant, a steakhouse, a spaghetti house (…) you... sociality, ethnic cuisine could well be the ultimate reconciliation between a diversity... the older generations would certainly be familiar and emotionally engaged with... involving a stateless nation appears to be particularly germane. The post-devolution... a relatively new and yet-to-be consolidated „nation‟ (in political/institutional... Welsh experience, which could not be observed elsewhere. Whereas large numbers... in a historical perspective appears to be particularly germane at a time when... Italian migrant experience appears to be a distinctively Welsh experience, which cannot...



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... 2005 ), a financially independent student must be a bona fide resident of the... Security Number used, you will be assigned a 9-digit “C” Number. A Social Security... opportunities. Directory information may also be provided for commercial purposes to... individuals for purposes that may be beneficial to students. The institution... procedures covering discrimination complaints should be directed to the Associate Vice... of the immunization requirements may be made for: • A medical exemption, which... number as personal identifier will be assigned a “C” number. A social security number... enrollment; 3. an assigned “C” number may be used in the Student Information... Technical Education Program Completers may be admitted when written agreements with... international student qualifications may also be admitted. Returning And Readmitted Students... sites. Additional information can also be obtained at the Assessment Center... skills. Certain test scores must be obtained. For information regarding Career... Nevada residents. Loan recipients will be contacted by Student Financial Services... or vocational standards. Loans MUST be repaid with interest. EFC — Expected... Interview. Satisfactory Academic Progress — To be eligible to receive federal student... Cashier’s Office. Exceptions Refund might be considered for the following reasons... Conversation Lounge. Writing Centers can be reached at: West Charleston Cheyenne... International Student Conversation Lounge can be obtained through Tutorial Services. Boys... educational planning. Returning students will be contacted after the completion of... (additional lab fees may also be assessed) [6] Learn strategies for mastering..., proper ventilation and combustion will be covered. Prerequisite: AC 102B, AC... defrost controls. Charging methods will be covered which include superheat, weigh... preparation program. Site visits will be made by the instructor. Prerequisite... personal imagery. Studio projects will be based on individual interests with... group and individual critiques will be employed. Prerequisite: ART 124. 21576... of aesthetic awareness. Projects will be problem-solving assignments. Prerequisite: ART... current and past legislation will be studied. Students will also investigate... Instructor permission. This course can be repeated to a maximum of 9 credits... advanced schemas. Stylesheet uses will be addressed using eXtensible Stylesheet Language... interactive web development options will be addressed including Active Server Pages... a reference/hospital lab will also be included. Corequisite: CLS 145. IMMUNOLOGY... monitoring. Critical thinking skills will be further developed through simulated cardiorespiratory... include European Pastries. Emphasis will be placed on ingredients, techniques, measuring... team building and communication will be covered. American and European style pastry products will be featured. Baker’s percentages and conversion will be emphasized. 23248 CY001 23250 CY002... external defibrillation. EMS 150B must be taken concurrently and student must... aggregate Paramedic Training. Emphasis will be on patient assessment, recognition and... scene awareness will be addressed. This course will be tailored to advancing... aggregate Paramedic Training. Emphasis will be on patient assessment, recognition and... advanced dysrhythmia interpretation. Course may be offered in seminar blocks as.... Prerequisite: GEOG 103, which may be taken concurrently. 25114 25116 25118... of illustration. Various medium will be explored including: water medium, colored..., industry and education. Students will be introduced to such microcomputer applications... of computers and calculators will be integrated into the applications. Students... aspects of operating a business will be thoroughly discussed. 26328 26330 26332... and environment. The class will be supplemented with international speakers. Prerequisite... begin, move, disseminate and can be predicted. 6:00PM - 8:50PM W Charleston C 212... and how these interventions can be integrated with various massage approaches... learn how these skills can be integrated with traditional massage approaches.... Analog and digital circuits will be introduced. Prerequisite: MATH 116 51816... scheduled performances. Audition required. May be repeated for credit. 26930 CY001... in public performances mandatory. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: Admission... jazz literature with improvisation. May be repeated for credit. 26938 CY001... expression through floral tributes will be explored through customs, practices and..., occupational and sport lenses will be discussed. Formulae pertinent to lens... OPHT 102B. Specialty lenses will be covered, including bifocals, torque, keratoconus... ophthalmic dispensing practices. Emphasis will be on patient communication, costs, both.../travel agent industries. Emphasis will be on specialized airline computer terminology... counseling, selling, and procedures will be covered. Field trips will supplement.... Access to Nellis AFB will be terminated upon course termination, cancellation...



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... translation or reproduction, applications should be made to the Director, European...-related matters. Further information can be found on the Foundation website... policy design and implementation can be identified: ■ Policy measures have to...’ employability. ■ Youth employment measures should be client-centred, not provider-focused... education system. Unemployment rates can be inflated by young people returning... halved. Considerable decreases can also be observed in Latvia, Cyprus, Greece... large variations across countries can be observed (Figure 14). Temporary contracts.... Conversely, temporary contracts seem to be less prevalent in Romania, Bulgaria... towards permanent employment need to be further investigated. An investigation of... within the NEET population may be identified: ■ the conventionally unemployed, the... 13.3 0.7 22.6 BG HU -2.2 11.8 BE LU -0.2 12.9 2.3 -0.3 -0.5 -0.1 -1.5 2.9 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.1 1.5 1.7 0.3 -2.3 -0.1 -0.6 -1.6 2.8 1.6 -0.3 2.4 0.5 0.4 0.9 Total COUNTRY EU... Member States, interesting information can be gained when analysing the share... State level, considerable variability can be observed. Luxembourg, the Netherlands and... common patterns may be identified and countries can be grouped together. This... cluster, these characteristics seem to be driven by very different dynamics... vulnerabilities of this group can be problematic. NEETs are not accumulating... separately. However, results may still be biased if unobserved country characteristics... are significantly less likely to be effective’ (2010, p. 915). Following Nickell... system of vocational training can be observed, combining classroombased vocational education... two fixed effects specifications should be interpreted carefully because 48 ed209279inside_E5... wage coordination, however, should not be over-interpreted because the simultaneous... influence of demographic factors should be carefully interpreted as the evidence...’ demands. NEET rates can also be reduced by strengthening wage coordination... exclusion. There also seems to be a clear correlation between both educational... previous section, some NEETs may be classified as disadvantaged and entering... training courses. This heterogeneity can be empirically shown by modelling the... the extended youth phase can be characterised by marginalisation and dependence... deriving direct costs, which may be computed through administrative data, one... in this study should be considered to be very conservative. Moreover, and... schemes. Public finance income may be directly observable through administrative data... hypothetical, but they can nevertheless be estimated when comparing the income... employment. Several methodological approaches can be adopted. A very simple method is... sophisticated statistical techniques have to be applied. From a methodological point of...’ labour market participation can be estimated to be €2.3 billion per week. Based... and attending educational institutions can be mobilising factors for the individual... and socioeconomic variables need to be taken into account. Statistical models... clustering exercise for countries can be criticised for its artificiality and... Interpersonal trust Most people can be trusted 4.8 4.8 4.8 Most people try to... Unemployed Others Most people can be trusted 4.9 4.4 4.8 5.2 4.3 4.3 4.5 Most people try to... disaffection and political marginalisation will be directed. Some earlier studies on... local businesses. Additional support can be introduced in innovative ways, such... approaches. These approaches are to be developed by whole communities, through..., disadvantage might increase rather than be resolved. Table 23: Strengths and... education longer. To be effective, needs to be implemented alongside measures providing... standard education environment. This can be highly problematic since these young... learning environment, which tends to be practically oriented and includes elements.... Additional administrative capacity may not be available in the most disadvantaged.... Qualifications obtained may not always be valued or recognised by employers... Future Youth (AktionZukunftJugend) could also be categorised as a youth guarantee scheme... guarantees, thus the impact can be minimal (significant variation occurs across... specified training programmes; this can be vocational training, work experience gained... and employer organisations, which might be especially difficult given the costs... pathway to employment. It should be emphasised, however, that longer training... permanent employment. They should therefore be regulated and monitored to assure... employment prospects of participants can be poor, while training programmes are... from a low-income background. Can be costly. Employer incentives and subsidies... valuable work experience rather than be unemployed. Provides valuable working opportunities.... Nevertheless, a number of lessons can be identified concerning good practices for... services. Youth employment measures should be client-centred, not provider-focused... Bibliography All Eurofound publications can be found at www.eurofound.europa... of participation turned out to be a nightmare, Perspectives on Politics. Verba...