Двигательная установка. BIT-3. [Редактировать]

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#Новостная лента.
12017-08-02. Первый ускоритель на основе твердого иода прошел очередной этап разработки.
Компания Busek Co. Inc. (изготовитель двигательных установок) подтвердил, что ее изделие "BIT-3" прошло этап критического анализа дизайна и в первом квартале 2018 года компания планирует осуществить производство летного изделия. В качестве топлива установка будет использовать твердый йод. В дальнейшем, согласно данным производителя, система должна будет устанавливаться на аппараты типа кубсат. В качестве тестовых аппаратов планируется использовать университетские Lunar IceCube и LunaH-Map. работы по созданию этих спутников финансируются за счет средств НАСА и имеют массу около 14 кг. Целевой орбитой аппаратов выбрана лунная полярная орбита, а в качестве средства выведения РН серии СЛС. Тэги: BIT-3BUSEK CO., INC.

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0.05/5
... flash memory or 4-bit/8-bit/12-bit/16-bit/24-bit ECC MLC/TLC NAND... flash interface – Support 4-bit/8-bit/12-bit/16-bit/24-bit MLC/TLC NAND as... and target port width: 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit z Direct memory access controller... supported – Transfer data units: 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 16-byte or 32... and target port width: 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit z 1.2.5 The XBurst processor system... among 4-bit, 8-bit, 12-bit, 16-bit, 20-bit and 24-bit BCH. 000: 4-bit correction (initial value) 001: 8-bit...-bit in 24-bit correction, 7931-bit in 20-bit correction, 7983-bit in 16-bit correction, 8035-bit in 12-bit correction, 8087-bit in 8-bit correction and 8139-bit in 4-bit correction... 24-bit correction, 260-bit parity data in 20-bit correction, 208-bit parity data in 16-bit correction, 156-bit parity data in 12-bit correction, 104-bit parity data in 8-bit correction or 52-bit parity... controller. 2 Select 24-bit, 20-bit, 16-bit, 12-bit, 8-bit or 4-bit correction by setting... controller. 2 Select 24-bit, 20-bit, 16-bit, 12-bit, 8-bit or 4-bit correction by setting... controller. 2 Select 24-bit, 20-bit, 16-bit, 12-bit, 8-bit or 4-bit correction by setting... controller. 2 Select 24-bit, 20-bit, 16-bit, 12-bit, 8-bit or 4-bit correction by setting... and target port width: 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit 146 JZ4760 Mobile Application... and target port width: 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit z Two channel priority modes... and target port width: 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit 188 JZ4760 Mobile Application... Parallel 18/16-bit 18/16-bit 18/16-bit 8-bit 16-bit TFT TFT... 16-bit/18-bit DATA Figure 19-8 General 16-bit and 18-bit TFT... + 8 Bit: 31 Palette entry Entry-5 bit: 15 . . . Bit: 15 0 ... 0 Entry-0 bit: 15 . . . . . . 16 Bit: 15 0 ... 0 Entry-2 bit: 15 . . . . . . 16 Bit: 15 0 0 0 ... 0 Entry-4 bit...-bit 18-bit once R6G6B6 16-bit 16-bit once R5G6B5 9-bit twice 9-bit 9-bit twice 8-bit 8-bit once 8-bit twice 8-bit third times Serial 18-bit 18-bit once 16-bit 16-bit once 9-bit 9-bit twice 8-bit 8-bit once 8-bit twice 8-bit third... AIC Controller. The BCKD bit (bit 2) and SYNCD bit (bit 1) configure the mode of... 0x0 8 bit. 0x1 16 bit. 0x2 18 bit. 0x3 20 bit. 0x4 24 bit. 0x5... 0x0 8 bit. 0x1 16 bit. 0x2 18 bit. 0x3 20 bit. 0x4 24 bit. 0x5...:20 bit 110:21 bit 010:22 bit 100:23 bit 101:24 bit Others...:16 bit 110:17 bit 010:18 bit 100:19 bit 101:20 bit Others... 1-bit command selected 0001 2-bit command selected 0010 3-bit command selected 0011 4-bit command selected 0100 5-bit command selected 0101 6-bit command selected 0110 7-bit command selected 0111 8-bit command... 3-bit data 0010 4-bit data 0011 5-bit data 0100 6-bit data 0101 7-bit data 0110 8-bit data 0111 9-bit data 1000 10-bit data 1001 11-bit... Transmission Command argument CRC7 End bit bit bit index position Width (bits) Value...-4 Command Data Block Structure Byte # Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 0 Rsv Rsv Rsv Rsv ERASE... Select. 0b00: 5-bit character 0b01: 6-bit character 0b10: 7-bit character 0b11: 8-bit character 36... Data Data Parity Stop Stop Bit Bit 0 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Bit 6 Bit 7 Bit Bit 1 Bit 2 9 8 9 9 8 9 9 8 9 9 8 9 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 For transmission, in theory, the... significant bit first. 1 parity bit: (odd parity). 1 stop bit: This is always 1. 1 acknowledge bit...



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0.12/5
.... • Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit... Description” for detailed information. • Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V The S-bit is always an exclusive...: • One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input • Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input • Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result... (8-bit) TOVn (Int.Req.) TEMP (8-bit) Clock Select Count TCNTnH (8-bit) TCNTnL (8-bit) Clear Direction TCNTn (16-bit Counter... BUS (8-bit) TEMP (8-bit) ICRnH (8-bit) WRITE ICRnL (8-bit) TCNTnH (8-bit) ICRn (16-bit Register) ACO* Analog Comparator ACIC* TCNTnL (8-bit) TCNTn (16-bit... (8-bit) TEMP (8-bit) OCRnxH Buf. (8-bit) OCRnxL Buf. (8-bit) TCNTnH (8-bit) OCRnx Buffer (16-bit Register) OCRnxH (8-bit) TCNTnL (8-bit) TCNTn (16-bit Counter) OCRnxL (8-bit) OCRnx (16-bit Register) = (16-bit Comparator... capture function is disabled. • Bit 5 – Reserved Bit This bit is reserved for future... writing a logic one to its bit location. • Bit 3 – OCFnC: Timer/Countern, Output... writing a logic one to its bit location. • Bit 1 – OCF1A: Timer/Counter1, Output... writing a logic one to its bit location. • Bit 0 – TOVn: Timer/Countern, Overflow... automatically clears the STALLRQ bit. The STALLRQC bit is also immediately cleared... as zero. • Bit 2 – RSTCPU: USB Reset CPU Bit Writing this bit to one... reset event. • Bit 1 – RMWKUP: Remote Wake-up Bit Writing this bit to one... for more details. • Bit 0 – DETACH: Detach Bit Writing this bit to one (default... R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R R/W Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 UDINT • Bit 7 – Res: Reserved This bit is reserved and should... this bit to one has no effect. • Bit 1 – Res: Reserved This bit is... R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R R/W Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 UDIEN • Bit 7 – Res: Reserved This bit is reserved and will...: Upstream Resume Interrupt Enable Bit Writing this bit to one enables interrupt... Of Resume Interrupt Enable Bit Writing this bit to one enables interrupt... bit is set. • Bit 4 – WAKEUPE: Wake-up CPU Interrupt Enable Bit Writing this bit... bit is set. • Bit 3 – EORSTE: End Of Reset Interrupt Enable Bit Writing this bit... bit is set. • Bit 2 – SOFE: Start Of Frame Interrupt Enable Bit Writing this bit... the SOFI bit is set. • Bit 1 – Res: Reserved This bit is reserved and... as zero. • Bit 0 – SUSPE: Suspend Interrupt Enable Bit Writing this bit to one... R/W R R R R R R R Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • Bit 7 – ADDEN: Address Enable Bit Writing this bit to one will... as zero. • Bit 5 – STALLRQ: STALL Request Handshake Bit Writing this bit to one.../32U2 • Bit 4 – STALLRQC: STALL Request Clear Handshake Bit Writing this bit to one... handshake mechanism triggered by STALLRQ bit. This bit can not be write... more details. • Bit 3 – RSTDT: Reset Data Toggle Bit Writing this bit to one... as zero. • Bit 0 – EPEN: Endpoint Enable Bit Writing this bit to one enables... as zero. • Bit 0 – EPDIR: Endpoint Direction Bit Writing this bit to one configures...[2:0] 2 EPBK1:0 1 0 ALLOC - R/W R/W R 0 0 0 UECFG1X • Bit 7 – Res: Reserved This bit is reserved and will... Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0xE8) UEINTX • Bit 7 – FIFOCON: FIFO Control Bit This bit can only be.... • Endpoint IN direction (KILLBK bit) Writing this bit to one kills the...: NAK IN Interrupt Enable Bit Writing this bit to one enables interrupt...: NAK OUT Interrupt Enable Bit Writing this bit to one enables interrupt... can occur when the bit is changed. • Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap... 28. Register Summary Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 (0xFF) Reserved - - - - - - - - (0xFE) Reserved - - - - - - - - (0xFD... ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 (0xBE) Reserved - - - - - - - - (0xBD) Reserved - - - - - - - - (0xBC... ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 (0x7C) Reserved - - - - - - - - Page (0x7B) Reserved... ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 0x1A (0x3A) Reserved - - - - - - - - 0x19 (0x39... 1/2 BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS SBI P,b Set Bit in I/O Register I/O(P,b) ← 1 None 2 CBI P,b Clear Bit...



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0.1/5
... Address Ranges ....................................................................... 276 4.1.1 32/64-bit addressing ............................................................................ 276 4.2 Compatibility Area ........................................................................................... 278... ...................................................................... 340 5-16 x4 PCI Express Bit Lane.................................................................................... 343 5-17 ESI and... Initialization Timings ............................................................41 Configuration Address Bit Mapping .......................................................................50 Memory Control Hub... Inbound Transactions...................................................... 292 5-1 DBI[3:0]# / Data Bit Correspondence ................................................................ 298 5-2 Minimum System Memory... Addressing............................................................................................... 310 5-8 AMB Thermal Status Bit Definitions .................................................................... 316 5-9 FB_DIMM Bandwidth as... Interconnect Local Bus. A 32-bit or 64-bit bus with multiplexed address...: a bit from drive 1 is XOR'd with a bit from drive 2, and the result bit... example, the 10-bit value in a 8-bit/10-bit encoding scheme). This is... can be accessed in 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit quantities, with the... Only. The register bit is not implemented as a bit. The write causes... software. Hardware or a configuration bit can lock bit and prevent it from... attribute is applied on a bit by bit basis. For example, if the... is applied to a 2 bit field, and only one bit is written, then... after a lock bit is set. RV Reserved Bit. This bit is reserved for... to the end of a bit name The bit is “sticky” or unchanged... 2 Bridge Bus 0, Dev 2 4 bit PCI Express Port 2 4 bit PCI Express Port 7 PCI... configuration address. . Table 3-1. Configuration Address Bit Mapping Source/ Destination Bus Device... Register Description Table 3-1. Configuration Address Bit Mapping Source/ Destination Bus Device... Register Device: Function: Offset: Version: Bit 3.8.3.4 Description 39:17 Device: Function...[2:0] pins with SERRE bit enabled. Software clears this bit by writing a ‘1’ to... Parity Error Enable bit (PERRE) is cleared, this bit is never set... capability 0h – 16 bit I/O addressing, (supported) 1h – 32 bit I/O addressing, Others - Reserved... Capability 0h – 16 bit I/O addressing, (supported) 1h – 32 bit I/O addressing, others - Reserved... Parity Error Response Enable bit is cleared, this bit is never set... does not support upper 16-bit I/O addressing. 3.8.8.24 CAPPTR[7:2, 0]- Capability Pointer... the TS1/TS2 “link reset” bit (bit number 0 of symbol 5). It is... 0. 4 RW 0 VGA16bdecode: VGA 16-bit decode This bit enables the virtual PCI...-bit address decodes on VGA I/O accesses. This bit only has meaning if bit... and the appropriate bit (along with the severity bit of the UNCERRSEV... and the appropriate bit (along with the severity bit of the UNCERRSEV... the respective device correctable error bit in the PEX_NF_COR_FERR, PEX_NF_COR_NERR registers... has a first error bit and a next error bit associated with it respectively... Device: Function: Offset: Version: Bit 188 Reserved Bit Device: Function: Offset: Version... 0 INITDONE: Initialization Complete. This scratch bit communicates software state from Intel... Register Device: Function: Offset: Version: 3.9.5 Bit Attr Default Description 7:0 RW 0h... channel. Bit 15 controls DS[3:0] = 1111b, bit 14 controls DS[3:0] = 1110b,..., bit 0 controls... transition between the previous bit and current bit 00: No De-emphasis.... If the MSTRMD bit is set, the start bit enables the transmit.... If the MSTRMD bit is set, the start bit enables the transmit...[2:0] pins with SERRE bit enabled. Software clears this bit by writing a ‘1’ to... Register Device: 0 Function: 0 Offset: 395h Bit Attr Default Description 7 RWC 0 P7ERRDET...: Version: Device: Function: Offset: Version: Bit 7 3.11.5 3-2, 0 0 380h Intel 5000P Chipset... a logic ‘1’ will clear this bit. This bit is sticky. 0: No error on... space. • 32 and 64 bit address bit formats supported for PCI Express... a special FSB message bit that uses multiplexed address bit FSBxA[7]#. SMMEM# is... configuration space enabled (See CFGE bit, bit 31, of CFGADR register), the... FSB contains a 36 bit address bus, a 64 bit data bus, and associated... Functional Description Table 5-1. DBI[3:0]# / Data Bit Correspondence DBI[3:0]# Data Bits DBI0... eight-bit data symbols (DS31-DS0) and four eight-bit Check-bit Symbols..., XTPR0 also contains a bit for Global Cluster Mode bit used in redirection... any completion with the new bit-slice bit set when any of... device. CE will add a bit-slice (one bit per table entry) to... defined as a collection of bit lanes. Each bit lane consists of two... (x4) The raw bit-rate per PCI Express bit lane is 2.5 Gbit... write sequence. The Pecan bit enables the 8-bit Packet Error Code (PEC...



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0.03/5
... 575 16 Bit Contest MSP 575 8 Bit Contest MWH 575 16 BitBit Contest... bit Elektralite MY 250i 8 bit Elektralite MY 250W 16 bit Elektralite MY 250W 8 bit Elektralite MY 575.1 16 bit Elektralite MY 575.1 8 bit Elektralite MY 575.2 16 bit Elektralite MY 575.2 8 bit Elektralite MY 575.3 16 bit Elektralite MY 575.3 8 bit Elektralite MY 575.4 16 bit Elektralite MY 575.4 8 bit Elektralite MY 575W 16 bit Elektralite MY 575W 8 bit... bit Futurelight MH‐640 8 bit Futurelight MH‐660 16 bit Futurelight MH‐660 8 bit Futurelight MH‐840 16 bit Futurelight MH‐840 8 bit Futurelight MH 860 16 bit Futurelight MH 860 8 bit... bit Futurelight PHP‐600 8 bit Futurelight PHS 150 16 bit Futurelight PHS 150 8 bit... bit Futurelight PHS 260 8 bit Futurelight PHS 575 16 bit Futurelight PHS 575 8 bit Futurelight PHS 710 16 bit Futurelight PHS 710 8 bit Futurelight PHS 710E 16 bit Futurelight PHS 710E 8 bit Futurelight PHS 750E 16 bit Futurelight PHS 750E 8 bit Futurelight PHW‐260 16 bit Futurelight PHW‐260 8 bit Futurelight PHW‐575 16 bit Futurelight PHW‐575 8 bit Futurelight PHW‐710 16 bit Futurelight PHW‐710 8 bit Futurelight PHW‐710E 16 bit Futurelight PHW‐710E 8 bit... bit Futurelight SC 740 8 bit Futurelight SC 780 16 bit Futurelight SC 780 8 bit Futurelight SC 980 16 bit Futurelight SC 980 8 bit... bit Generic LED ‐ CwWw 8 bit Generic LED ‐ CwWwI 16 bit Generic LED ‐ CwWwI 8 bit... ‐ ICwWw 8 bit Generic LED ‐ IRGB 16 bit Generic LED ‐ IRGB 8 bit 16 bit Generic LED ‐ IRGBA 16 bit Generic LED ‐ IRGBA 8 bit Generic... bit Generic LED ‐ IRGBW 8 bit Generic LED ‐ IRGBWA 16 bit Generic LED ‐ IRGBWA 8 bit... ‐ RGB 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBA 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBA 8 bit 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAI 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAI 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAW 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAW 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAWI 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAWI 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAWUv 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAWUv 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAWUvI 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBAWUvI 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBI 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBI 8 bit... bit Generic LED ‐ RGBW 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBWA 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBWA 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBWAI 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBWAI 8 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBWI 16 bit Generic LED ‐ RGBWI 8 bit Generic LED ‐ White 16 bit Generic LED ‐ White 8 bit Generic LED ‐ WwCw 16 bit Generic LED ‐ WwCw 8 bit Generic LED ‐ WwCwI 16 bit Generic LED ‐ WwCwI 8 bit... 8 bit Geni OBY 3 16 bit Geni OBY 3 8 bit Geni OBY 5 16 bit Geni OBY 5 8 bit... 8 bit movement ‐ 16 bit gobos SGM Giotto Spot 400 CMY 8 bit movement ‐ 8 bit gobos SGM Giotto Spot 700 16 bit movement ‐ 16 bit gobos... 16 bit movement ‐ 8 bit gobos SGM Giotto Spot 700 8 bit movement ‐ 16 bit gobos SGM Giotto Spot 700 8 bit movement ‐ 8 bit gobos... V250SP 16 bit Terbly V250SP 8 bit Terbly V250W 16 bit Terbly V250W 8 bit Terbly V575S Terbly V575W‐E 16 bit Terbly V575W‐E 8 bit Terbly V700W‐E 16 bit Terbly V700W‐E 8 bit Thorn BandCell... 16 bit VariLite VL500 16 bit Superseded VariLite VL500 8 bit VariLite VL500 8 bit Superseded VariLite VL500 80V 16 bit VariLite VL500 80V 8 bit... bit VariLite VL500 Enhanced 16 bit Superseded VariLite VL500 A 16 bit VariLite VL500 A 8 bit VariLite VL500 A Enhanced 16 bit VariLite VL500 D 16 bit VariLite VL500 D 8 bit VariLite VL500 D Enhanced 16 bit VariLite VL550 D 16 bit VariLite VL550 D 8 bit VariLite...



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0.05/5
... EMBEDDED AVR CORE 8-bit Bi-directional Data Bus 8-bit Data In FPGAIOWE... Figure 22 – instructions), the DBG bit (bit 1) of the SFTCR $3A ($5A... “B side” memory interface, the FMXOR bit (bit 3) of the SFTCR $3A ($5A... SCR63 system control register bit. The FMXOR bit is XORed with the... to FPGA addressing requires 16-bit to 8-bit mapping and an understanding...) 8-bit Configuration Memory Write Data 24-bit Address Write CACHEIOWE 32-BIT CONFIGURATION...-time Clock • 16-bit Timer/Counter and Two 8-bit Timer/Counters • Interrupt... Stack Rd ← STACK None 2 Bit and Bit-test Instructions LSL Rd Logical... Bit in I/O Register I/O(A, b) ← 1 None 2 CBI A, b Clear Bit in I/O Register I/O(A, b) ← 0 None 2 BST Rr, b Bit...: AT94K Register Summary Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reference Page $3F ($5F) SREG.../03 AT94K Register Summary (Continued) Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reference Page Address Name $16.... • Bit 6 - T: Bit Copy Storage The bit copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source and destination for the operated bit. A bit... in some arithmetic operations. • Bit 4 - S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V The S-bit is always an exclusive... bit is cleared by the hardware. • Bit 1 - DBG: Debug Mode When this bit... bit is cleared by the hardware. • Bit 0 - SRST: Software Reset When this bit... a zero to the PORF bit. The bit will not be cleared by... a zero to the EXTRF bit. The bit will not be cleared by... bits 11 bits 1 bit Version Version is a 4-bit number identifying the revision... download. Table 21. Bit EXTEST and SAMPLE_PRELOAD Bit Type EXTEST SAMPLE_PRELOAD Data.../03 Table 21. Bit EXTEST and SAMPLE_PRELOAD Bit Type EXTEST SAMPLE_PRELOAD Clock... UP/DOWN 0 15 16 BIT COMPARATOR 15 8 7 8 7 0 16 BIT COMPARATOR 0 TIMER/COUNTER1.../Counter1 is an 8-bit PWM 1 0 Timer/Counter1 is a 9-bit PWM 1 1 Timer/Counter1... the PE7 port. • Bit 4 - Res: Reserved Bit This bit is reserved in the... TOP Value Frequency 0 0 1 8-bit $00FF (255) fTCK1/510 0 1 0 9-bit $01FF (511) fTCK1... 0 1 1 10-bit $03FF(1023) fTCK1/2046 1 0 1 8-bit $00FF (255) fTCK1/256 1 1 0 9-bit $01FF (511) fTCK1/512 1 1 1 10-bit $03FF... of multiplying two 8-bit numbers, giving a 16-bit result using only two... 34. Table 34. Performance Summary 8-bit x 8-bit Routines: Unsigned Multiply 8 x 8 = 16 bits...-accumulate 8 x 8 + = 16 bits 3 (4) 16-bit x 16-bit Routines: Signed/Unsigned Multiply 16... AT94KAL Series FPSLIC 8-bit Multiplication Doing an 8-bit multiply using the hardware... for multiplying two 16-bit numbers with a 32-bit result (C = A • B). AH denotes... AT94KAL Series FPSLIC 16-bit x 16-bit = 16-bit Operation This operation is...) result C = |A • B|. Figure 61. 16-bit Multiplication, 16-bit Result AH AL X BH... 16-bit x 16-bit = 32-bit Operation Example 4 – Basic Usage 16-bit x 16-bit = 32-bit... routine Figure 62. 16-bit Multiplication, 32-bit Result AH AL X BH... Operation Figure 63. 16-bit Multiplication, 32-bit Accumulated Result AH AL... Formats Unsigned Integer Bit Significance Unsigned Fractional Number Bit Significance 7 27 = 128...-bit x 16-bit fractional multiply also has this restriction. Example 5 – Basic Usage 8-bit x 8-bit = 16-bit Signed Fractional Multiply This example... Implementations 118 All 16-bit x 16-bit = 32-bit functions implemented here start...)-bit shift register, bit 0 of the shift register is cleared (start bit) and bit 9 or 10 is set (stop bit). If a 9-bit data word is selected (the CHR9n bit in the... edge of a start bit, and the start bit detection sequence is initiated... slightly different for 8-bit and 9-bit Reception mode. In 8-bit Reception mode (CHR9n...) by writing a logic 1 to the bit. • Bit 5 - UDRE0/UDRE1: UART Data Register... transferred to UDRn. • Bit 2 - Res: Reserved Bit This bit is reserved in the... completely transmitted. • Bit 2 - CHR90/CHR91: 9-bit Characters When this bit is set (one... extra stop bit or a parity bit. • Bit 1 - RXB80/RXB81: Receive Data Bit 8 When CHR9n... data bit of the received character. • Bit 0 - TXB80/TXB81: Transmit Data Bit 8 When... and UART1 share this register. Bit 7 to bit 4 of UBRRHI contain the... of the UART1 baud register. Bit 3 to bit 0 contain the 4 most significant... edge of a start bit, and the start bit detection sequence is initiated... mode). The 2-wire Serial Bit-rate Register – TWBR Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 $1C ($3C) TWBR7... following equation: f CK Bit-rate = ------------------------------------16 + 2(TWBR) • Bit-rate = SCL frequency • fCK... resumed by setting the TWEA bit again. • Bit 5 - TWSTA: 2-wire Serial Bus... this flag (one). • Bit 1 - Res: Reserved Bit This bit is reserved in the... Serial General Call Recognition Enable Bit This bit enables, if set, the... bit (High level at SDA) W: Write bit (Low level at SDA) A: Acknowledge bit... 1. n: 7,6...0, pin number • PortE, Bit 0 UART0 Transmit Pin. • PortE, Bit 1 UART0 Receive Pin...



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0.21/5
... информация о SM 331; AI 8 x 14 Bit High Speed, с тактовой синхронизацией ...................................................................................................................... 6-37... информация к SM 331; AI 8 x 13 Bit ......................................................... 6-48 6.7 6.7.1 6.7.2 6.7.3 Аналоговый модуль ввода SM... информация к SM 331; AI 8 x 12 Bit ......................................................... 6-60 6.8 6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 Аналоговый модуль ввода SM... информация к SM 331; AI 2 x 12 Bit ......................................................... 6-72 6.9 6.9.1 6.9.2 6.9.3 Аналоговый модуль ввода SM... диапазоны SM 332; AO 8 x 12 Bit...................................................................... 6-105 Настраиваемые параметры ................................................................................................ 6-105 Дополнительная... диапазоны SM 332; AO 4 x 16 Bit...................................................................... 6-112 Настраиваемые параметры ................................................................................................ 6-113 Тактовая... диапазоны SM 332; AO 4 x 12 Bit...................................................................... 6-121 Настраиваемые параметры ................................................................................................ 6-121 Дополнительная... диапазоны SM 332; AO 2 x 12 Bit...................................................................... 6-128 Настраиваемые параметры ................................................................................................ 6-128 Дополнительная.../вывода SM 334; AI 4/AO 2 x 8/8 Bit; (6ES7334-0CE01-0AA0)........................................................................................................ 6-130 Принцип действия SM 334; AI 4/AO 2 x 8/8 Bit................................................................... 6-136 Метод измерения и вид вывода... SM 334; AI 4/AO 2 x 12 Bit; (6ES7334-0KE00-0AB0)........................................................................................................ 6-138 6.16... к SM 334; AI 4/ AO 2 x 12 Bit............................................. 6-145 Другие сигнальные модули................................................................................................................. 7-1 6.16... параметров SM 331; AI 8 x 16 Bit............................................................................... 6-13 Таблица 6-7 Распределение каналов SM... параметров SM 331; AI 8 x 16 Bit............................................................................... 6-23 Таблица 6-12 Времена цикла... Параметры SM 331; AI 8 x 13 Bit........................................................................................... 6-47 Таблица 6-18 Виды и диапазоны... параметров SM 331; AI 2 x 12 Bit............................................................................... 6-71 Таблица 6-23 Виды и диапазоны... параметров SM 332; AO 8 x 12 Bit........................................................................... 6-105 Таблица 6-34 Выходные диапазоны SM 332; AO 4 x 16 Bit...................................................................... 6-112 Таблица 6-35 Обзор параметров SM 332; AO 8 x 12 Bit........................................................................... 6-113 Таблица 6-36 Выходные диапазоны SM 332; AO 4 x 12 Bit...................................................................... 6-121 Таблица 6-37 Обзор параметров SM 332; AO 4 x 12 Bit........................................................................... 6-121 Таблица 6-38 Выходные диапазоны SM 332; AO 2 x 12 Bit...................................................................... 6-128 Таблица 6-39 Обзор параметров SM 332; AO 2 x 12 Bit........................................................................... 6-128 Таблица 6-40 Обзор параметров... ввода SM 331; AI 8 x 16 Bit с гальванической развязкой ................................................................................................................................ A-29 Таблица A-24... сглаживания SM 331; AI 8 x 16 Bit...............................................................................A-35 Таблица A-28 Параметры аналоговых... Параметры SM 332; AO 8 x 12 Bit .........................................................................................A-38 Таблица A-31 Коды для... Bit (-7NF00-) SM 331; AI 8 x 16 Bit (-7NF10-) SM 331; AI 8 x 14 Bit... 8 x 12 Bit SM 332; AO 4 x 16 Bit SM 332; AO 4 x 12 Bit SM 332; AO 2 x 12 Bit (-5HF00... Bit, 6-123 SM 332, AO 4 x 12 Bit, 6-116 SM 332, AO 4 x 16 Bit... Bit, 6-69 SM 331, AI 8 x 12 Bit, 6-57 SM 331, AI 8 x 13 Bit, 6-46 SM 331, AI 8 x 14 Bit... Bit, 6-128 SM 332, AO 4 x 12 Bit, 6-121 SM 332, AO 4 x 16 Bit, 6-112 SM 332, AO 8 x 12 Bit... Bit, 6-71 SM 331, AI 8 x 12 Bit, 6-59 SM 331, AI 8 x 16 Bit... Bit, 6-121 SM 332, AO 4 x 16 Bit, 6-113 SM 332, AO 8 x 12 Bit...



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0.07/5
... (example: d16 is a 16-bit displacement) Address Bit LSB LSW MSB MSW... Address (pointer) Bit Selection (example: Bit 3 of D0) Least Significant Bit (example: MSB... REGISTER BIT NAMES P C N V X Z Branch Prediction Bit in CCR Carry Bit in CCR Negative Bit in CCR Overflow Bit in CCR Extend Bit in CCR Zero Bit... Semiconductor, Inc... 8- bit BYTE 16- bit 32- bit 8- bit WORD 16- bit 32 bit 2-6 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 WE3 A0... Semiconductor, Inc... 8-bit LONGWORD 16-bit 32-bit 8-bit LINE 16-bit 32-Bit 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 WE3 A0... SIZE 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 32-bit port 8-bit port 16-bit port 16-bit port 2.5 BUS CONTROL...[1] SIZ[0] 8-bit 0 1 16-bit 0 1 32-bit 0 1 8-bit 1 0 16-bit 1 0 32-bit 1 0 8-bit 0 0 16-bit 0 0 32-bit 0 0 8-bit 1 1 16-bit 1 1 32-bit 1 1 WORD... registers for bit (1 bit), byte (8-bit), word (16-bit) and longword (32-bit) operations and... generated by processor operations. Bit 4, the extend bit (X-bit), is also used as... 1 1 0 BYTE 2 1 1 BYTE 3 32-BIT PORT 16-BIT PORT 8-BIT PORT Figure 6-3. MCF5206 Interface... reset, the hard reset bit (HRST) bit in the Reset Status Register... 14 PAR7 - Pin Assignment Bit 7 This bit lets you select the signal... Module 1 PAR6 - Pin Assignment Bit 6 This bit lets you select how the..., Inc... PAR5 - Pin Assignment Bit 5 This bit lets you select the signals...[3:0] pins PAR4 - Pin Assignment Bit 4 This bit lets you select the signals... 8-BIT BYTE 16-BIT 32-BIT BURST 0/1 0/1 0/1 0 SIZ1 0 0 0 0 SIZ0 A1 WE[1] A0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 8-BIT WORD 1 16-BIT 32-BIT..., Inc... 8-BIT 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 LONG WORD 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 16-BIT 1 32-BIT 0/1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 8-BIT 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 LINE 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 16-BIT 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32-BIT 8.2.1.3 ADDRESS BUS... 0 BYTE 1 BYTE 2 BYTE 3 16-BIT PORT BYTE 0 8-BIT PORT BYTE 1 BYTE 2 BYTE... SIZE 0 0 32-bit port 0 1 8-bit port 1 0 16-bit port 1 1 16-bit port Table 8-7. IRQ7... 10 11 32-bit port 8-bit port 16-bit port 16-bit port D[31... 10 11 32-bit port 8-bit port 16-bit port 16-bit port D[31... 8-BIT SIZ[1] 0 SIZ[0] 16-BIT 0 32-BIT 0 8-BIT 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 10 11 0 0 1 8 9 CAS[1] A[0] 1 7 BYTE A[1] 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 WORD 16-BIT 12 32-BIT 1 1 14 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 LONG WORD 15 0 0 0 13 8-BIT 0 1 0 16-BIT 0 0 32-BIT... Freescale Semiconductor, Inc... CAS[1] A[0] 16-BIT 1 1 32-BIT 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 CAS timing can be... PAGE SIZE 8-bit 16-bit 32-bit 8-bit 16-bit 32-bit 8-bit 16-bit 32-bit A[8:0] A[8:1] A[8:2] A[9:0] A[9:1] A[9:2] A[10:0] A[10... can range from 1Mbyte (1 M x 8-bit) to 4 MByte (4 M x 8-bit), with a page size of... parallel format; checks for a start bit, stop bit, parity (if any), or... the polarity of the A/D bit by programming bit 2 of UMR1. You should... this bit causes the OP bit to be cleared automatically one bit time... of the first stop-bit positionÑi.e., one bit time after the last... the transmitter, UMR2 bit 3 = 0 selects one stop bit, and UMR2 bit 3 = 1 selects two... been received without a stop bit. The RB bit is valid only when... bit stores the received A/D bit. This bit is valid only when the RxRDY bit... Clear-to-Send (TxCTS Bit). 4. Select stop-bit length (SBx Bits). Command... is a seven-bit calling address followed by a R/W bit. The R/W bit tells the slave... Ñ Transmit/Receive mode select bit This bit selects the direction of master... cleared on reset except bit 7 (MCF) and bit 0 (RXAK), which are set... Module 1 2 MBB Ñ Bus Busy Bit This bit indicates the status of the... the transmit/receive mode select bit (MTX bit of MBCR) according to.... Table 15-3. Boundary-Scan Bit Definitions 15-6 BIT CELL TYPE PIN/CELL...... Table 15-3. Boundary-Scan Bit Definitions (Continued) BIT CELL TYPE PIN/CELL...



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0.04/5
... 10.2 HAL Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 10.2.1 Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 10.2.2 Float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 10... 12.6.9 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 12.6.9.1 Image Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 12.6.9.2 Image u32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115... move. • motion.enable - (bit, in) If this bit is driven FALSE, motion... motion, drive this bit TRUE. • motion.feed-hold - (bit, in) When Feed... 0. • motion.feed-inhibit - (bit, in) When this bit is TRUE, the feed.... • motion.spindle-inhibit - (bit, in) When this bit is TRUE, the spindle....debug-bit-0 - (bit, RO) This is used for debugging purposes. • motion.debug-bit-1 - (bit..., out) • axis.N.f-errored - (bit, out) • axis.N.faulted - (bit, out) • axis.N.free-pos... closed. • axis.N.homed - (bit, out) • axis.N.homing - (bit, out) TRUE if the... • axis.N.in-position - (bit, out) • axis.N.index-enable - (bit, I/O) • axis.N.jog-counts... Data 10.2.1 Bit A bit value is an on or off. • bit values = true... and2.N.in0 (bit, in) and2.N.in1 (bit, in) and2.N.out (bit, out) Truth... not.n Pins not.n.in (bit, in) not.n.out (bit, out) Truth Table... or2.n.in0 (bit, in) or2.n.in1 (bit, in) or2.n.out (bit, out) Truth... xor2.n.in0 (bit, in) xor2.n.in1 (bit, in) xor2.n.out (bit, out) Truth... 10 bit In 10 s32 I/O 10 bit In 10 s32 I/O 10 bit In 10 s32 I/O 10 bit In 10 s32 I/O 10 bit In....0.bit.0.in wsum.0.bit.0.weight wsum.0.bit.1.in wsum.0.bit.1.weight wsum.0.bit.2.in wsum.0.bit.2.weight wsum.0.bit.3.in wsum.0.bit... 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit OUT TRUE 2 bit OUT FALSE 2 bit OUT TRUE 2 bit OUT FALSE 2 bit OUT TRUE 2 bit OUT FALSE 2 bit OUT TRUE 2 bit OUT FALSE 2 bit IN FALSE 2 bit OUT TRUE 2 bit OUT FALSE 2 bit....6.13-1-gdf19ffe, 2016-12-03 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 bit bit bit bit bit bit bit IN OUT OUT IN IN... homed • halui.joint. .is-selected bit (bit, out) - status pin a joint is...* internal halui • halui.joint.x.select bit (bit, in) - pins for selecting a joint... halui • halui.joint.x.is-selected bit (bit, out) - indicates joint selected* internal... bit, False if the watchdog has not bit. If the watchdog has bit and the has_bit bit is... the same named .BIT file you cannot use a .BIT file that is...].in-[PINNUMBER]-not OUT bit - Connect a HAL bit signal to this pin...[PORTNUMBER].out-[PINNUMBER] IN bit - Connect a HAL bit signal to this pin... is the lowest (rightmost) bit. (that bit corresponds to HAL pin 00...-<0-7> 27.1.2 Type and direction (bit, Out) (bit, Out) (bit, In) Pin description Input...-out-<0-7> Type and direction (bit, R/W) .invert-out-<0-7> (bit, R/W) Parameter description When True...-mode Type and Read/Write (bit, R/W) (bit, R/W) Parameter description When True, the... (u32, R/W) .control-type (bit, R/W) .invert-step1 (bit, R/W) .invert-step2 (bit, R/W) .maxvel (float, R/W) .maxaccel...-fault 27.2.5 Type and direction (bit, In) (bit, Out) Pin description If....5.2 Type and direction (bit, Out) (bit, Out) (bit, Out) (bit, Out) (bit, Out) (bit, Out) Pin....6.1 CAN Type and direction (bit, Out) (bit, Out) (bit, Out) (bit, Out) Color: Orange...-<0-7> 27.7.2.2 Type and direction (bit, Out) (bit, Out) Pin description Input pin..., Out) .in-<0-7> .in-not-<0-7> (bit, Out) (bit, Out) Pin description Value of... / 341 Figure 33.3: Bit Status Window The Bit Status Window displays some.... %QW0 is a S32out bit and %IW0 is a S32in bit. In this case...



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...® core features full 28-bit processing (56-bit in doubleprecision mode), synchronous... 8-BIT CLOCKS (24-BIT DATA) 12-BIT CLOCKS (20-BIT DATA) 07696-002 14-BIT CLOCKS (18-BIT DATA) 16-BIT CLOCKS (16-BIT... 8-BIT CLOCKS (24-BIT DATA) 12-BIT CLOCKS (20-BIT DATA) 14-BIT CLOCKS (18-BIT... LEFT-JUSTIFIED MODE 16-BIT CLOCKS (16-BIT DATA) Figure 3. Serial Output... register writes. Table 9. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE280 Bit Position [15:9] [8] [7] [6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] 1 2 Description.../ADAU1446 Table 10. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE220 Bit Position [15:5] [4:0] 1 Description... to a write operation. Address Bit 5 and Address Bit 6 are set by tying... 11. ADAU1445/ADAU1446 Address Bit Sequence Bit 0 0 Bit 1 1 Bit 2 1 Bit 3 1 Bit 4 0 Bit 5 ADDR1 Bit 6 ADDR0 Bit 7 R/W Table 12. ADAU1445... shift the next eight bits (7-bit address + R/W bit) MSB first. The device... N AS P 07696-015 S S = START BIT, P = STOP BIT, AM = ACKNOWLEDGE BY MASTER, AS...-WORD N, BYTE 1 BYTE 2 S = START BIT, P = STOP BIT, AM = ACKNOWLEDGE BY MASTER, AS... P AM P 07696-017 S S = START BIT, P = STOP BIT, AM = ACKNOWLEDGE BY MASTER, AS...-WORD N, BYTE 1 BYTE 2 S = START BIT, P = STOP BIT, AM = ACKNOWLEDGE BY MASTER, AS... SPI transaction includes the 7-bit chip address and a R/W bit. The chip address... 0xE240) Table 19. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE221 Bit Position [15:6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] Description... domain. BCLK7/LRCLK7 Bit Position [15:6] [5:0] Table 20. Bit Descriptions of Register... Bit 0 to 0 Set Bit 1 to 0 Set Bit 2 to 0 Set Bit 3 to 0 Set Bit 4 to 0 Set Bit... set. 2 Clock Output Enable Bit (Bit 15) This bit controls the serial port... section. Frame Sync Type Bit (Bit 14) This bit sets the type of... a master, the clock output enable bit (Bit 15) must be set to... signal. Serial Input BCLK Polarity Bit (Bit 9) The polarity of BCLKx determines... polarity. Serial Input LRCLK Polarity Bit (Bit 8) The polarity of LRCLKx determines... Bit 0 to 1 Set Bit 1 to 1 Set Bit 2 to 1 Set Bit 3 to 1 Set Bit 4 to 1 Set Bit... polarity. Clock Output Enable Bit (Bit 15) This bit controls the serial port... Bits (Bits[5:3]) Frame Sync Type Bit (Bit 14) These bits set the... a master, the clock output enable bit (Bit 15) must be set to... a slave, the clock output enable bit (Bit 15) must be set to... 0xE049) Table 29. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE049 Bit Position [15:1] [0] Description... 1 = enabled Serial Output BCLK Polarity Bit (Bit 9) The polarity of BCLKx determines... Slave Interface Mode Bit (Bit 0) Serial Output LRCLK Polarity Bit (Bit 8) L Default ADAU1445/ADAU1446... disable [9] [8] [7:4] [3] [2] [1] [0] Table 36. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE103 Bit Position [15:1] [0] 16... 0xE141) Table 37. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE141 0 0 Bit Position [15:12... way. Table 38. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE143 Bit Position [15:1] [0] Description... OPERATIONS (ACCUMULATORS (3), dB CONVERSION, BIT OPERATORS, BIT SHIFTER, ...) 56 TRUNCATOR OUTPUTS Figure...) Default 0 0 Table 41. Bit Description of Register 0xE225 Bit Position [15:1] [0] Description.... Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE227 • • • Bit Position [15:2] [1] [0] Watchdog enable is a 1-bit enable... value. Table 43. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE210 Bit Position [15:1] [0] Description... 0xE226) Table 44. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE226 Bit Position [15:1] [0] Description... Bit Position [15:14] [13:0] Table 47. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE229 Bit... Default 0 This is a single-bit register. Setting Bit 0 to 1 switches the S/PDIF... 0xE0C0) Table 53. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE0C0 Bit Position [15] [14... 0xE0C7) Table 56. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE0C7 Bit Position [15:2] [1:0] Description Reserved Word length 00 = 24 bit 01 = 20 bit 10 = 16 bit 11 = as decoded... 0xE0C8) Table 57. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE0C8 Bit Position [15:2] [1:0] Description... information). S/PDIF Lock Bit Detection Register (Address 0xE0C9) Bit Position [15:1] [0] This... 61. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE0CC Bit Position [15:1] [0] Table 58. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE0C9 Bit Position... of the S/PDIF input lock bit. Bit Position [15:1] [0] Description Reserved Read... 0 Bit 0 switches Group 1 on and off. Bit 1 switches Group 2 on and off. Bit..., channel status, validity bit, and block start signal). Bit Position [31] [30... bit, right channel User data bit, left channel Validity bit, right channel Validity bit... 67. Table 66. Bit Descriptions of Register 0xE224 Bit Position [15:8] [7:6] [5:4] [3:2] [1:0] ADC... filtered Filtered with 1-bit hysteresis Filtered with 2-bit hysteresis Default 00 ADAU1445.... Table 68. Bit Descriptions of Bit Clock Pad Strength Register Bit Position [15... (audio bit depth) 00 = 1 byte (8-bit audio) 01 = 2 bytes (16-bit audio) 10 = 3 bytes (24-bit audio...



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..., then encrypting (e.g., by simple bit permutation and bit inversion) and decrypting (i.e., the... encryption system based on 128-bit segments, called the International Data.... The transformation function f ½Kð j þ 1Þ, Rð jފ consists of bit expansion, key mod-2 addition, and... Rð jÞ. The transformation function’s operation is a bit mathematically involved. Instead of mathematical... discussed separately with numerical examples. BIT EXPANSION FUNCTION. The function of... to convert an n-bit block into an ðn þ pÞ-bit block in accordance with... and expands the n-bit block into an extended ðn þ pÞ-bit block Ex ; that... illustration, define RðjÞ as a 32-bit block given by Rð jÞ ¼ 10011001110110110101010000111101 Copyright... ð jÞ ¼ Ef ½Rð jފ ¼ B B0 1 B B0 1 @ 0 0 1 1 (1.7b), the bit expansion function of (1.6) 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1C 0C... FUNCTION. For simplicity, consider an 8-bit selection function Sfj , where j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; 8. Each... Z ¼ 10101110110011010100110101101010 In summary, the subsection ‘‘Bit Expansion Function’’ has demonstrated the... modulation. The incoming serial bit stream enters the bit splitter (demultiplexer), where... 3.5 OQPSK modulator: (a) OQPSK block diagram; (b) bit sequence map. Copyright © 2002 by.... 3.6. The incoming serial bit stream enters the bit splitter (demultiplexer), where it... retain its integrity. Higher-order bit-encoding techniques (i.e., b ! 4 or M ! 16) can... operation involves reconstructing the data bit sequence encoded onto the carrier... scheme minimizes the number of bit errors that result from a demodulation... code results in only a single bit received in error. 3.2.5 Transmission Bandwidth... maximum bit rate as rb ¼ 3.2.6 B log2 M 1þa ð3:7Þ Probability of Bit Error and Bit Error.... The terms probability of bit error Pe and bit error rate ðBER... empirical record of a system’s actual bit error performance. In essence, system... the expected probability of bit error. Probability of bit error is a function... power is a function of bit energy and bit duration: C¼ Eb Tb W where... % 273KÞ: Eb ¼ energy of a single bit, J/bit: Copyright © 2002 by Marcel Dekker... bandwidth equals the bit rate, the energy per bit-to-noise power.... Encoding can be either binary (bit by bit) or group (groups of.... Decoding involves reconstructing the data bit sequence encoded onto the carrier... transmitter to randomize the input bit stream. Scrambling eliminates long strings... impair receiver synchronization and periodic bit patterns, which could produce undesirable... of Fig. 3.12 is bit error propagation. A single bit Copyright © 2002 by... a group of characters in a continuous bit stream. In the synchronization mode... is the data transmission rate (bit=sec). Conditional Probabilities. Where information... ¼ 1 À OðaÞ 2: 3: Source information rate Rr ¼ rb OðbÞ bit=sec if b ¼ 0:5; Rr ¼ rb 4: The... Cc ¼ ½1 À Oðaފrb bit=symbol ð3:87Þ bit=sec ð3:88aÞ ð3:88bÞ ð3:89Þ bit=sec Some... ! 1 1 þ pðy2 Þ log2 Cc ¼ 1 À pðy1 Þ log2 bit=symbol pðy1 Þ pðy2 Þ ð3:90Þ Thus... useful expressions for calculating the bit error rate, the transmission bandwidth...=sec. Estimate the equivalent bit rates in bit=sec for M ¼ 4; 8; and 64... systems in general as the bit error probability becomes increasingly severe... is the data bit rate. Thus, substituting the bit rate expression of... unclustered terminal groups whose aggregate bit rate limit is not constrained... the input digital bit rate of the user (bit=sec). Alternatively, E b 2 Cn... r parity check bits, then the n-bit block is called a codeword. y Constraint... bit=sec ð5:18Þ where rb ¼ input digital bit rate of the user (bit... 6.1: Consider message data X to be a 2-bit data word [8] and the generator... into the second bit by changing the 0-bit to a 1-bit, and the corrupted...Þ where the underlined bit is the error bit, then the syndrome of.... 6.1. Fig. 6.1(a) is a (7, 4) encoder. It generates a 7-bit codeword using a 3shift register ðr0... adder outputs a and b. Consequently, a single bit yields, in the present case... ¼ r 0 È r 2 v3 ¼ r 0 È r 1 È r 2 ð6:34Þ Since the first bit in the output sequence is... lower branch if the input bit is ‘‘1.’’ Consequently, a particular path through... 3-output bit for each input bit is determined by the input bit and... the code tree with input bit ‘‘0.’’ The completely repetitive structure of... upward corresponds to an input bit ‘‘0’’ whereas the downward branch corresponds to an input bit ‘‘1’’. Copyright © 2002 by Marcel Dekker... output generated by the input bit ‘‘1’’. Labels a, b, c, and d denote the four... upward corresponds to an input bit ‘‘0’’ whereas the downward branch corresponds to an input bit ‘‘1’’. Copyright © 2002 by Marcel Dekker... System noise temperature Antenna temperature Bit (or burst) duration Average time... path Input digital bit rate of the user (bit=sec) Average radius... signals between userto-network interface. Bit error rate (BER) An empirical record of a system’s actual bit error performance. Cell A short block... carrying capacity in terms of bit rates across a network interface. Circuit...