Ракета-носитель. Orbital 500. [Редактировать]

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Все ракеты-носители

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12017-07-07. ЕКА выделило 200 тыс. евро Orbital Access.
В рамках технологической программы Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) ЕКА решило выделить Orbital Access 200 тыс. евро на продолжение разработки РН Orbital 500R. В рамках выделенного финансирования планируется провести работы по дальнейшей проработке проекта.
Планируется что разрабатываемая ракета будет иметь пусковую площадку на территории Великобритании и ее разработка будет и в дальнейшем финансироваться за счет космического агентства страны. Предполагаемой датой пуска новой ракеты назван период с 2020 по 2021 годы. Относительно технических характеристик ракеты известно следующее:
1. Она будет многоразовой.
2. Выводимая масса ПН на НОО составит около 500 кг.
С точки зрения дальнейших перспектив развития компания Orbital Access объявила о том, что данная ракета станет первым шагом на пути по коммерческому применению аэрокосмической двигательной установки Sabre (ракета будет использоваться как тестовая платформа). Тэги: Orbital 500Orbital AccessЕвропейское космическое агентствоReaction Engines Ltd

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса ПН (ССО), кг500

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... PRP (conteniendo entre 350 000 y 500 000 plaquetas/µL) se le agregan... para tubos de ensayo 4. Agitador orbital (500 rpm) 5. Vortex 6. Baño maría, 37... (18-25 °C) sobre un agitador orbital (500 rpm). 5. Remueva el folio adhesivo... (18-25 °C) sobre un agitador orbital (500 rpm). 8. Remueva el folio adhesivo... (18-25 °C) sobre un agitador orbital (500 rpm). 12. Para detener la... (18-25 °C) sobre un agitador orbital (500 rpm). 4. Remueva el folio adhesivo... (18-25 °C) sobre un agitador orbital (500 rpm). 8. Para detener la reacci... G 19.8 0.245 Version 2014-11 2.500 DO/DOmax (%) 100.0 88.9 74....5 30.3 17.4 11.6 2.000 1.500 1.000 0.500 0.000 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Serotonin... min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 16-20 h 2-8 °C no agitador... min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 150 µL 60 min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 150 µL 60 min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 3 x 250 µL 3 x 250 µL 3 x 250 µL 200... min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 200 µL 30 min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 200 µL 30 min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm Solución de Parada 50...



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... PRP (contendo entre 350 000 e 500 000 plaquetas/µL) é adicionada a 800 µL de... para tubos de ensaio 4. Agitador orbital (500 rpm) 5. Vortex 6. Banho de água... à TA (18-25 °C) num agitador orbital (500 rpm). Retire a folha. Rejeitar a solu... à TA (18-25 °C) num agitador orbital (500 rpm). Retire a folha. Rejeitar a solu... à TA (18-25 °C) num agitador orbital (500 rpm). 12. Parar a reacção de... à TA (18-25 °C) num agitador orbital (500 rpm). Retire a folha. Rejeitar a solu... à TA (18-25 °C) num agitador orbital (500 rpm). Parar a reacção de substrato... 405nm Curva de Calibração Típica 2.500 (Exemplo. Não usar para cálculos!) Padr....5 30.3 17.4 11.6 2.000 1.500 1.000 0.500 0.000 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Serotonin... min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 16-20 h 2-8 °C não agitador 16... min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 150 µL 60 min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 150 µL 60 min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 3 x 250 µL 3 x 250 µL 3 x 250 µL 200... min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 200 µL 30 min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 200 µL 30 min TA (18-25 °C) Agitador 500 rpm 50 µL 50 µL 50 µL 405...



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... propulsion up to, or near, orbital speed, and providing rapid and... thrust from takeoff to near orbital speeds; reusable thermal structures that...-toorbit rockets, hypersonic vehicles, and orbital transfer vehicies; and eEcierii aiiiilysis..., advanced space transportation systems, and orbital transfer vehicles; development of lightweight... supporting a wide range of aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicles. Also, in the... transportation vehicles, including the aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle, Shuttle 11, and... of autonomous space systems (e.g., rovers, orbital transfer vehicles, and life support... design of future cryogenically fueled orbital transfer vehicles (OTV) and for... the orbiter flight schedule. The orbital acceleration research experiment, which will... expand the data base for orbital drag predictions, has completed critical... the design of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV).The technology... the data handled from earth-orbital missions increase from a current peak... doors, vertical tail, and the orbital maneuvering system pods. The procurement............................................................ Estimated fEcal year 1987 115,500,000 46,800,000 1 Authorization.... Support is provided for Earth orbital, planetary and solar system exploration... and balloons. Included in Earth orbital support are the Space Shuttle... Network (STDN), which supports Earth orbital missions; the Deep Space Network... will provide all low Earth orbital mission support when it becomes.... The STDN will provide Earth orbital support until the TDRSS becomes... .......................... Estimated fiscal Year 1987 $301,500,000 43,700,000 28... communications services to low Earth orbital spacecraft. The TDRSS itself, when... a six-fold increase in the orbital coverage provided by ground track... broad categories of missions: earth orbital spaceflight; planetary and solar system..., balloons and sounding rockets. Earth orbital support is provided primarily by... missions as well as earth orbital missions not supportable by TDRSS... well as limited orbital support. Also included is the orbital tracking facility a t the Wallops Flight Facility which provides orbital tracking... support as well as limited orbital support. The FY 1988 funding... earth orbiters and synchronous earth orbital miss:ons; and ($1 to provide... facilities support NASA aeronautics, sub-orbital and a limited number of low... NASA REQUEST, $195,500,000 AUTHORIZATION, $185,500,000 The Construction of....-Development and operation of Earth orbital flight experiments and automated spacecraft... Advanced programs Tethered satellite system Orbital maneuvering vehicle 3 Space science A Physics... Satellite System, development of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, development and operations... station ............................................................................ $733,000,000 (196,500,000) (204,000,000) (52... levels ........................................ .... ............................................................. ......... ............................................................... .............................................................. Orbiting maneuvering vehicle ..................................... .............. $73,500,000 181,700,000 85... the develo ment of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle. S acelab is a major... tether. The development of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), initiated in... crew systems, geostationary Earth orbital unmanned platforms, reusable orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), new capability mission kits for orbital maneuvering... development efforts in 1984. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV... reusable extension capability for conducting orbital operations with spacecraft and payloads... of multiple payloads to different orbital altitudes and inclinations in a single... space debris which could represent a n orbital hazard to all future space... progress being made in (1) the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle program and its.../Spaceiab flights, reirievabk Spartans, and E& orbital opportunities. The latter include balloons... R e search Building, Lewis Research Anter, $6,500,000. (8) Construction of Communications Development... which, including collateral equipment, exceeds $500,000, unless the Adminlstrator or... subsection (d), not in excess of $500,000 per project, including collateral.... - $25,000,000 from the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV). - $5,000,000... of the Committees on Appropriations. 1. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle-$55,000,000... estimate ........................................................................... $166,300,000 195,500,000 169,700,000 - 25... system, and development of the orbital maneuvering vehicle. The space science...: -$25,000,000 from the orbital maneuvering vehicle program. This reduces... Program providing a total budget of $3,500,000. The administration requested and... data acquisition support for Earth-orbital spacecraft, planetary missions, sounding rockets.... +$25.000.000 from the orbital maneuverSupport areas. I t Is noted. for...



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..., Longitude, Radius ........................................... 13 2.1.4 Perifocal ............................................................................................ 14 2.2.1 Orbital................................................................................................ 15 2.2.2 Body Fixed ........................................................................................ 16 2.3 Attitude... 2.4: Perifocal reference frame ............................................................................... 14 Figure 2.5: Orbital reference frame .................................................................................. 15 Figure 2.6: Body... and developed the Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD). The P-POD is... important to note that the orbital frame in particular varies between... fundamental plane (pq) is the orbital plane with the principal direction... w which is orthogonal to the orbital plane and aligned with the... (Curtis). Page 14 2.2.1 Orbital Figure 2.5: Orbital reference frame The Orbital frame is an... 𝑍𝑂 axis is aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector (cross-track... done so to match the orbital reference frame and the equations... of the orbital frame that is aligned with the orbital position vector... matrix for the body to orbital transformation 𝑄𝑏𝑜 . 5.1.1 Gravity Gradient Stability By... the Earth, and 𝑖 is the orbital inclination (Varma). 5.4 Solar Radiation Pressure... 400 km. Since the desired orbital regime for ExoCube is between... with knowledge of the spacecraft’s orbital position and the local magnetic... with knowledge of the spacecraft’s orbital position and the local sun... neglected. The error from onboard orbital position knowledge is negligible The... in the Orbital Frame - The magnetic field components in the orbital frame... when a magnetic lookup table and orbital position are combined - Peaks indicate... 8.4.1.1 Optimal Case -5 5 -5 a) Magnetic Field in Orbital Frame [T] x 10 6 -6 b) Magnetic Field in...-Optimal Case -5 5 -5 a) Magnetic Field in Orbital Frame [T] x 10 6 -6 b) Magnetic Field in...] 8.4.1.3 Local Instability -5 5 -5 a) Magnetic Field in Orbital Frame [T] x 10 8 -6 b) Magnetic Field in... Pulse Time -5 5 -5 a) Magnetic Field in Orbital Frame [T] x 10 8 -6 b) Magnetic Field in... Resolution Error -5 5 -5 a) Magnetic Field in Orbital Frame [T] x 10 8 0 -5 0 20 40 60... Resolution Error -5 5 -5 a) Magnetic Field in Orbital Frame [T] x 10 8 -5 b) Magnetic Field in... error quaternion as follows: 𝜃𝑒𝑟𝑟 = 2 acos(𝑞4,𝑒𝑟𝑟 ) e) Orbital Angular Rates - The components of... the body-orbital rates - The dotted lines represent the desired orbital rates... the control torques f) - Page 88 - Orbital Quaternions The components of the... the body-orbital quaternion The dotted lines represent the desired orbital quaternion... 350 400 450 -1 0 50 100 e) Orbital Angular Rates [deg/s] 60 150... 400 450 350 400 450 f) Orbital Quaternions 1 1 50 0.5 40 0.5 30 0 20... 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 0 100 200 e) Orbital Angular Rates [deg/s] 60 300 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 700 800 900 f) Orbital Quaternions 0.4 1 0.3 50 0.2 40 0.5 0.1 30 0 0 -0.1 20 -0.2 10 0 -1 -0.5 -0.3 0 100 200 300 400 500... 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 -1 0 100 200 e) Orbital Angular Rates [deg/s] 60 300 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 700 800 900 f) Orbital Quaternions 1 1 50 0.5 40 0.5 30 0 20 0 -0.5 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500... 300 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 -1 0 100 200 e) Orbital Angular Rates [deg/s] 60 300 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 600 700 800 f) Orbital Quaternions 1 1 50 0.5 40 0.5 30 0 20 0 -0.5 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500... 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 -1 0 100 200 300 e) Orbital Angular Rates [deg/s] 60 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 700 800 900 f) Orbital Quaternions 1 1 50 0.5 40 0.5 30 0 20 0 -0.5 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500... 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 -1 0 100 200 300 e) Orbital Angular Rates [deg/s] 60 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 700 800 900 f) Orbital Quaternions 1 1 50 0.5 40 0.5 30 0 20 0 -0.5 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500... 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 -1 0 100 200 e) Orbital Angular... 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 700 800 900 f) Orbital Quaternions 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 time [min] 600... 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 -1 0 100 200 e) Orbital Angular Rates [deg/s] 60 300 400 500 time [min] 600 700 800 900 700 800 900 f) Orbital...] 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 e) Orbital Angular Rates [deg/s] 60 600... 1200 1400 1000 1200 1400 f) Orbital Quaternions 2 1 1.5 50 1 40 0.5 0.5 30 0 0 -0.5 20... ram-pointing orientation in the orbital frame. It was discovered that.... 19 February 2013. . Curtis, Howard D. Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students. 2nd...



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... Advanced Investigator Grant - 227571: VISIONSPACE: Orbital Dynamics at Extremes of Spacecraft... 67 3.5 Mass budget analysis 69 3.6 Orbital perturbations 77 3.6.1 J2 and J2... 6.1.1 Locally optimal steering laws 163 6.1.2 Orbital averaging 164 6.2 Optimal control problem... orbit 174 6.3.3 Eclipse analysis 176 6.4 Orbital averaging accuracy analysis 178 6.5 Chapter...-elliptic shape-based approach 227 A.1 Orbital transfers 227 A.1.1 Earth to Mars... of discretisation nodes N Number of orbital revolutions Ni Number of impulses... parameters P Solar radiation pressure Po Orbital period pe Part of low... vector x oe State vector of orbital elements y Y coordinate y Decision vector z Z coordinate... dimensional representation. b) Projection on the orbital plane. ........................................................................................................................ 17 Fig. 2.3 Schematic of... (a) and yaw (b) angles over one orbital period in winter when accounting... Fig. A.1 Optimal Earth to Mars orbital transfers for expo-elliptic and... k for an Earth to Mars orbital transfer…………………. 229 Table A.2 Optimal objective... controlled satellites (for which the orbital position is known) on geostationary... locally optimal steering laws and orbital averaging, will be outlined and... mass will be presented. The orbital averaging technique will be critically... dimensional representation. b) Projection on the orbital plane. Circular restricted three-body... displaced orbits according to their orbital period and to consider their... the equatorial plane for one orbital revolution and for different numbers.... 3.5 can be extended from one orbital revolution to multiple revolutions to... Earth-spacecraft vector during one orbital revolution. Furthermore, due to the... a function of time over multiple orbital periods, the displaced GEO is... lightness number, β0, and displacement distances, h. 3.6 Orbital perturbations A spacecraft in a (displaced) GEO... (a) and yaw (b) angles over one orbital period in winter when accounting... hundreds or even thousands of orbital revolutions and transfer times in... orbit, depending on where the orbital velocity is smallest. This approach...-elliptic shape for a range of orbital transfers and rendezvous transfers is... Section 6.1.1 and the use of orbital averaging to reduce the computational... of change of the orbital elements. The orbital elements have previously been... decrease (negative) in the corresponding orbital element. Out-of-plane f 1 2 α pi... the launch spiral steering laws. 6.1.2 Orbital averaging To investigate the influence... a huge computational effort. Therefore, the orbital averaging technique is used, which... orbital elements during a single revolution and dividing this change by the orbital period. For the launch spiral, this change in the orbital... orbital elements after one revolution. Subsequently dividing by 2π (instead of the orbital... of orbital elements, x oe = [ a e i Ω ω ] . The integral represents the change in an orbital element during one revolution, assuming all other orbital elements... the overbar indicates the averaged orbital elements. Equation (6.8) still includes a few... state variables, x , are the averaged orbital elements in the inertial, Earth... However, the use of classical orbital elements is preferred here because... T Tout ] (6.17) Note that the orbital averaging technique of Section 6.1.2 already... required substantial changes to the orbital elements. A way to reduce the... the reference frame of Fig. 6.5. 6.4 Orbital averaging accuracy analysis The results... obtained through the use of orbital averaging. For that, assumptions have... investigating the accuracy of the orbital averaging method for the low..., the assumptions made for the orbital averaging technique no longer hold... of motion, rather than the orbital averaging method, the boundary conditions... these effects. Finally, since the orbital averaging technique is valid under... acceleration, the accuracy of the orbital averaging technique breaks down at... by optimally changing the orbital elements. Furthermore, orbital averaging is used to... has an effect on the orbital averaging technique employed that reduces....1145/1731022.1731032 [113]. Boltz, F. W. "Orbital Motion Under Continuous Tangential Thrust...: 10.2514/3.56583 [114]. Boltz, F. W. "Orbital Motion Under Continuous Radial Thrust... [152]. Gao, Y., and Kluever, C. A. "Analytic Orbital Averaging Technique for Computing Tangential..., including both time-free problems (i.e. orbital transfers) in Section A.1 and time... problems (i.e. Lambert’s problem) in Section A.2). A.1 Orbital transfers For an initial assessment... Fig. A.1 Optimal Earth to Mars orbital transfers for expo-elliptic and... an Earth to Mars orbital transfer. w = 10 w = 100 w = 500 w = 1000 N =0 0.97968 0.99890... can establish for time-free orbital transfers. This section will investigate... A.4. While the results for the orbital transfers in Section A.1 showed a clear... and the initial and final orbital velocities are better matched, especially... the accelerations required for the orbital transfers and the Earth Mars...



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... in terms of differential mean orbital elements, and relations are provided... with the use of differential orbital elements as state variables. Similar... direction of orbital motion and any errors in relative orbital period will... uncertainty (which determines the relative orbital period), which is usually the... near-range maneuvers. The DARPA Orbital Express mission avoided a collision during... of mean orbital element differences rather than Cartesian coordinates. Differential orbital elements... terms of differential nearlynonsingular mean orbital elements and the HCW and... efficient mathematical form (differential mean orbital elements) to describe the dynamics... control problems using classical mean orbital elements [17, 30–32]. Several... whose effect on the osculating orbital elements is given by a modified... defined in terms of differential orbital elements, but formation configurations and... system. The mapping between h differential orbital elements and LVLH coordinates can... ω and q2 = e sin ω are the orbital frame components of the eccentricity... set of orbital elements is chosen instead of the classical orbital elements... by a set of differential mean orbital elements, which are related to... by The nearly-nonsingular mean orbital elements of the reference (chief... Dynamics in Nearly-Nonsingular Mean Orbital Elements œ=[ a (5) t δœ (t) = Φ (t, t0 ) δœ (t0 )+ (2) Φ (t, τ ) B (τ ) u (τ ) dτ (10) t0... the differential nearly-nonsingular mean orbital elements is derived by Gim... formulation in terms of differential orbital elements, relationships are required to... to make the elliptical 4 500 z, m 600 400 z, m 200 0 −500 0 −200 3000 2500 −400 1000 2000 1000 −600 500 1500 0 −500 y, m −1000 −1000 500 1000 0 500 0 y, m x, m Figure 2. Safety ellipse example. 0 −500500 x, m Figure... impulse locations indicated as red 8 4 500 Trajectory Initial Trajectory Impulse Point... 100 0 −100 −200 2.5 2 1.5 1 −300 −400 −500 800 2 Orbit Maneuver 2 Orbit Optimal... theory in such orbits. Classical orbital element methods fall short in... Point 200 0 −200 −400 1000 500 0 −500 Along−Track Pos (y), m −1000 (a) LVLH... 200 0 −200 −400 500 500 0 −500 0 −500 Out−of−Plane Pos (z), m 500 0 −500 Along−Track Pos... Point 200 0 −200 1500 1000 500 0 −500 Along−Track Pos (y), m −1000 (a) LVLH... 200 0 −200 500 500 0 −500 0 −500 Out−of−Plane Pos (z), m 1000 500 0 −500 Along−Track Pos... Trajectory Initial Trajectory Impulse Point 500 0 −500 −1000 3000 2000 1000 0 −1000... (z), m Radial Pos (x), m 1000 500 0 −500 500 0 −500 −1000 −1500 2000 1000 500 0 −500 −1000 −1500 Out... J2 –J6 . 500 z, m 0 −500 −1000 −1500 2000 1000 0 −1000 −2000 y, m 0 −500 500 1000 x, m Figure... Radial Pos (x), m 500 Trajectory Initial Trajectory Impulse Point 0 −500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 Along−Track Pos (y), m 500 0 (a) LVLH relative position (in-plane... Pos (z), m Radial Pos (x), m 500 0 −500 1000 500 0 −500 −1000 3000 500 0 −500 Out−of−Plane Pos... 0 −200 3000 2500 2000 1500 500 1000 y, m 0 500 0 −500 x, m Figure 23. Optimal 5-impulse... 50 0 −50 −100 −150 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 −100...−Track Pos (y), m −200 −300 −400 −500 Out−of−Plane Pos (z), m (a) LVLH..., “An autonomous guidance scheme for orbital rendezvous,” Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Institute..., 2000. K. T. Alfriend and H. Yan, “An orbital elements approach to the nonlinear..., “Angles-only navigation for autonomous orbital rendezvous,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State... K. T. Alfriend, “Navigation accuracy guidelines for orbital formation flying,” in AIAA Guidance... Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) demonstration system mission... ADS, Mr. Westphal worked for Orbital Sciences Corporation, the Laboratory for...



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... Orbit Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6.3.1 Close Proximity Orbital Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6.3.2 Fuel-Efficient... [23]. . . . 10 . . . . . . . 10 1.8 A summary of orbital dispersion simulation study results for...μs [55]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.26 Nodal displacement 500μs [55]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.27 Preliminary simulation... [59, 60]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5.2 Optimal intercept orbital geometry [59, 60]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 5.3 ΔV contour... List of Tables 2.1 Physical and orbital properties of a reference target (asteroid... mission event time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5.2 Target orbital elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 5.3 Optimal intercept parameters... produce an actual orbital change much 2 larger than predicted orbital perturbation uncertainties... be to effectively change the orbital trajectories of asteroids of different... (i.e., destroying or fragmenting with substantial orbital dispersion), or by altering its... be presented in Chapter 4. The orbital dispersion problem of a fragmented asteroid... (e.g., 500,000). An N-body orbit simulation code was also used for orbital... [23]. 10 Figure 1.8: A summary of orbital dispersion simulation study results for... subsurface explo­ sions [23, 24]. • Orbital elements are evaluated for each... intercept to impact time. • The orbital elements of each fragment are... certain conditions, disruption (with large orbital dispersion) is the only feasible... rendezvous with a target asteroid approximately 500 m in diameter. Sancho would measure... Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V 400/500 Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV... are presented in Table 2.1. The orbital elements of 2006 CL9 listed... table are heliocentric ecliptic J2000 orbital elements at epoch JD 2456400... of the NEO along its orbital path, and the location of... 9 (very 22 Table 2.1: Physical and orbital properties of a reference target (asteroid... this initial trajectory design. A reference orbital trajectory of a PDFV mission to... D-type E-type 380 800 6 19 Orbital period (yrs) e i (deg) ΔV (km/s) Orbit... must be searched from approximately 3,500 to 1,500. 2.3.3 Direct Intercept PDFV Mission... of the NEO along its orbital path, and the location of... also presented in [28]. A complex orbital trajectory optimization algorithm, developed in... to compensate for errors in orbital navigation toward the target asteroid... impact with a larger (5 km) comet. Orbital navigation during a terminal phase of... a predictive guidance scheme based on orbital perturbation theory has also been... from collisions with micrometeoroids and orbital debris with impact speed range... each side. The temperatures below 1,500 K are omitted because the molten rock temperatures are above 1,500 K. After obtaining the temperatures of... protect spacecraft from collisions with orbital debris and micrometeoroids for impact...]. 104 Figure 4.26: Nodal displacement 500μs [55]. In a qualitative comparison to... lead time to achieve large orbital dispersion of NEO fragments, full... its airburst detonation released approximately 500 kt of energy. The resulting... building roofs, and injured approximately 1,500 people. Prior to this event... m in diameter but delivered approximately 500 kt of energy. It detonated...] consists of the following assumptions: • Orbital elements of the target NEO... a single impulse; • Restricted two-body orbital dynamics are assumed. For more... in terms of the geocentric orbital elements at the time of... typical for Earth-impacting NEOs. Orbital Trajectory Models The interceptor missile... t1 t2 Figure 5.2: Optimal intercept orbital geometry [59, 60]. Accounting for... point in time. From the orbital elements of the NEO at... 11 hours before impact. The orbital elements of the target NEO... window [59, 60]. Table 5.2: Target orbital elements Orbital elements Values a −4, 067 km... be strong enough to destabilize orbital motion of spacecraft about irregular... for maintaining stable, close proximity orbital motion with little propellant expen... Orbit Con­ trol 6.3.1 Close Proximity Orbital Dynamics Several illustrative orbits around... consider feedback con­ trol of orbital motion of a spacecraft around an...-shaped asteroid assuming that the orbital position and velocity of the... estimation or measurement of spacecraft’s orbital position and velocity relative to... tested in [72–74] for orbital motion simulation of a spacecraft around... a 3D Flash LIDAR. 6.4 Summary The orbital motions around small bodies are...-Efficient Feedback Control of Orbital Motion Around an Irregular-Shaped...-Efficient Feedback Control of Orbital Motion around Irregular-Shaped Asteroids..., May 2013. 154 [75] Scheeres, D. J., “Orbital Mechanics About Small Bodies,” Acta... Determination of Stability Regions for Orbital Mo­ tion in Uniformly Rotating...] Scheeres, D. J., Miller, J. K., and Yeomans, D. K., “The Orbital Dynamics Environment of 433 Eros...



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... from high resolution DEM and ORBITAL data ...........................................................................................................................................................................240 An Adaptive and.... frequency linear fit, provided that orbital parameters are known with sufficient... ratio. We empirically correct for orbital errors by flattening the radar... a network approach to mitigate planar orbital and linear topographically correlated atmospheric... potential errors associated with incorrect orbital corrections induced by varying correlated... node, as well as additional orbital and atmospheric terms for the... error: (a) Atmospheric water vapour and (b) orbital uncertainties. Difference in radar signal... signals from atmospheric effects and orbital ramps in order to recover... data was used to remove orbital ramps on InSAR derived line... estimated from a joint inversion of orbital errors and phase-elevation ratio... days delay. The optimal ERS2 orbital control allowed getting very short... as ENVISAT IS2 until the orbital change in October 2010. For... spurious longwavelength signals (such as orbital errors) that usually affect InSAR... atmospheric influence appears minimal. Residual orbital gradients must also be considered... the potential to bias empirical orbital corrections. The PSI results show... calibration to compensate atmosphere and orbital phase contributions. In this work... with respect to atmospheric or orbital contributions in the phase * joint... order to reduce atmospheric and orbital systematic errors. But the proposed... order to cancel atmospheric and orbital contributions. Finally, we propose also... the selection of the appropriate orbital pass it is possible to... several kilometers with respect the orbital passes of the two satellites... such as TerraSAR-X with smaller orbital tubes, higher bandwidth and shorter... temporally uncorrelated ramps caused by orbital errors, this kind of trend... the tectonic plate to the orbital state vectors, provided that the... removing artifacts due to strong orbital errors, the resultant displacement field... a new operative phase with degraded orbital control and, SAR data were... after the acquisition without precise orbital records. - Acknowledgments - ENVISAT data are... water vapor as well as orbital, unwrapping errors, topography distortion. The... necessary. To remove any residual orbital errors and reduce tropospheric phase..., we perform a network atmospheric and orbital correction. To determine the interseismic... with perpendicular baseline smaller than 500~m. The ERS and Envisat networks... stratified atmospheric effect and residual orbital trends. The interferograms covering the... to investigate the characteristics of orbital and atmospheric errors and phase... deformation that is caused by orbital errors and atmospheric delay. We... ability to distinguish between satellite orbital errors, tectonic signal and the... induced by the atmosphere and orbital errors. The fact that we... sources of InSAR like atmosphere, orbital, phase unwrapping, deccorelation show the... high relative elevations (up to 500 m) and different incidence angles (18...'s Surface, Rev. Geophys., 36, 441-500. Application of SAR interferometric methods... reduces a part of atmospheric noise, orbital and unwrapping errors of the... results obtained by the first orbital interferometry study over Amazon region... in cases of large landslides (> 500.000 m3), they are characterized... from high resolution DEM and ORBITAL data Author(s) Fernanda Ledo G. Ramos... sub-optimal results as the orbital and topographic artefacts induce a misinterpretation... based on the use of orbital data and digital elevation model... from the study that linear orbital errors can be effectively removed... directions while for non-linear orbital errors, it is useful to... the deformation signal, tropospheric delay, orbital and DEM residual and noise... is also fitted to remove orbital errors. A careful visual inspection of... an external DEM and precise orbital data, geometrical wrap function can... to 1) correct InSAR data for orbital errors while preserving any deformation... this new orbital configuration of Envisat, and the new orbital repeat cycle... the time series generation the orbital and the atmospheric phase contributions... instruments operated in the same orbital configuration is ERS – ENVISAT cross... filter, with a cutoff wavelength of 500 m, is adopted. The proposed method... ), the adaptation of basic procedures (orbital model, algorithm for calculating the... of atmospheric artifacts and residual orbital removal, followed by the inversion... with perpendicular baselines lower than 500 m and temporal baselines lower than... different incidence angle and residual orbital fringes in C-band. The angle... rate ratio. Due to residual orbital fringes, more work is needed... the presence of atmospheric and orbital artifacts in the signal by... signals such as atmospheric or orbital artifacts, removing the need for... due to atmospheric delay and orbital errors, is strongly correlated in... pervious step includes atmospheric delay, orbital errors, nonlinear deformation and 317...



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... Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, N.W.   Washington, DC 20001... Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001... from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington... Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001... via the LPRP program of orbital and landed robotic lunar missions... goals are most amenable to orbital measurements, in situ analysis or... will come from four sophisticated orbital missions to be launched between... of experiments being carried by orbital missions in development will provide... seismic discontinuity provisionally detected at ~500 km depth by Apollo has... the nature of the putative 500-km discontinuity and the composition... the nature of the putative 500-km discontinuity and the composition... nature and extent of the 500 km seismic discontinuity? Seismic velocity... seismic velocity discontinuity occurs approximately 500 km below the surface (although...-rich primitive mantle exists below 500 km. In this case all... must have involved melting above 500 km. However, some petrologic models... both scientific and resource objectives. Orbital compositional data obtained in the... component in lunar polar regions. Orbital neutron data from Lunar Prospector... radar) and data from planned orbital missions will contribute significantly to... so, a positive result by upcoming orbital remote sensing missions is unlikely... importance are far below orbital detection limits, a negative orbital result does not... products. Planned or potential future orbital systems offer some improvement in... in geologic detail, beginning with orbital measurements and followed by selected... detail using both lander and orbital techniques. Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments... of implementation options (information extraction; orbital measurements; sample return; landed experiments... in Table 4.1. Since four sophisticated orbital remote sensing missions are scheduled... from this rich bounty of orbital data. Assuming that all four... that would result from additional orbital measurements beyond those planned in... images of specific terrains. (b) Orbital Measurements Orbital measurements are not included in... the lunar diurnal and Earth-orbital/solar cycles). Evaluation of upper...-1 spacecraft in 2008 on a 2-year orbital mission to perform simultaneous composition... intent to participate with additional orbital spacecraft sent to the Moon... and Ukraine. After the initial orbital missions of Japan, China, and... via the LPRP program of orbital and landed robotic lunar missions... goals are most amenable to orbital measurements, in situ analysis or... required are identified. Implementation (b) Orbital Measurements Orbital measurements are not included in... the nature of the putative 500-km discontinuity and the composition... of lunar atmospheric species. (b) Orbital Measurements Orbital measurements are not included in... avenues for implementation (information extraction; orbital measurements, sample return; landed experiments... think are primary products. Regional orbital remote sensing will be needed... the nature of the putative 500-km discontinuity and the composition... than in scientific priority. Both orbital and surface deployments of mass... will come from four sophisticated orbital missions to be launched between... of experiments being carried by orbital missions in development will provide... are possible from all lunar orbital positions, while observations at visible... requirement would be less than 500 W. Imaging of Earth’s Ionosphere and... range, from 10 eV to 500 keV. One of the most... of planning lunar surface and orbital operations and the benefits of... its overall criteria. 2. Surface and orbital mission operational planning. Apollo experience... —Geophysical probe delivery systems enabling orbital deployment at globally distributed locations... missions in a series of robotic orbital and landed missions, the Lunar... via the LPRP program of orbital and landed robotic lunar missions... goals are most amenable to orbital measurements, in situ analysis or... obliquity—the angle between the orbital plane of an object and... solar monitor data from lunar orbital missions should, to the extent.... All of the planned four orbital missions are asked observe the... with Aerospace Industries Association and Orbital Sciences Corporation. At UVA, she...



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... first one with a pericentre at 500 km, and a second one with...: 5.9 Rj (~= Io orbital radius) Apojove: 160 Rj IGA C/A: 500 km Northern Hemisphere...) Vinf 7 km/s Perijove: 5.8 Rj (~= Io orbital radius) Apojove: 260 Rj IGA... and mass resolution better than 500 (high sensitivity and sufficient mass... and mass resolution better than 500 with sensitivity that allows the... the perijove close to Europa orbital radius. Then the Europa science... w.r.t Europa (around 4 km/s) and the orbital period (4:1 resonant with Europa, i.e. ~14... near equatorial, near circular. Its orbital radius is ~420 000 km... a day is equal to the orbital period (1.78 day). The prime... mass ++ = = ++ = V -- = + ++ + Radiation dose + = - ++ + Science phase orbital period = = -- N/A -- Table 5-1: Qualitative comparison of... CLEO-I S3 is the short orbital period (<20 day), which highly... incurred (due to the higher orbital radius of Europa compared to... current value down to Io orbital radius. In order to minimise... G1 and G2 the same orbital period as after JOI: 200... the perijove down to Io orbital radius (it is optimal from... pericentre altitude is set to 500 km. This value is chosen... perijove is equal to Io orbital radius and also because CLEO... V∞ / Io [km/s] 7 Pericentre altitude [km] 500 Pump [deg] 11.7 Crank [deg...] 0.0 Perijove [RJ] 5.9 Apojove [RJ] 257 Orbital period [day] 186 Pump [deg...] 0.6 Perijove [RJ] 5.9 Apojove [RJ] 178 Orbital period [day] 110 Table 5-2: I1...] 0.6 Perijove [RJ] 5.9 Apojove [RJ] 178 Orbital period [day] 110 Pump [deg...] 0.1 Perijove [RJ] 5.9 Apojove [RJ] 274 Orbital period [day] 204 Table 5-3: I2... the pericentre altitude is close (500 km for I1, 100 km... altitude: 350 μdeg/s2 for a C/A @500 km and 550 μdeg/s2... a smaller arc, thus with less orbital dynamics to observe. In order... with the perijove at Io‟s orbital radius. Such a scenario is obtained... then performed to reduce the orbital period (from 200 days to... Io is 5.9 km/s and the orbital period is ~14 days, close.... By imposing that I1 C/A is 500 km, only four options are... 5-23: I1 parametric analysis. The orbital period after the fly-by... equator is equal to Io orbital radius A parametric analysis can be...). The corresponding pericentre velocity for a C/A @500 km is 8.8 km/s. This point... the perijove down to Europa orbital radius. Two options were analysed... perijove is close to Europa orbital radius to minimise the radiation... CLEO-E has not the same orbital period as CLIPPER anymore: it... TBD flybys in the 10-500 km altitude range over the... (SCI+HK TM) C NC – IGA1 500 km (acceptable by science) C – IGA2...-Up, Correction Manoeuvre, Re-targeting)_ Orbital period needs to be long... following the 1st flyby (at 500 km from Io surface), and...: 5.9 Rj (~= Io orbital radius) Apojove: 160 Rj IGA C/A: 500 km Northern Hemisphere...) Vinf 7 km/s Perijove: 5.8 Rj (~= Io orbital radius) Apojove: 260 Rj IGA.... 6.7.1.1 V estimation Assuming the following CLIPPER orbital characteristics:  Vinf: 5.58 km/s  Declination... Europa instead. A delta analysis w.r.t. payload, orbital transfer, subsystem design, system level... UV spectrometer (Phebus on BepiColombo) 7.6 500 x 400 x 400 20 29.4 Nadir.... Table 6-15 depicts the minimum orbital period based upon the durations... is a key driver for the orbital period. As for CLEO/I, 28... data volume of 1.6 Gb, a minimum orbital period of 72 days is.... Table 6-16 depicts the minimum orbital period based upon the durations... Doppler and Ranging, the minimum orbital period is 88 days at... minimum orbital period is only slightly above the targeted orbital period of... to support a decrease of the orbital period:  Improved gain on-board... of a spacecraft, SBI uses the orbital knowledge of another spacecraft. And...