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#Новостная лента.
12016-08-12. Шотландский стартап Orbital Access продолжает свои разработки в области сверх легких ракет.
Orbital Access обнародовала данные о своей будущей ракете Orion 500, которая будет иметь возможность выводить на высоту не менее 650 км грузы общей массой до 500 кг. Стоимость запуска ракеты планируется установить на уровне 15 млн. долл. Таким образом, вполне вероятно, что с учетом планов космического агентства Великобритании по разработке малых космических аппаратов, в скором времени у страны появится и собственное средство выведения полезных нагрузок. Тэги: Orion 500Orbital Access
22017-07-07. ЕКА выделило 200 тыс. евро Orbital Access.
В рамках технологической программы Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) ЕКА решило выделить Orbital Access 200 тыс. евро на продолжение разработки РН Orbital 500R. В рамках выделенного финансирования планируется провести работы по дальнейшей проработке проекта.
Планируется что разрабатываемая ракета будет иметь пусковую площадку на территории Великобритании и ее разработка будет и в дальнейшем финансироваться за счет космического агентства страны. Предполагаемой датой пуска новой ракеты назван период с 2020 по 2021 годы. Относительно технических характеристик ракеты известно следующее:
1. Она будет многоразовой.
2. Выводимая масса ПН на НОО составит около 500 кг.
С точки зрения дальнейших перспектив развития компания Orbital Access объявила о том, что данная ракета станет первым шагом на пути по коммерческому применению аэрокосмической двигательной установки Sabre (ракета будет использоваться как тестовая платформа). Тэги: Orbital 500Orbital AccessЕвропейское космическое агентствоReaction Engines Ltd

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... the distinctive physics of the orbital environment, inherent dual-use applications... system.”2 The declining costs of orbital access have resulted in a much more... to entry indicate that space access is transitioning from the costly.... Understanding this shifting geopolitical—and orbital—landscape is relevant if the... shape the dynamics of the orbital landscape. Realist theories suggest that...-scalar international system as space access democratizes. Such realities could significantly... the physical realities of the orbital environment require either cooperative or..., and other accoutrements of space access are integrated into society constructs..., the evolution of rocketry and orbital reconnaissance in an era of... Union (ITU) to de-conflict orbital slots, space exploitation is often... norms that ensure uninterrupted access to their substantial orbital investments53; indeed, the... a “space sanctuary” to assure unmitigated access.58 While the regional orientation... multinational corporations, who would have access to satellite data which would... equatorial geography for launches and orbital exploitation, Indonesia has strong motivations...-320, and RX-420 sub-orbital rockets since 1987, the three... II explained domestic motivations to access space, responses to external factors... great powers to shut off access to advanced technologies will likely... supply chains to ensure uninterrupted access to the benefits of space... Long March.220 Problems with orbital insertion by the Chinese booster... Biak, Papua, ground station; Indonesian access to earth data from India... LAPAN information from the Shenzhou-9 orbital rendezvous with Tiangong-1, accompanied by... “competition among local elites for access to government patronage.”303 Therefore... of space sanctuary and equitable access to space-derived benefits in...



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... Material Cut-off Treaty Fractional Orbital Bombardment System Geostationary Orbit Global... GEO orbital slots, where most communications satellites operate. Competition for orbital slot... another orbital slot. New Skies sold the rights to an orbital slot... sub-orbital space flight was a positive development related to growing access to... sub-orbital launch capabilities, and of those, 10 have an orbital launch... requires Each an and sustainable access to 0 0 orbital slot, measured in degrees... to competition over 1 0 highly valued orbital slots. 1 0 0 1 A number of radar and... communications. Both radio spectrum and orbital slot assignments are coordinated through... of access to, and use of, space. Due to very high orbital... allocation, including the assignment of orbital slots and radio frequency spectrum... threatens to make some valuable orbital regions increasingly inhospitable to space...) models, without further implementation of orbital 4 The Space Environment debris mitigation... Earth’s atmosphere.19 The US Orbital Recovery Corporation is developing a ConeXpress... assessment Continued annual growth in orbital debris populations represents a clear threat... for orbital slot allocations Today’s satellites operate in three basic orbital bands... [sic] value of orbital slots.”62 In other orbital slot developments, New Skies sold the rights to its orbital... — for two orbital slots from the FCC, giving it access mainly to... international body mandated to coordinate orbital slots and frequency allocation, the... to the management of scarce orbital slots. TREND 1.5: Space surveillance capabilities... that systematically tracks and catalogues orbital debris. The system is comprised... capabilities for identifying and tracking orbital debris, but are being developed... issues regarding radio frequency spectrum, orbital slots, and space debris. These... means of verification Prohibits fractional orbital bombardment systems (FOBS)25 Launch... gain access to space. There are currently 10 actors with orbital launch capability and another 16 with sub-orbital capability... gaining access to space The number of actors with an independent orbital...)2 — two consortia that provide commercial orbital launch services using rockets developed... therefore demonstrated an orbital launch capability. F IGURE 3.1: Independent orbital launch capability of...-education missions 1 New rockets 2 Sub-orbital missions 1 Mission •Soyuz (Russia) (Three... that a new actor demonstrating independent orbital launch capability is emerging roughly... regarding the safety of manned access to orbital space through purely private... sub-orbital space flight was a positive development related to growing access to... begins restricting availability of satellite orbital information On 24 November 2004... orbital positions, known as “station keeping,” in the face of natural orbital...-capable states also have sub-orbital space access, the capability to carry... sub-orbital launch capabilities, with 10 of these actors possessing an orbital... HAND ASAT ASAT ASAT Sub-orbital launch Orbital launch Precision position/ maneuverability... Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)’s Orbital Express program will develop on... basic space access and use capabilities, such as orbital launch capability, orbital transfer... demonstrated orbital space access and the 18 that have demonstrated sub-orbital space access... discussed above. Only actors with orbital access are included, since this is....pdf. 5US National Research Council, Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment (Washington, D.C.: National.../index.html. 6National Research Council, Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment (Washington, D.C.: National... the Risks Posed by Orbital Debris,” Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris...#leo. 9US National Research Council, Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment (Washington, D.C.: National....html. 10US National Research Council, Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment (Washington, D.C.: National...?NewsNum=264. 20Orbital Recovery Ltd., “Orbital Recovery Factsheet.” Online: http://www.../images/fact_sheet_v1_5.pdf; Tariq Malik, “Orbital Assistance: ConeXpress Spacecraft Could Extend...-27 February 2004, Vienna, Austria,” Orbital Debris Quarterly News 8 (April 2004.../AC105_823E.pdf. 28“Orbital Debris Graphics,” NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. Online... FCC Orbital Debris Ruling: ISO TC20/SC14 to develop standard for orbital... 47“Orbital Successfully Launches Taiwan’s ROCSAT-2 Satellite Aboard Taurus XL Rocket,” Orbital Science Corporation, Press Release, 20 May 2004. Online: http://www.orbital.... 23Federal Business Opportunities Presolicitation Notice, “Orbital Deep Space Imager (ODSI) Concept... Systems,” Orbital Sciences Corporation Web Site. Online: http://www.orbital.com/. 82.../mission_pages/dart/main/. 96“ConeXpress Orbital Life Extension Vehicle (CX-OLEV....pdf. 103Lt. Col. James Shoemaker, “Orbital Express Space Operations Architecture,” updated..., 3 April 2005. 3“The Soviet Fractional Orbital Bombardment System, A Short History.” Online...



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... Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program, which funded both SpaceX and Orbital ATK (formerly Orbital Sciences) to develop a capability... environment for LEO startups to access space. • Second, we empirically examine... startups with timely and inexpensive access to the ISS, such companies... specifically explore: (a) high costs to access LEO; (b) launch challenges, especially those... into costs associated with LEO access, which have traditionally been viewed... consistently high costs of space access.” See, Hoyt Davidson, John Stone... Collide: The Challenge of Cheap Orbital Access. Colony Fund, 2007. 28 See... originally founded by publicly-traded Orbital Sciences Corporation and received additional... time for secondary payloads to access LEO are unclear, practitioners have... Jeff Cannon. "Routine Scheduled Space Access for Secondary Payloads." Technical Session... Payload Adapter (ESPA): Providing Increased Access to Space." Proceedings from IEEE... market for low cost reliable access to space (primarily launch vehicles... for human space systems at Orbital Sciences Corporation, explained, “[o]ne of... companies enabling low cost reliable access to space a “[c]ombination of large... seed funding under the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program to... operators worldwide (such as SpaceX, Orbital Sciences, Roscosmos, and Virgin Galactic... as those from SpaceX and Orbital Sciences. Spaceflight also facilitates launch... with ISS deployment is a short orbital lifetime that inhibits commercial viability... COTS associated with NASA’s Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program) investment strategy... a contract with American launch company Orbital Sciences Corporation to launch six... Peter B. de Selding. "Skybox Taps Orbital Sciences for 2015 Minotaur Launch... broader: bringing satellite-based internet access to third world countries and... market attractiveness (size, growth, and access to customers) was the strongest... microgravity manufacturing; limited opportunities to access the ISS; the physical constraints... buy.”181 • Limited opportunities to access the ISS. The complexities inherent... require much more readily available access. Currently, NanoRacks supplies secondary payload... accelerated projects should receive preferential access to NanoRacks services and ISS...) Subsector around time of investment Orbital Sciences Corporation (1982)205 1983..., CrunchBase, Preqin, and Thomson ONE. Orbital Sciences Corporation also raised $50....13 Firms contemplating ISS R&D could access this database before deciding how...), Brian Talbot (CASIS), Carl Walz (Orbital-ATK). 4 EARLY DRAFT - NASAWATCH.COM... growing number of and sub-orbital transport systems such as Virgin... Low-Earth-Orbit (being sub-orbital), though we acknowledge that they... the private sector (SpaceX and Orbital-ATK), but transport of the.... The first was the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Program (COTS), which... has benefited from interviews with Orbital-ATK and SpaceX. 13 EARLY... step. NASA then started funding Orbital-ATK to develop its proposal... SpaceX CRS craft and three Orbital-ATK spacecraft have been launched... or FAR Cost+ Contract Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Commercial Resupply... Activity Investment from NASA Orbital and SpaceX Orbital cargo delivery services to... system $1.1B Space Act Agreements Orbital and SpaceX Blue Origin, Boeing... delivered by both SpaceX and Orbital-ATK. Through FAR-based fixed... a price of $1.6 billion)36 and Orbital-ATK has been contracted for... 2016. Blue Origin benefits from access to NASA facilities and expertise... of recent procurement approaches for orbital transport systems (see 4.1). 4.3 Private sector... for sub-orbital space flight triggered a swath of sub-orbital development and... the winner now providing sub-orbital planes for Virgin Galactic. For... the economic development of Earth orbital space. The Congress further declares... the economic development of Earth orbital space. The Congress further declares... to LEO, where SpaceX and Orbital-ATK have transitioned to the... launch capabilities. Examples include SpaceX, Orbital-ATK, Boeing Horizontal (Market led... further investments in ISS-like orbital facilities would come from to... in orbital facilities to which the public sector would have access.65... approach after its success in orbital transportation. The emphasis on the... markets puts pressure on the access and support of potential breakthrough... orbital platforms. There is currently no clear indication of a publicly funded orbital... orbital facilities beyond 2020 - there is high uncertainty about the continued access... entail a need for next-generation orbital facilities and, if so, who...), Brian Talbot (CASIS), Carl Walz (Orbital-ATK). The analysis in this...-395-LaRC NASA (2014) Commercial Orbital Transportation Services: A New Era in... which the government requires assured access. To help implement its technology...  barriers,   increasing  awareness,  and  facilitating  access.       There  are  several  potential  commercial...



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... at either a sub-orbital or an orbital level: a sub-orbital flight is one... for orbital operations, such as SKYLON (discussed in more detail below): orbital operations will expend far greater energy than sub-orbital operations... carry, and until orbital operations commence, sub-orbital spaceplanes will only be... today and tomorrow Orbital Sciences Corporation 2.40 US-based Orbital Sciences Corporation... Sub-orbital Sub-orbital Orbital Sub-orbital Orbital Sub-orbital Bristol Spaceplanes Ascender Orbital/suborbital Sub-orbital Spaceplane... Sub-orbital Carrier aircraft 2 – purpose-built. (WhiteKnightTwo) Flight crew SpaceShipTwo Sub-orbital Launch mechanism Virgin Galactic Orbital/suborbital Spaceplane models... between continents on a sub-orbital or orbital trajectory, and thus radically reduce... about the suitability of sub-orbital or orbital spaceplanes for mass-market... for orbital spaceplanes. Nonetheless, it is clear that enabling sub-orbital spaceplanes... US, however, manned sub-orbital and orbital spacecraft are on the US... aspirations of companies developing sub-orbital and orbital vehicles, the potential for... is to allow commercial sub-orbital or orbital operations in the short... sub-orbital spacecraft. According to the new rules, ‘man-rated sub-orbital, orbital... for commercial launches of orbital rockets and sub-orbital rockets. The first US-licensed launch was a sub-orbital launch... achievable for orbital operations, and 1 in 10,000 for sub-orbital operations... is worth highlighting that historically, orbital operations have experienced approximately 1 catastrophic... Act 1986. Any sub-orbital or orbital operations using non-winged vehicles... be undesirable, particularly for orbital operations. While orbital operations are not expected... sub-orbital spaceplanes, as well as to FAA ASTlicensed sub-orbital spaceplanes... travel. Air-launched orbital operations 6.204 Air-launched orbital operations involve the...-orbital spaceplane used as carrier aircraft 6.207 The use of a sub-orbital spaceplane to launch an orbital upper stage – such...-orbital spaceplanes would apply to those used as carrier aircraft for orbital operations. Orbital vehicle 6.209 The orbital stage of the... Mach 5), or fractional orbital airliners, achieving near orbital velocity before re-entering... these Danger Areas for sub-orbital and orbital flights. This would require... be established to support sub-orbital and orbital spaceplane operations. This would... accommodate the nuances of orbital and sub-orbital launch operations from the... of space operation Sub-orbital operations 8.59 Sub-orbital operations to and... to support other operations, orbital or sub-orbital; ƒƒ the airspace will be... complex commercial operations involving orbital and sub-orbital payload launches. Recommendation Given.... 8.80 As with other orbital and sub-orbital operations, vertical launch systems... which aim to achieve an orbital access at approximately 700 kilometres. Therefore... support all types of orbital and sub-orbital operations, at least initially... the oversight of future orbital and sub-orbital rocket launches in the...-orbital operation (permanent or temporary) at an existing EASAcertificated aerodrome; ƒƒa sub-orbital.... Not a realistic site for a sub-orbital operation. Campbeltown Airport (Machrihanish) Operator... identified for sub-orbital operations. In general, for sub-orbital flights that...-orbital vehicle flight corridor can be encompassed within the more demanding orbital... potential atmospheric impacts of sub-orbital and orbital commercial space operations should... basic requirements of sub-orbital and orbital flight and the fundamental physics... on sub-orbital flights would not fly an orbital trajectory and, as... potential atmospheric impacts of sub-orbital and orbital commercial space operations should..., offering training for sub-orbital and orbital spaceflight pilots and participants. 11... commercial human spaceflight, both sub-orbital and orbital. NASA has also tried... to which pilots of sub-orbital and orbital spaceflight would be exposed... levels of competence for sub-orbital and orbital spaceflight crew, as well... Training be defined for sub-orbital and orbital operations? ƒƒthe structure of... levels of competence for sub-orbital and orbital spaceflight crew, as well...-orbital flights. 12.10 Potential orbital operations are considered briefly and separately. Orbital... for human spaceflight, both sub-orbital and orbital, with a maximum duration of... and A Ruge (2013) ‘Sub-orbital and orbital pilots licensing and passengers medical... particular sub-orbital spaceflight experience. Potential future operations, such as orbital flights... during an orbital flight, the time to landing and access to definitive... for commercial launches of orbital and sub-orbital vehicles. Licences are granted... opposed to a sub-orbital level) without the orbital vehicle needing to split... the entire delivery system. Sub-orbital A sub-orbital spaceflight reaches space, but...



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... Uncontrolled Atmospheric Re‐entry of Orbital Objects under  Operational Aspects  Eickmans... Authorities Rulemaking for Suborbital and Orbital Aircraft (JARSOA)  Marciacq, Jean‐Bruno... States of America      Session 20   Orbital Station & Extraterrestrial Habitat Safety  Chairs... of an “Umbrella” Spacecraft for Orbital Debris  Thomson, Daniel M.1 Cherniaev, Aleksandr2... a Spacecraft Decommissioning Device for Implementing Orbital Access  Sustainability    Antonetti, Stefano; Rossettini, Luca...  United Kingdom    DeorbitSail Mechanism and Orbital Decay Predictions of Low Earth... a Spacecraft Decommissioning Device for Implementing     Orbital Access Sustainability    Antonetti, Stefano; Rossettini, Luca....sourabhkaushal@gmail.com  Man‐made  orbital  debris  continues  to  pose  a  threat...  of  currently  proposed methodologies for orbital debris mitigation and  space  remediation...  a  variety  of  different  types  of  orbital  debris.  During  our  analysis  the... and li‐ion battery), OITC (Orbital  intercept  and  thrust  control  system... time.  All  attempts  to  remove  orbital  debris  from  the  Earth's  orbit...,  compared  with  equipment designed as Orbital Replacement Units whose  functions may...  weight  for  more  than  a  dozen  orbital  launch  vehicles.  The  results  shown...)  is  the  first  South  Korean  orbital  launch  vehicle.  It  is  composed...  requirement  is  to  protect  the  orbital  manpower  from  any  body  or...  for  a  probable  off‐nominal  suborbital/orbital  atmospheric  reentry  resulting  in  vehicle... Uncontrolled  Atmospheric Re‐entry of Orbital Objects under  Operational Aspects  Marius... uncontrolled  atmospheric  re‐entry  of  orbital  objects  is  one  of  the... Authorities Rulemaking for  Suborbital and Orbital Aircraft (JARSOA)  Jean‐Bruno MARCIACQ... inter‐ operability of Sub‐orbital and Orbital Aircraft (SOA) by the  same...,  with  the  accompanying  issues  of  orbital  safety  and  sustainability,  and international...  The  constantly  increasing  number  of  orbital  debris  has  already led the...  working  group  on  this  topic:  Orbital  Debris  Atmospheric  Re‐entry  (ODAR...  the  re‐entries  of  intact  orbital  objects  are  uncontrolled,  corresponding  to... minutes, even a few  days  before  orbital  decay  a  re‐entry  uncertainty  window...  km  (corresponding  to  one  full  orbital  path),  possibly  halved  during  the... accident or as a result of orbital  decay.  Global  governance  in  outer...  widely  accepted  that  man‐made  orbital  debris  are a greater threat to...  of  all,  we  have  gathered  orbital  information  from  publicly  available  sources...  all  spacecraft  and  launch  vehicle  orbital  stages  crossing  or  near  the... of an “umbrella” spacecraft for orbital  debris shielding  1 2 2 Daniel M. Thomson , Aleksandr... a Spacecraft Decommissioning  Device for Implementing Orbital Access Sustainability  Stefano Antonetti, Luca Rossettini...  have  underestimated  the  fact  that  orbital  space  is  a  limited  resource.  As... has generated millions pieces of orbital debris at  different  altitude  above...‐generating mechanism; the  number  of  orbital  junk  in  this  band  is..., reducing the altitude of  the  orbital  debris  will  reduce  its  lifetime....  Using  a  pulsed  laser  to  mitigate  orbital  debris  is  a  most  feasible  and... debris itself.      DeorbitSail Mechanism and Orbital Decay Predictions of  Low Earth...  to  risk  of  collision  with  orbital  debris  and  operational  satellites  throughout...).  Depending  on  satellite  size  and  orbital  altitude,  space  debris  present  safety...  micro  satellite  by  using  relevant  orbital  parameters derived  from  historic  Two...  with  Earth  oblateness,  which  decreases  orbital  altitudes  causing  satellites  to  ultimately...  evaluate the predicted theory.  A  proposed  orbital  debris  solution/  technology  known  as... NASA  that  includes  the  first  orbital  flight  test  mission  of  the...  NASA  to  go  BEO.  After  orbital  insertion,  the  “launch”  (per  the... a Spacecraft Decommissioning  Device for Implementing Orbital Access Sustainability  Stefano Antonetti, Luca Rossettini...  have  underestimated  the  fact  that  orbital  space  is  a  limited  resource.  As...  LEOP  and  mission  analysis  for  orbital  maneuvers  strategy,  and  on  ELECTRA...  researches  and  space  experiments  on  orbital  complexes.  Grichshenko  V.  F.  addresses the issues...  observations  and    determination  of  their  orbital  lifetime.  He  works  also  on...  Safety  Lead  supporting  the  NASA  Orbital  Debris  Program  Office.    For  the...  of  mission  compliance  with NASA’s Orbital Debris mitigation policy.  ********  Michael Kelly...  she  performed  as  the  Shuttle  Orbital  Maneuvering  System  and  Reaction  Control...  Integration  manager,  and  the  Commercial  Orbital  Transportation Services Integration manager.  72... to  develop rules for Sub‐orbital and Orbital Aircraft (SOA).   Following EASA... also the  emerging  suborbital  and  orbital  spaceflight  industries.  His  Masters  Thesis...



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... History of Orbital Space Tourism...................................................................... 165 The Price of Access to Orbit... low cost launchers, private sub-orbital transportation vehicles and space ports... for 2011 and NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. Furthermore... in the development of sub-orbital transportation vehicles and construction of... greenhouses for plants, (X)constructing large orbital habitats around the Earth, (XI... low cost launchers, private sub-orbital transportation vehicles and space ports... for 2011 and NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. Furthermore.... 3. NASA COTS PROGRAM NASA’s Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program was... signed $178 million agreement with Orbital. Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying... in the area of orbital and sub-orbital commercial services, as presented... free publicity and technology innovation. 3.5 Orbital Orbital is a traditional US space system... 7. Orbital Cygnus Transfer Vehicle (Orbital, 2010) Figure 8. Taurus-II medium sized launcher (Orbital, 2010) vehicle are in the early phases of development. Orbital will... for their Dragon capsule. However, Orbital will probably successfully market Taurus... participation under NASA’s COTS program, Orbital will generate direct benefits from... from different departments, such as orbital mechanics, thermal, quality, simulations and... started working either for SpaceX, Orbital or Space Adventures. The expected... and the construction of sub-orbital transportation vehicles would have encouraged... human spaceflight and regular sub-orbital tourism, may mislead decision-makers... market. They will develop sub-orbital flight capabilities and launch capabilities... the space tourism and sub-orbital tourism markets develop. REFERENCES Alexandrova... from Taurus-II: http://www.orbital.com/SpaceLaunch/TaurusII/ SpaceShipTwo. (2010... 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 for plants, (X)constructing large orbital habitats around the Earth, (XI...). NASA The first 50 years, Orbital Permenance. AIAA Magazine (p. 33). Anfimov... and companies like Space-X and Orbital. Commercial launches may increase only... from numerous subscriptions for sub-orbital flights. The launch industry will... (i.e. Scale Composites) are designing sub-orbital launch vehicles, such as Space... in the development of sub-orbital transportation vehicles and construction of... in the development of sub-orbital transportation vehicles (i.e. Virgin Galactic), space... can be defined as sub-orbital flights (SS2), inflatable hotels (i.e. Bigelow9... 15,000 sub-orbital tourists for 2021 and orbital ones of 60... Flight Tourists Earth Observation Sub-orbital transportation vehicles SSP2 for climate... attractive opportunity due to easier orbital access, resource processing opportunities and for... construction and development of sub-orbital transportation vehicles. Finally the interplanetary..., October). Space Tourism Market Study: Orbital Space Travel and Destinations with... Richard Garriott in 2008. Nevertheless, orbital space tourism has remained an... into orbit that prohibits a large orbital space tourism market. Flights costing... as expected either. For a successful orbital space tourism business, the Space... unpiloted, experimental rocketplane developed by Orbital Sciences. It was to test... Lockheed Martin’s X-33, involved a sub-orbital, single stage reusable test vehicle..., the certification process for an orbital space tourism launch vehicle (currently... for an orbital flight. A possible way to develop an orbital space tourism... systems and ultimately fully commercial orbital spacecraft. This may be accelerated... billions into the development of orbital space tourism vehicles without demanding... van Pelt, M. O. (September 19, 2001). Orbital Space Tourism, Affordable Ticket Prices... low-cost launchers and sub-orbital vehicles that will require a demonstration... and services. US companies (i.e. Space-X, Orbital) that provide commercial crew and... commercial transportation services, launchers, sub-orbital transportation vehicles, inflatable space stations.../h. Since they were in different orbital planes, their relative closing speed... a spacecraft’s cross-sectional area, its orbital altitude and flight path, the... is insufficient for preserving the orbital environment because the chain reaction... large objects from densely populated orbital regions. The removal missions should...). • CNES is currently studying a promising orbital debris chaser concept capable of...). Using Lasers in Space: Laser Orbital Debris Removal and Asteroid Deflection.../solarbird/index.html NASA. (2008). Orbital Debris Quarterly News, 12. Retrieved... greenhouses for plants, (X) constructing large orbital habitats around the Earth, (XI... Master (postgraduate) in “Satellites and orbital platforms” from “Sapienza”, University of..., 70, 71, 72, 73 Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11..., 176 Orbital 2, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 22, 25, 27, 28 orbital space tourism 166, 167, 168, 171, 175, 176 orbital space...



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... 1963. Then, none after that. •  Orbital - Two Vostok flights the first...*genuine*search* for*safe,*efficient*orbital* manned*capability.* •  Abandoned*lunar*capability...*Apollo/ShuXleVera*hardware*for* manned*orbital*and*lunar*opera2ons.* •  No*opportunity....* •  Clearly*SpaceX*and*Orbital*will*succeed*on*LEO*access,*but*will*it...*to*achieve*safety*goals* for*orbital*flights.* •  Research%jus5fied%by... spaceship system A*New*Industry* Public*Access*to*SubVOrbital*Space* The*Goal...*$M*for*orbital*flights*of*~*8*days.* •  SubVorbital*2ckets*now*cost*about*1%*of*orbital....* !  The*cost*ra2o*for*suborbital/orbital*will*likely*remain*at* 1%*as...*with*1*to*2*flights*per*day.* !  Orbital*access*will*require*a*resortVlike*des2na2on.* ***Resort...



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... the distinctive physics of the orbital environment, inherent dual-use applications... system.”2 The declining costs of orbital access have resulted in a much more... to entry indicate that space access is transitioning from the costly.... Understanding this shifting geopolitical—and orbital—landscape is relevant if the... shape the dynamics of the orbital landscape. Realist theories suggest that...-scalar international system as space access democratizes. Such realities could significantly... the physical realities of the orbital environment require either cooperative or..., and other accoutrements of space access are integrated into society constructs..., the evolution of rocketry and orbital reconnaissance in an era of... Union (ITU) to de-conflict orbital slots, space exploitation is often... norms that ensure uninterrupted access to their substantial orbital investments53; indeed, the... a “space sanctuary” to assure unmitigated access.58 While the regional orientation... multinational corporations, who would have access to satellite data which would... equatorial geography for launches and orbital exploitation, Indonesia has strong motivations...-320, and RX-420 sub-orbital rockets since 1987, the three... II explained domestic motivations to access space, responses to external factors... great powers to shut off access to advanced technologies will likely... supply chains to ensure uninterrupted access to the benefits of space... Long March.220 Problems with orbital insertion by the Chinese booster... Biak, Papua, ground station; Indonesian access to earth data from India... LAPAN information from the Shenzhou-9 orbital rendezvous with Tiangong-1, accompanied by... “competition among local elites for access to government patronage.”303 Therefore... of space sanctuary and equitable access to space-derived benefits in...



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... universal rights of access and precluded sovereign jurisdiction over orbital transit. They... military advantage and to control access by all other countries. The... new legal restrictions on its access to or use of space... the Earth’s own rotational and orbital velocity must acquire nearly 8 km... with as little weight and orbital maneuver as possible. In practical... be impractical to apply at orbital altitudes, that temptation was quickly... SPACE SECURITY The Historical Legacy Access to space originally became available... space, should be free for access and peaceful use without the... Earth on the price of access to this domain.” The principle... initiated tests of a nonnuclear co-orbital satellite interceptor system in 1968... Soviets resumed testing their co-orbital ASAT system.22 The Carter...), 275. 23. The Soviet co-orbital ASAT system involved launching a missile... launch costs and facilitate commercial access to space—started operations in... Union, the organization that allocates orbital slots and radio-frequency spectrum... example, 105 out of 109 orbital launches were by the United... took several years.36 The Orbital Sciences Corporation offered another example... such as the allocation of orbital slots and radio-frequency spectrum... Research Council report warned that orbital debris posed a growing threat to... Space Debris, National Research Council, Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment (Washington, DC... United States and felt that access to information had been used...”—that is, the ability to access and use space freely for... of Chinese nuclear espionage and access to sensitive information during investigations... to protect its freedom of access, but those who have advanced... acquiring the capability to control access to space as compared to... any space asset while assuring orbital access and subsequent operation for those... of “their ultimate ‘high ground’ access, their ability to rapidly forward... needed to ensure freedom of access and operations in space,” with... seek to prohibit or limit U.S. access to or use of space... about the U.S.’s right to control access to the rest of the... system to disrupt other countries’ access to satellite communications. These jammers... the satellite’s orbital altitude. Low ∆V maneuvers such as changing orbital altitude might... ∆V maneuvers such as changing a satellite’s orbital plane could require a mass of... get that payload up to orbital speed. Modern rockets typically can... loaded, and the specifics of orbital altitude and inclination also affect... since the first decade of orbital space operations. See Dietrich Koelle... Collide: The Challenges of Cheap Orbital Access” (paper presented at the “Space... has occurred used one of Orbital Science’s Minotaur rockets.185 AirLaunch... Cost,” 130–131. 183. After Orbital Science’s Pegasus air-launch system... space also affect choice of orbital altitude for different types of... others vary depending on the orbital altitude that is best suited... from widely different, nonpredetermined locations. Orbital physics limit the number of... over the allocation of scarce orbital slots and radio frequency spectrum... national security advantages by controlling access to different space-based positioning... body or to permit foreign access to its encrypted 204. See... deny hostile access “without unduly disrupting” civil and commercial access to open... subjected. Likewise, the laws of orbital dynamics create complex tradeoffs among..., manage space traffic, and allocate orbital slots in GEO.207 The...-orbit spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stage or other activities that... any significant energy source to orbital altitude, protective rules cannot preclude... launch as well as the orbital parameters and the general function... to do so by making access to U.S. space surveillance information contingent... reassurance. The growing problems of orbital debris and space traffic management... monitoring techniques designed to control access to the means of mass...



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... the stage, but are given access to power and telemetry. This... meeting the challenge of responsive access to space. ABSTRACT ® Microcosm and... will provide low-cost, responsive access to space. The Scorpius® family... and two-stage suborbital and orbital vehicles with payloads ranging from... were flown. The first Sprite orbital launch is scheduled for 2006... of vehicles consists of sub-orbital, and small-, medium-, and heavy... Sprite SLV is the first orbital vehicle in the Scorpius family... cost than is possible with orbital vehicles and create suborbital products... the first orbital vehicle, the Sprite SLV. The sub-orbital vehicles on... rocket applications. After the Sprite orbital capability is available, the next... space lift capability for various orbital and suborbital missions. Table 1 shows... small sub-orbital vehicles and then progressively larger suborbital and orbital vehicles.... Vehicle SR-S Suborbital SR-M Sub-orbital Sprite SLV LEO Payload (100...-pod Horizontal staging High vel. Orbital GN&C Multi-staging High vel... Mar., 01 SR-M SR-M/US Orbital SR-S 5K eng GPS INS...-orbital missions. Table 2 lists the performance characteristics of various Scorpius® sub-orbital launchers. Table 3 lists the performance characteristics of the Sprite orbital vehicle. SR-M is the full-performance single-stage Scorpius® sub-orbital.... Table 3. Performance of the Sprite Orbital Vehicle. Payload, max The SR... avionics with GN&C required for orbital flight. The SR-M/US will... sub-orbital target and sounding rocket capability. One other sub-orbital Scorpius..., single-stage, Table 2. Scorpius® Sub-Orbital Rocket Performance Characteristics. Parameter SR...-cost launch products (both sub-orbital and orbital). SSLC will concentrate on... Sprite SLV is the first orbital vehicle in the Scorpius® family...-orbital rocket and includes provisions for a deorbit maneuver to avoid becoming orbital... enables its responsive, on-call, orbital access. Table 4. Operational Characteristics of Sprite... required to support the first orbital flight of Sprite in 2006... expected for the various sub-orbital and orbital missions. Figure 8 shows a group... of pressure-fed systems for orbital vehicles without the complexity of... varying mission requirements (suborbital to orbital) and the associated mission phases... and the sustainer. For the orbital missions, we will need the... provide multiple restarts for the orbital vehicle. Our developmental path includes... the design into the Sprite orbital vehicle. Figure 12. HPPS Based...