Грузовые/пилотируемые корабль. Shenzhou 10. [Редактировать]

В период с 11 по 26 июня 2013 года в рамках национальной космической программы состоялся пятый, самый длительный пилотируемый полет космического корабля (КК) Shenzhou-10. Основной задачей 15-суточного полета была отработка маневрирования и стыковочных операций КК Shenzhou-10 с орбитальным модулем Tiangong-1 в автоматическом и ручном режимах и проведение всесторонней оценки состояния модуля Tiangong-1 для целей, которые ставит перед собой Китай – создание модульной космической станции к 2020 году.

Полет проходил по следующей схеме:

  • 11 июня – запуск КК Shenzhou-10 с космодрома Цзюцюань;
  • 13 июня – стыковка КК Shenzhou-10 с модулем Tiangong-1 в автоматическом режиме;
  • 23 июня – расстыковка, отход КК Shenzhou-10, стыковка в ручном режиме;
  • 25 июня – расстыковка, облет модуля Tiangong-1 и сближение с обратной стороны;
  • 26 июня – посадка в автономном районе Внутренняя Монголия.  

11 июня 2013 года в 09 ч 38 мин (по Гринвичу) был произведен успешный запуск КК Shenzhou-10 со стартовой площадки № 921 космодрома Цзюцюань ракетой-носителем (РН) CZ-2F/G. Параметры орбиты: высота – 336×342 км, наклонение – 42,8˚, период обращения – 91,2 мин.

На борту КК Shenzhou-10 находился экипаж из двух мужчин и одной женщины. Командир экипажа – Не Хайшэн (Nie Haisheng), это его второй полет; Чжан Сяогуан (Zhang Xiaoguang) – пилот-оператор, первый полет; Ван Япин (Wang Yaping) – лаборант-исследователь, вторая женщина-тайконавт, первый полет.

Члены этого экипажа были дублерами тайконавтов корабля Shenzhou-9 в 2012 году. За пуском КК Shenzhou-10 наблюдал Председатель КНР, Генеральный секретарь ЦК КПК
Си Цзиньпин.

13 июня КК Shenzhou-10 с тремя тайконавтами на борту был выведен на промежуточную орбиту, затем с помощью собственной двигательной установки КК Shenzhou-10 поднялся до высоты 330 км, достигнув почти круговой орбиты. Когда КК Shenzhou-10 находился на расстоянии 52 км от модуля Tiangong-1, начались операции маневрирования и причаливания, а также был произведен мониторинг центральной системы проверки данных. Оба объекта получили данные об относительном положении и скорости друг друга.

Следующая фаза сближения началась, когда оба КК находились на расстоянии 20 км друг от друга, а затем во время нахождения так называемых «переходных точках» (parking points) на расстоянии 5 км, 400 м и 140 м. Наземными службами оценивалось относительное положение КК Shenzhou-10, после чего процесс продолжался, затем состоялся переход на автономное сближение, произошло касание и жесткая сцепка. В 05 ч 11 мин (по Гринвичу) была произведена стыковка КК Shenzhou-10 с орбитальным модулем Tiangong-1 в автоматическом режиме. Во время этих операций КК Shenzhou-10 выполнял роль «активного объекта», а модуль Tiangong-1 выступал в качестве «пассивного объекта». Для проведения стыковки потребовалось 15 минут, что позволило центру управления отрегулировать давление в стыкуемых объектах.

Во время стыковки экипаж находился в спускаемом аппарате корабля, а затем перешел в модуль Tiangong-1. Войдя в модуль Tiangong-1, экипаж начал производить проверку штатной работы модуля и систем жизнеобеспечения: давления, кислорода, температуры воздуха и влажности, а также производить контроль окружающей среды на наличие вредных газов и микробов.

Находясь на орбите, тайконавты провели большое количество научных экспериментов, в том числе медицинских; исследовалась работа сердца, легких и биохимии членов экипажа, а также проводились эксперименты по эффективной профилактике космической болезни. Кроме этого, устраивались сеансы связи с учащимися школ, которые длились по 40 мин. Во время этих уроков, которые проводила Ван Япин, тайконавты показали 5 основных физических экспериментов, с помощью которых они рассказали ученикам о характеристиках движения объектов в условиях невесомости, поверхностном натяжении жидкости, определили понятия веса и массы и объяснили законы Ньютона. Они также ответили на вопросы учеников.

23 июня КК Shenzhou-10 был отстыкован и отошел от модуля Tiangong-1 на 140 метров. После этого командир корабля Не Хайшэн совершил стыковку вручную.

25 июня КК Shenzhou-10 отстыковался от модуля Tiangong-1и произвел облет орбитального модуля. Далее КК Shenzhou-10 осуществил сближение с модулем Tiangong-1 с обратной стороны.

Процессы маневрирования непилотируемого КК Shenzhou-8 и пилотируемого
КК Shenzhou-9 производилось по схеме «V-bar» и были доступны для просмотра на вебсайте. Отработка операций маневрирования и сближения КК Shenzhou-10 ключевым образом отличалась от прежних – было произведено сближение с модулем по схеме «R-bar». Однако, если операции запуска и посадки КК Shenzhou-10 были доступны во время прямой трансляции на вебсайте, то информация по выполнению сближения и причаливания была недоступна, поэтому точная схема облета неизвестна (была ли это вертикальная связка с поворотом на 90°, или же это было положение противоположное вектору скорости с поворотом на 180°). В докладе экипажа руководству сообщалось, что программа полета выполнена успешно.

26 июня 2013 года в 03 ч 07 мин (по Гринвичу) после 15-суточного космического полета спускаемый аппарат пилотируемого КК Shenzhou-10 благополучно приземлился в установленном районе центральной части Внутренней Монголии, тайконавты благополучно вышли из спускаемого аппарата, завершив полет.

К 2015 году Китай планирует вывести на орбиту вторую космическую лабораторию Tiangong-2, и параллельно разворачивается проект пилотируемой орбитальной станции.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1SZ 10НайтиНайти
239179НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Китай
2Страна производитель - Китай
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
4Тип орбиты - НОО

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг7800
2Размер экипажа, чел.3

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС14 дней, 14 часов, 29 минут
2Дата (сведения с орбиты)2013-06-25

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2013-029A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Производитель China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2013-06-11 at 09:38:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xShenzhou 10
3Ракета-носитель 1xВеликий поход 2F

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... LITERATURE…………………………………………………..3 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES………………………………..10 4. OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS AND HYPOTHESIS... SPACE: DOMESTIC ASPECTS…...38 III. 1. SHENZHOU: LEADERSHIP LEGITIMIZER?..................................................40 III. 2. AMBITIONS..., Tom Doherty & Associates, 2006), 217. 10 The classified report was released... a menacing threat. Even China’s wellpublicized Shenzhou human space program has come... International Space Community: A Brief Overview,” 2. 10 Finally, this thesis uses both... as it develops its respective Shenzhou and Chang’E programs. However, very... of a handful of countries. The 10 leaders [major space-faring nations... detailed in Chapter IV. The 10 leading nations were mentioned earlier... FUTRON covered the world’s top 10 leading nations involved in space... the capsule. Currently, China operates 10 ground observation sites and TT... Space Tracking Ship to Serve Shenzhou VII,” Xinhua News Agency, (April... phases: • Phase I: Technology demonstration; launch Shenzhou 1-5 to test capsule design, highlighted..., extra-vehicular activities (EVA); launch Shenzhou spacecraft 6-14 to establish space... 1 is scheduled for late 2010. ShenZhou 8 will then be launched unmanned... with ShenZhou 9 and ShenZhou 10; TianGong 2 is projected for 2013 with ShenZhou 11 and ShenZhou... TianGong 3 in 2015 and ShenZhou 13 and ShenZhou 14 in 2015/16... Soyuz design for their own Shenzhou modules, making them able to... 921-1), Application System (Project 921-2), Shenzhou Manned Spacecraft System (Project 921... national security as well. III. 1. SHENZHOU: LEADERSHIP LEGITIMIZER? Out of all... the launch date of the Shenzhou-7 came on the heels of... as well. Shenzhou-5 was launched on October 13, 2003, and Shenzhou-6 was... political scientist, said that “a successful Shenzhou-7 mission would help distract China... business was confidence in their Shenzhou capsule. Man-rated capsules and... the fifth flight of the Shenzhou.108 Clearly, the Chinese thought... spacecraft. Shortly after the successful Shenzhou-5 flight, China not only received... has been written about the Shenzhou being a mere copy of the... significant differences. Dean Cheng noted, “Shenzhou is not so much a copy... main engine and a backup, the Shenzhou boasts four separate engines. 107.... 43 Figure 4: Russian Soyuz, Chinese Shenzhou, and U.S. Orion Capsules Comparison111 Perhaps... vehicular activity” (EVA), on the Shenzhou-7 mission, it seems like putting... logical step. Shortly after the Shenzhou-7 capsule returned to Earth, Wang... years, three additional modules on Shenzhou spacecraft, each with two or... Tianjin: With a total investment of 10 billion yuan and covering an... Special Administrative Regions, since the Shenzhou-8 “still had the space for... a few months after the successful Shenzhou-7 mission, Zhang Jianqi headed a small.... In order to support future Shenzhou, Tiangong and future lunar-related.... Prior to the spacewalk of Shenzhou-7, there were nationwide contests for... mobile device painted red with ‘Shenzhou VII’ stamped on the side..., a popular European science magazine, the Shenzhou program 168 John J. Klein, Space... 29, 1999): 28. The recent Shenzhou-7 also provided Chinese scientists with... taikonauts on board the craft [Shenzhou-7], especially because two of them... Qiqihar”.178 Success of the Shenzhou-7 space walk also spurred Chinese... “self-made micro-rockets” from a Shenzhou-7 capsule-shaped launch pad. He..., said, “The success of the Shenzhou-7 mission has made us even... watched the landing of the Shenzhou-7 vessel through live video broadcast...,” China Brief, Vol. 7, No. 1 (January 10, 2007): 4. 192 Ibid, 6. 193 David... sharing, ESA has “handed over 10 spare Cluster instruments worth $ 6.8 million... Center for Nonproliferation Studies, May 10, 2007. 247 See http://www... Cooperation,” The SpaceReview.com, April 10, 2006. Ibid. 291 Jeffrey Logan... Cooperation,” The SpaceReview.com, April 10, 2006. 302 John Rhea, “Need.... The Russian Soyuz and Chinese Shenzhou are both man-rated space... Wei Qi: The Launch of Shenzhou ,.” Naval War College Review, Vol... first women astronauts”, SpaceDaily, March 10, 2010 http://www.spacedaily.com... scientists start studying samples from Shenzhou-7.” SpaceDaily.com, October 8, 2008, http... cooperation.” The SpaceReview.com, April 10, 2006, http://www.thespacereview.com... Wei Qi: The launch of Shenzhou V.” Naval War College Review, Vol... _____. “Souped up rockets for Shenzhou.” SpaceDaily.com, October 29, 2008....html _____. “The politics of Shenzhou.” SpaceDaily.com, September 8, 2008, http...- 98, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00396330801899512 Kurlantzick, Joshua. “China... Center for Nonproliferation Studies, May 10, 2007, http://cns.miis.edu... space tracking ship to serve Shenzhou VII.” Xinhua News Agency, April..., Volume 24, Issue 1, February 2008, 10-12. Nweke, Remmy. “Experts agitate....” China Brief, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 10, 2007, 4-6, http://www.jamestown.org... Russian ones.” Softpedia Spacenews, October 10, 2008, http://news.softpedia.com...…....30 Figure 4: Russian Soyuz, Chinese Shenzhou, and U.S. Orion Capsules Comparison…...44...



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... Detail .................................................................................................. 45 Human Spaceflight ......................................................................................................................... 45 Shenzhou Space Capsule................................................................................................................ 46 Tiangong-1 Space... Long-term Space Station ................................................................................................................ 48 Shenzhou Missions in Detail .......................................................................................................... 48 Lunar... through Shenzhou 5 (1992‒2003) was 18 billion yuan (~$2.2 billion). This included 10... on Shenzhou flights 1‒6 and 19 billion yuan being spent on Shenzhou missions 7‒10..., “The Space Report 2014,” 4. 223 “[神舟快报] 国新版记者招待会详解神五发射” [Shenzhou News Flash] The State Council... on the Shenzhou-5 capsule. It concluded in 2005 with the Shenzhou-6 mission... Time Purpose Shenzhou-1 20 November 1999 NA 21 hours Test Shenzhou-2 10 January 2001 14 Months 7 days Test Shenzhou-3 25 March 2002 14 Months 7 days Test Shenzhou-4 30 December 2002 9 Months 7 days Test Shenzhou-5 15 October 2003 10 Months 21 hours Manned (1 crew) Shenzhou-6 12 October 2005 24 Months 4+ days Manned (2 crew) Shenzhou-7 25... lab Shenzhou-8 1 November 2011 37 months 17 days Unmanned (docking) Shenzhou-9 16 June 2012 7.5 months 13 days Manned (3 crew docking) Shenzhou-10 11 June 2013 12 months 15 days Manned (3 crew docking) Shenzhou Space Capsule 248 The Shenzhou spacecraft was developed.... The Shenzhou 7‒10 missions had just one set of solar panels, however. Shenzhou... on the orbital module for Shenzhou missions 8‒10 were unnecessary due to... module into a docking module. 248 “Shenzhou III Unmanned Spacecraft Successfully Launched... 4. Comparison of Shenzhou 5 space capsule and Soyuz TM Description Shenzhou Soyuz TM.../01/07/20030107001009_todaynews.html. 255 “神舟专家揭密载人飞船 航天员有望 2 年内升空” [Shenzhou Expert Reviews Space Capsule, Astronauts... the space station.259 Shenzhou Missions in Detail Shenzhou-1 Shenzhou-1 was launched November...), 122‒24. 48 Shenzhou-2 Shenzhou-2 was launched January 10, 2001, and returned to... return of the descent module. Shenzhou-3 268 Shenzhou-3 was launched March 25... spaceflight program leaders declared the Shenzhou space capsule 270 “technically suitable... its intended orbit. 272 Unlike Shenzhou-2, Shenzhou-3 carried a “simulated person” to monitor....com/reports/Shenzhou5_May_Carry_Out_First_Chinese_Manned_Mission.html. 270 “Shenzhou III Unmanned Spacecraft Returns,” People... “Shenzhou Expert Reveals Secrets of Human Space Flight.” 272 Wei Long, “Shenzhou... Astronauts of the Shenzhou Spaceship: Dummy Astronauts on Board Shenzhou-3,” People’s Daily, April 6, 2002. 264 49 Shenzhou-4 Shenzhou-4 was launched... flights.” The Shenzhou-4 mission was a dress rehearsal for the Shenzhou-5 mission and..., hygiene articles, and other necessities. Shenzhou-5 Shenzhou-5 was launched October 15, 2003... manned spaceflight. Shenzhou-5’s 277 mission schedule was similar to the Shenzhou-1 launch... emerge again 279 for photos. Shenzhou-6 Shenzhou-6, China’s second manned mission, was... of unknown scientific experiments.282 Shenzhou-7 Shenzhou-7 is the only Chinese mission... Satellite Will Chase After the Shenzhou 7 Orbital Capsule After Separation], Xinhuanet.../newscenter/200809/24/content_10104787.htm; “Shenzhou-7 Launches Small Monitoring Satellite,” Xinhuanet... communicate with ground control.288 Shenzhou-8 Shenzhou-8 was an unmanned mission launched... 17, 2011, when Shenzhou-8 returned to Earth. Shenzhou-8 conducted two dockings. It... high to be considered safe. Shenzhou-9 Shenzhou-9 was the first manned mission..., three astronauts participated in the Shenzhou-9 mission. Shenzhou-9 was launched June 16... Tiangong-1 to support human spaceflight. Shenzhou-9 conducted two dockings with Tiangong... physiological studies and microbiological experiments. Shenzhou-10 Shenzhou-10 was the second manned mission... Shenzhou-9, Shenzhou-10 had a crew of three, one of whom was a woman. Shenzhou-10 was....com/watch?v=HV4FWYTVLsU. 296 “China’s Shenzhou-10 Mission Successful,” Xinhuanet, June 26.../c_132488807.htm. 289 52 Figure 4. Shenzhou-10 (left) docked with the Tiangong... days. The goal of the Shenzhou-10 mission was to further verify... function of Tiangong-1’s systems. Like Shenzhou-9, the Shenzhou-10 crew performed a second docking...-1 (see Figure 4). This time the Shenzhou-10 faced in a forward-flying position... Tiangong space station and docked. Shenzhou-10 was the last mission to... asteroid 4179 Toutatis. 297 “Tiengong I/Shenzhou X Manned Spaceflight Mission.” “许达哲:以’探月梦’托起’中国梦’,” [Xu Dazhe... periods experienced by early Shenzhou missions. Table 10.Tianlian launches Spacecraft Tianlian...



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..., and over 100 journal articles. 10 Mr. Dean Cheng is a senior... a legitimate peaceful use. With the Shenzhou-7 in 2009, China used the...-1, to orbit the Shenzhou-7 to take images of the Shenzhou-7. In 2010... positioning accuracies of less than 10 meters. With the use of... an altitude of more than 10,000 kilometers and released a barium... also serve legitimate peacetime functions.10 According to the U.S. Defense Department....”11 During the Shenzhou-7 mission the Banxing-1 flew around Shenzhou-7 at a distance... departed for Earth, BX-1 orbited Shenzhou-7 at a distance of one to... cameras that took images of Shenzhou-7. The stated reason for the... orbiting of a spacecraft with the Shenzhou 7 to prepare for an 5 Office... Command and Technology (装备指挥技术学院学报), 2006/6, 49. 10 See, for example, Huang Siyong... been practice for docking the Shenzhou space capsule with the Tiangong... Satellite Will Chase After the Shenzhou 7 Orbital Capsule After Separation], Xinhuanet.../2008-09/24/content_10104787.htm; “Shenzhou-7 Launches Small Monitoring Satellite,” Xinhuanet... Satellite Will Take Photographs of Shenzhou 7], Xinhuanet, September 24, 2008, accessed.../content_10104656.htm. 13 “Closer Look: Shenzhou-7’s Close Pass by the International...://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/31/us-china-us-hackingidUSTRE79U1YI20111031... can increase launch payloads by 10–15 percent and satellite life...) and cited in the NSSS (p.10). Language in the National Defense... 2008 as part of the Shenzhou-7 (SH-7) human spaceflight mission. Weighing... and provided images of the Shenzhou-7 (SH-7) capsule, demonstrated the ability... are those related to the Shenzhou human spaceflight and the robotic... simply as Project 921, the Shenzhou program was approved as a three... experiments in conjunction with the Shenzhou 8-10 spacecrafts. Taingong-2 was to be... 2. China is executing the robust Shenzhou human spaceflight program at a pace... there was only one other Shenzhou program flight. Compare that to... Mercury (6 crewed flights) and Gemini (10 crewed flights) programs, and one... smaller steps taken by each. Shenzhou 9, launched in June 2012, included... interception technology within its territory.”10 As American defense officials noted.../content_12797459.htm (accessed February 6, 2015). 10 “China: Missile Defense System Test... docking maneuvers by the Shenzhou-VIII, Shenzhou-IX, and Shenzhou-X space capsules with....usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-10-05-satellite-laser_x.htm (accessed...://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-27/chinese-military-suspected-in... Jinping, he's met with the Shenzhou astronauts, he's gone to congratulate... know they have the manned Shenzhou program. We know they have... time. We will reconvene at 10:50 with panel number two... and includes activities around the Shenzhou series of spacecraft, Tiangong-1 space... the successful completion of the Shenzhou-5 to Shenzhou-7 missions from 2003 to... missions. Tiangong - 1 successfully docked with Shenzhou 10 on 13 June 2013 and... the China Construction Bank from 10 billion yuan to 20 billion... of examples support this. The Shenzhou capsule, for example, is not... Chengdu Aircraft Corporation’s 4th generation J-10 fighter and its J-20 5th... space companies the 921-1 or Shenzhou spaceship made its first unmanned... the April 2002 landing of Shenzhou-3. The dual-use nature of... demonstrated by the first manned Shenzhou-5 mission in 2005, when Astronaut... about 40 optical surveillance satellites, 10 radar satellites, 8 possible early warning... it reached an altitude of 10,000km, while U.S. sources noted it... space platforms. The September 2008 Shenzhou 7 mission, remembered most for China... the previous use of the Shenzhou to carry military payloads, mean... the PLA could equip the Shenzhou orbital module to launch the... satellites may include 5-ton and 10-ton systems able to reside... may enable a revisit time of 10 minutes. The PLA or “civil... may have a life span of 10 years, the second may be... possible conclusion from the 2008 Shenzhou 7 mission is that China has... -8.6 3.4 1968 4,722 -13.0 2.7 1969 4,251 -10.0 2.3 1970 3,752 -11.7 1.9 1971 3,382... the U.S. terminology of “force enhancement.”10 Space support operations make use... China’s Military Space Efforts,” 218. 10 Kevin Pollpeter, “The Chinese Vision... People’s Republic of China 2014,” 10. 169 and is pursuing other... heard of, the September 2008 Shenzhou 7 mission which was the Chinese...



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... as growing national security concerns.10 Combat readiness: During his first... defense budget for 2013 rose 10.7 percent in nominal terms to... 2013, three astronauts aboard China’s Shenzhou-10 space shuttle docked with the... that China launched in 2011. Shenzhou-10 was China’s fifth manned spaceflight....71 President Xi attended the Shenzhou-10 launch and later told the... to Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli, Shenzhou-10’s multiple successful dockings with the... civilian projects, such as the Shenzhou missions and the Tiangong-series... 0620088001. http://www.opensource.gov. 10. Daniel Hartnett, ‘‘Army Day Coverage... 2013 (Washington, DC: 2013), pp. 10, 31. 39. U.S. Department of Defense...&cid=1101. 70. Xinhua, ‘‘China’s Shenzhou-10 Mission Successful,’’ June 26, 2013....nasaspaceflight.com/2013/06/chinas-shenzhou-10-docks-tiangong-1/. VerDate Mar 15...-spacelessons. 72. CNTV, ‘‘China Announces Shenzhou-10 Mission ‘Complete Success,’ ’’ June 26....gov; Xinhua, ‘‘Xi Sees Off Shenzhou-10 Crew,’’ June 11, 2013. http.... http: // www.opensource.gov; Xinhua, ‘‘Shenzhou-10 Mission Marks Staged Success of... Under the Radar: China’s DH–10 Cruise Missile Program (Arlington, VA... Sea 2013’ in July,’’ July 10, 2013. OSC ID: CHO2013071018775963. http... China-Russia Naval Exercise,’’ July 10, 2013. OSC ID: CHO2013071018085524. http..., 2012. http://thediplomat.com/2012/10/16/just-like-oldtimes-us...



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... different space missions, including the Shenzhou 10 crewed flight. He stated that... first Chinese astronaut launched on Shenzhou 5 and orbited Earth 11 times... thought because statistics showed only 10 percent of all astronauts have... as a crew member on the Shenzhou 9 space mission, received warm applause... Chinese woman in space on Shenzhou 10 in June 2013. She told... in space, representing more than 10 percent of the global astronaut... 2012. 3/2013 (September 2013) Page 10 IAC 2013 Reports Dr Stone... navigation services. “In the next 10 years four core satellite navigation... 2013 Reports HIGHLIGHT LECTURE 3: Top 10 Research Results from the International... so far.” In selecting a ‘top 10’, Dr Robinson said she took... terms of research legacy. Number 10 - Preventing loss of bone mass... of the week. The ‘Top 10 Research Results from Space Station... historical context to her top 10 selection by saying that the... increasing current launch capability of 10 tons to 25 tons with... March launch vehicle series with 10 different versions capable of launching...) said that through Tiangong-1, Shenzhou-8, -9 and -10 missions China has made significant... flown two missions Shenzhou-6 in 2005 and the Tianginong 1/Shenzhou-10 in June 2013, spoke about the different phases of the Shenzhou 10 mission and outlined its key objectives • To launch the Shenzhou...



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... cooperation and international collaboration  .......................................................  9   1.3 Background  .................................................................................................................................  10   1.3.1 Overview of the potential benefits of space exploration  ........................................................  10   1.3.2 Barriers to international cooperation in... the Space Economy, OECD Publishing.     10   failures, managing growth, and controlling... most national space programs face.10 International cooperation allows partners to.... 9 Keller, Collopy, and Compination (2014) 10 Peeters, Walter and Bernd Madauss... informal interviews with representatives from 10 of the Global Exploration Strategy59... Force Academy, Colorado. (Winter 2009): 10. 81 Johnson-Freese (2009) 82... (CASC). The Nuclear Threat Initiative. 10 August 2012. Web. Accessed 14... is a leading organization in China’s Shenzhou program.97 The Academy of... Manned Space Engineering Office. “Tiangong I / Shenzhou X Manned Spaceflight Mission.” Web. Accessed...                                                                                                                 112 Defense Group Inc., pg.10-11. Johnson-Freese (2009): 56... proposal in March 1986, the Shenzhou and Tiangong programs were eventually... included the development of a spaceship (Shenzhou or Project 921-1) and a multi... Space Engineering Office.133 The Shenzhou program’s mandate was to develop... ten Shenzhou spacecraft mission launches since November 1999, with the Shenzhou-5 mission... a person into space.135 Shenzhou-7 (September 2008) and Shenzhou-9 (June 2012) missions...-1.136 The most recent mission, Shenzhou-10, had a crew of three taikonauts... of the Shenzhou-10 mission marked the end of the Shenzhou program. The... Manned Space Engineering Office. “Tiangong I / Shenzhou X Manned Spaceflight Mission.” Web. Accessed... Manned Space Engineering Office. “Tiangong I / Shenzhou X Manned Spaceflight Mission.” Web. Accessed... in the duration of the Shenzhou program are not explicit and...): 107-115. 145 Dangen, Sun. “Shenzhou and Dreams of Space.” China.... First, although visual similarities between Shenzhou and the Russian Soyuz suggested... to the Shenzhou design. These specifications were needed to allow Shenzhou to... Encyclopedia Astronautica. “Shenzhou”. http://www.astronautix.com/craft/shenzhou.htm 169 Study....cnn.com/2007/TECH/space/10/16/china.space.ap/ index... Manned Space Engineering Office. “Tiangong I / Shenzhou X Manned Spaceflight Mission.” Web. Accessed... (2009): 73-88. Dangen, Sun. “Shenzhou and Dreams of Space.” China....cnn.com/2007/TECH/space/10/16/china. space.ap/index... Manned Space Engineering Office. “Tiangong I / Shenzhou X Manned Spaceflight Mission.” Web. Accessed... Manned Space Engineering Office. “Tiangong I / Shenzhou X Manned Spaceflight Mission.” Web. Accessed... Encyclopedia Astronautica. “Shenzhou.” http://www.astronautix.com/craft/shenzhou.htm Encyclopedia Astronautica....uk/mssl/aboutmssl/newsletter/volume-10/newsletter_1212.pdf     76   “Wolf: U.S. Should...: http://swfound.org/media/42018/10.%20swfcas%20space%20policies%20and%20laws...: Complete Tiangong Space Station with Shenzhou spacecraft. Source: China Daily. Available.../06/18/shenzhou-9docks-with-tiangong-1/     81   A-5 Image: China Shenzhou-9 and Tiangong...



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0.07/5
... the European Commission – July 2012 - 10 - COFSEP – Final report BRAZIL 1. Institutional... Human spaceflight 40 30 20 10 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005... to the acceleration of the Shenzhou program and is further expected... consisted in four unmanned spacecrafts (Shenzhou-1 to 4), which led to the... Chinese manned mission, Shenzhou-5, in 2003. A second manned mission, Shenzhou-6, was completed... on board during a 5-day flight. Shenzhou-7 mission in 2008 included three... laboratory module, Tiangong-1. An unmanned Shenzhou vehicle was launched in 2011... successfully with Tiangong-1. The next Shenzhou mission, Shenzhou-9, to be launched in... followed by a second manned mission, Shenzhou 10, which will be the last... Launched Shenzhou-1 CNSA Unmanned Spacecraft CAST Prime Contractor 2001 Launched Shenzhou-2 CNSA... CAST Prime Contractor 2002 Launched Shenzhou-3 CNSA Unmanned Spacecraft carrying a dummy... CAST Prime Contractor 2002 Launched Shenzhou-4 CNSA Unmanned Spacecraft carrying a dummy... CAST Prime Contractor 2003 Launched Shenzhou-5 CNSA First Manned spacecraft carrying... CAST Prime Contractor 2005 Launched Shenzhou-6 CNSA Manned mission with two... CAST Prime Contractor 2008 Launched Shenzhou-7 CNSA Manned mission with two... CAST Prime Contractor 2011 Launched Shenzhou-8 CNSA Unmanned mission to demonstrate...-1 CAST Prime Contractor 2012 Launched Shenzhou-9 CNSA First manned mission (3 astronauts... Prime Contractor 2012 In development Shenzhou-10 CNSA Manned mission with two... the development of the Chinese Shenzhou spacecraft, whose technology was transferred... the cooperation with China on Shenzhou, was sentenced to 11 years... experiment which was fitted on Shenzhou-8. This cooperation was considered as... of a German Experiment for the Shenzhou-8 spaceflight. Cooperation agreement covering science... Plan (LTP) which establishes on a 10 year time frame its strategic... scientific actors over the past 10-15 years seem to have... robotic mission. Over the past 10-15 years, TAS-I Turin site... experiment that was fitted on Shenzhou-8. This cooperation was considered as... of a German Experiment for the Shenzhou-8 spaceflight. Framework Framework agreement on... the spacecraft was lost after 10 months of operation, having nonetheless... 25 20 Human spaceflight 15 10 5 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005...,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 Human spaceflight 6,000... technologies to China (for the Shenzhou vehicle) and India (for the... the cooperation with China on Shenzhou, was sentenced to 11 years... Dollars in million 12,000 10,000 Robotic activities 8,000 6,000... 2001 to $9.7 billion in 2011 (10-Y CAGR of 1%), essentially due to...% Russia 0.14% expenditure USA 0.12% 0.10% 0.08% India 0.06% Japan 0.04...% Russia 20% Japan ESA 10% India 0% 0 5 10 15 20 25 Number of... countries to dedicate more than 0.10% of their GDP to civil...-$500 million 15 < $100 Million 10 5 0 USA ESA Japan China Russia...* (in US$ millions) 1997-2011 10,000 Three missions 5,000 Two... 7, <2016: ISS Cargo supply spacecrafts Shenzhou: Several manned missions to be... China for a scientific cooperation on Shenzhou-8, which was fitted with bio... and microgravity experiments onboard the Shenzhou program, which is launched on...



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0.07/5
...; space assets; or space operations.10 General Staff Department The General... can increase launch payloads by 10–15 percent and satellite life... centers rely on a network of 10– 20 telemetry and tracking stations...-profile space projects, including the Shenzhou series of manned spacecraft, the... plans. The Academy employs over 10,000 people.25 • The China... dollar invested estimated to yield $10 in gross domestic product growth... set the goal of capturing 10 percent of this market by... to 2013 but only achieved 10 percent in 2011 and 2012... mission in September 2008, China’s Shenzhou 7 spacecraft deployed the BX–1, a miniature... September 1, 2015, compared to about 10 in 2000 and 35 in...’’ are satellites with a mass between 10 and 100 kilograms. Kevin Pollpeter... reportedly provides positioning accuracies of 10 meters or better, depending on... from 2010 to 2014, only 10 fewer than the United States...–2005), China launched several unmanned Shenzhou spacecraft to develop technologies necessary... unmanned docking maneuvers between the Shenzhou spacecraft and the Tiangong-1 space... 10 Shenzhou missions and plans to conduct the 11th in 2016. The Shenzhou... Shenzhou-1 November 20, 1999 21 hours Test Shenzhou-2 January 10, 2001 7 days Test Shenzhou-3 March 25, 2002 8 days Test Shenzhou-4 December 30, 2002 7 days Test Shenzhou-5 October 15, 2003 21 hours Manned (1 crew) Shenzhou-6 October...) 2+ days Manned (3 crew); Extravehicular activity Shenzhou-7 September 25, 2008 Tiangong-1 September... space lab Shenzhou-8 November 1, 2011 16 days Unmanned docking Shenzhou-9 June 16, 2012 14 days Manned (3 crew) docking Shenzhou-10 June... 2049 Institute, April 26, 2012), 10; and U.S.-China Economic and Security..., Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 10; U.S.-China Economic and Security Review... Cooperation and Exchange.’’ Staff translation. 10. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review...,’’ IHS Jane’s Defense Weekly, February 10, 2015; National Aeronautics and Space...; and Richard Fisher, ‘‘Closer Look: Shenzhou-7’s Close Pass by the International... Mission,’’ NASA Spaceflight.com, December 10, 2014; Kevin Pollpeter, China Dream... Mission,’’ NASA Spaceflight.com, December 10, 2014; Jane’s Space Systems and...,’’ Project 2049 Institute, February 2011, 10; and SinoDefense, ‘‘FengHuo 1 (ChinaSat 22... of China 2014, June 2014, 10–11; Mark Stokes and Dean... be Established around 2022,’’ September 10, 2014; Irene Klotz, ‘‘China Unveils... Be Established around 2022,’’ September 10, 2014; Joan Johnson-Freese, ‘‘A Long... Review of Global Affairs, February 10, 2013. 180. China National Space...’ of the Moon,’’ CNN, September 10, 2015. 186. Quoted in Leonard... Morning Post (Hong Kong), November 10, 2014. 193. Kevin Pollpeter, China...



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0.21/5
... 19 16 23 16 China 7 8 5 6 10 EU 4 3 5 5 5 Japan 3 0 2 6 2 India 2 1 1 1 3 Source: NASA... the 1960s and 1970s, China’s Shenzhou effort is far more modest.... Phase I included the first five Shenzhou flights, culminating in China’s first..., 2003. Phase II began with Shenzhou 6, which flew two Chinese taikonauts8... starting on October 12, 2005. Shenzhou 7 was a three-day mission starting... with extra-vehicular activities. Shenzhou 8, 9, and 10 are scheduled for 2009-2010.... Shenzhou 9 will test docking procedures with the module delivered by Shenzhou 8, and Shenzhou 10... development of the station.9 The Shenzhou modules have been designed to... 7, 2007. CRS-4 returned to Earth.10 After this third phase, an...? Some speculate that the United 10 Launch dates for Chang-e 2 and...



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0.15/5
... a relatively small amount; an estimated 1/10 of NASA’s budget which translates... far only 5 manned missions with 10 taikonauts involved (2 taikonauts flew twice... Hall of the People only 10,000 people can hear it... Chinese engineers, it took China 10 years to become the 5th...), was ready in time, the Shenzhou capsule was behind schedule and... on the 20 November 1999, Shenzhou 1 lifted off from the Jiuquan... the last unmanned mission, the Shenzhou 4 flight, were equipped to support... flight of Yang Liwei with Shenzhou 5 on 15 October 2003 was... approach space. 6.1 Shenzhou China started its manned mission with Shenzhou 5 and a one-person-crew in 2003. Followed relatively quickly by Shenzhou....pdf Figure 2: Time line of Shenzhou and Tiangong missions. IAC-16...). All rights reserved. crew on Shenzhou 7 successfully conducted China’s first EVA... launching in 2011 the next Shenzhou mission, an automatic docking with... in orbit Tiangong 1 space module. Shenzhou 9 docked with a three-person crew... one year later, in 2013, Shenzhou 10 delivered three taikonauts to Tiangong... station based on Shenzhou technologies, consisting of an improved Shenzhou propulsion section...-named ‘Xiaofei’. ‘Xiaofei’ was a downscaled Shenzhou capsule flying on a lunar trajectory... this year, saw the Shijian 10 retrievable science satellite with international... Vladimir Putin’s Eurasian Trade Page 10 of 14 67th International Astronautical... with the European Space Agency.” [10] 10. How could the future look..., Vienna, 11 - 20 June 2014. [10] http://news.xinhuanet.com/english...