Спутник ДЗЗ. Cosmos 2422. [Редактировать]

«Око» (УС-КС) — спутниковая система обнаружения стартов межконтинентальных баллистических ракет с континентальной части США. Входит в состав космического эшелона системы предупреждения о ракетном нападении. Включает в себя спутники первого поколения УС-К на высокоэллиптических орбитах и УС-КС на геостационарной орбите. Спутники на геостационарной орбите обладают существенным преимуществом — они не изменяют свою позицию относительно Земли и могут обеспечить постоянную поддержку группировке спутников на высокоэллиптических орбитах. Головной разработчик космического эшелона системы предупреждения — ЦНИИ «Комета». Разработчик космических аппаратов — НПО Лавочкина. КА выводятся на геостационарную орбиту с помощью ракеты-носителя «Протон-К» и на высокоэллиптические орбиты при помощи ракеты-носителя «Молния-М».

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Россия
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военные
3Тип орбиты - Элиптическая
4Страна производитель - Россия
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2400

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град65.3
2Апогей, км38997.1
3Перигей, км1333.9
4Период, минут717.0
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км26536

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2006-030A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2006-07-21 at 04:20:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xCosmos 2422
3Ракета-носитель 1xМолния М

Найдено 136 документов по запросу «Cosmos 2422». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
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0.07/5
... join France’s Helios A and Italy’s Cosmos Skymed (2007) to provide France... Proton motor 7+ november 2006 russian Cosmos 2423 detonated 28 (short-lived... small launchers such as the Cosmos rocket. Emerging technologies such as... optical reconnaissance satellite, Cosmos 2420, was launched.120 Cosmos 2421, a naval reconnaissance... There were unconfirmed reports that Cosmos 2423, a military optical reconnaissance satellite... 21 July 2006 launch of Cosmos 2422 aboard a Molniya M rocket. It is... December aboard a Proton K rocket, designated Cosmos 2424, 2425, and 2426. The... 7/21/06 Molniya 8K78M Kosmos-2422 russia russia Early Warning Lavochkin.... It is believed that the Cosmos 2422 launched into HEO on 21... GEO* 25/03/1993 Kosmos-2422 Molniya 8K78M russia Early Warning... Strategic Nuclear Forces, “End of Cosmos 2423 Mission” (21 November 2006...). 123“Officials Deny that Russia’s Cosmos De-orbited over Breakdown” NOVOSTI... 124 Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces, “Cosmos 2422 Launch Seems to Upgrade the...



Дата загрузки: 2017-10-09
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0.06/5
... date Cosmos-2340 Cosmos-2345 Cosmos-2350 Cosmos-2351 Cosmos-2368 Cosmos-2379 Cosmos-2388 Cosmos-2393 Cosmos-2397 Cosmos-2422... on highly elliptical orbits— Cosmos-2388, Cosmos-2393, and Cosmos-2422. Figure A3 shows... shows potential coverage of the Cosmos-2379 satellite of the US... the geostationary early-warning satellite, Cosmos-2379. Deployed over the point... satellite deployed in this point. Cosmos-2379, however, is believed to... shows the approximate area that Cosmos-2379 can cover in this... the Russian Early-Warning System” Cosmos-2379 is incorrectly listed as...



Дата загрузки: 2017-11-08
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0.47/5
... 101.1 795 829 90.2° LEO Cosmos 2346 Russia 24953 23-09... 1436.1 35,779 35,794 0° Cosmos 2422 Russia 29260 21-07-2006... 93.5 398 490 48.2° LEO Cosmos 2427 Russia 31595 07-06... 94.3 471 499 98.2° LEO Cosmos 1867 Russia 18187 10-07...



Дата загрузки: 2016-10-31
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0.06/5
... 3 F-7 COSMOS 0334 DFH-1 COSMOS 0335 COSMOS 0336 COSMOS 0337 COSMOS 0338 COSMOS 0339 COSMOS 0340 COSMOS 0341 COSMOS 0342 COSMOS... COSMOS 0414 COSMOS 0415 COSMOS 0416 COSMOS 0417 COSMOS 0418 COSMOS 0420 COSMOS 0421 COSMOS 0422 COSMOS 0423 COSMOS 0424 COSMOS 0425 COSMOS... COSMOS 0500 COSMOS 0501 COSMOS 0502 COSMOS 0503 COSMOS 0504 COSMOS 0505 COSMOS 0506 COSMOS 0507 COSMOS 0508 COSMOS 0509 COSMOS 0510 COSMOS... COSMOS 0562 COSMOS 0563 COSMOS 0564 COSMOS 0565 COSMOS 0566 COSMOS 0567 COSMOS 0568 COSMOS 0569 COSMOS 0570 COSMOS 0571 COSMOS... COSMOS 0588 COSMOS 0589 COSMOS 0590 COSMOS 0591 COSMOS 0592 COSMOS 0593 COSMOS 0594 COSMOS 0595 COSMOS 0596 COSMOS 0597 COSMOS 0598 COSMOS 0599 COSMOS 0600 COSMOS... COSMOS 0732 COSMOS 0733 COSMOS 0734 COSMOS 0735 COSMOS 0736 COSMOS 0737 COSMOS 0738 COSMOS 0739 COSMOS 0740 COSMOS 0741 COSMOS... COSMOS 0871 COSMOS 0872 COSMOS 0873 COSMOS 0874 COSMOS 0875 COSMOS 0876 COSMOS 0877 COSMOS 0878 COSMOS 0879 COSMOS 0880 COSMOS 0881 COSMOS 0882 COSMOS 0883 COSMOS... F-3 COSMOS 0975 COSMOS 0976 COSMOS 0977 COSMOS 0978 COSMOS 0979 COSMOS 0980 COSMOS 0981 COSMOS 0982 COSMOS 0983 COSMOS 0984 COSMOS... 3-C COSMOS 1049 COSMOS 1050 COSMOS 1051 COSMOS 1052 COSMOS 1053 COSMOS 1054 COSMOS 1055 COSMOS 1056 COSMOS 1057 COSMOS 1058 COSMOS 1059 COSMOS... COSMOS 1190 COSMOS 1191 COSMOS 1192 COSMOS 1193 COSMOS 1194 COSMOS 1195 COSMOS 1196 COSMOS 1197 COSMOS 1198 COSMOS 1199 COSMOS... COSMOS 1248 COSMOS 1249 COSMOS 1250 COSMOS 1251 COSMOS 1252 COSMOS 1253 COSMOS 1254 COSMOS 1255 COSMOS 1256 COSMOS 1257 COSMOS... 2 COSMOS 1285 COSMOS 1286 FLTSATCOM 5 COSMOS 1287 COSMOS 1288 COSMOS 1289 COSMOS 1290 COSMOS 1291 COSMOS 1292 COSMOS 1293 COSMOS... 7 COSMOS 1351 COSMOS 1352 COSMOS 1353 COSMOS 1354 COSMOS 1355 COSMOS 1356 COSMOS 1357 COSMOS 1358 COSMOS 1359 COSMOS 1360 COSMOS 1361 COSMOS 1362 COSMOS 1363 COSMOS... 5 COSMOS 1376 COSMOS 1377 COSMOS 1378 COSMOS 1379 COSMOS 1380 COSMOS 1381 COSMOS 1382 COSMOS 1383 COSMOS 1384 COSMOS 1385 COSMOS... COSMOS 1426 COSMOS 1427 COSMOS 1428 COSMOS 1429 COSMOS 1430 COSMOS 1431 COSMOS 1432 COSMOS 1433 COSMOS 1434 COSMOS 1435 COSMOS 1436 COSMOS... COSMOS 1522 COSMOS 1523 COSMOS 1524 COSMOS 1525 COSMOS 1526 COSMOS 1527 COSMOS 1528 COSMOS 1529 COSMOS 1530 COSMOS 1531 COSMOS... COSMOS 1713 COSMOS 1714 COSMOS 1715 COSMOS 1716 COSMOS 1717 COSMOS 1718 COSMOS 1719 COSMOS 1720 COSMOS 1721 COSMOS 1722 COSMOS 1723 COSMOS 1724 COSMOS... COSMOS 1846 COSMOS 1847 COSMOS 1848 COSMOS 1849 COSMOS 1850 COSMOS 1851 COSMOS 1852 COSMOS 1853 COSMOS 1854 COSMOS 1855 COSMOS 1856 COSMOS 1857 COSMOS 1858 COSMOS 1859 COSMOS... COSMOS 1861 COSMOS 1862 COSMOS 1863 COSMOS 1864 COSMOS 1865 COSMOS 1866 COSMOS 1867 COSMOS 1868 COSMOS 1869 COSMOS 1870 COSMOS... COSMOS 2123 COSMOS 2124 COSMOS 2125 COSMOS 2126 COSMOS 2127 COSMOS 2128 COSMOS 2129 COSMOS 2130 COSMOS 2131 COSMOS 2132 COSMOS... PROGRESS M-57 COSMOS 2421 NRO-L-22 INSAT 4C GENESIS 1 COSMOS 2422 BELKA BAUMANETS...



Дата загрузки: 2016-10-31
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0.03/5
... Launch date Cosmos-2345 24894 08/14/97 Cosmos-2351 25327 Cosmos-2368....1 2394 37977 12/2002 HEO Cosmos-2388 27409 04/02/02....3 490 39842 11/2006 HEO Cosmos-2393 27613 12/24/02... HEO Cosmos-2422 29260 07/21/06 62.9 860 39000 Active HEO Cosmos-2430 32268 10/23/07 63.0 560 39200 Active HEO Cosmos-2350 25315 04/29/98 2.1 35758 35808 06/1998 GEO Cosmos-2379 26892 08/24/01 0.6 35770 35804 Active GEO, 12E Cosmos... satellites, Cosmos-2388 and Cosmos-2393, and one GEO satellite, Cosmos-2379. Since... and Cosmos-2430, joined the constellation, and two others—Cosmos2388 and Cosmos... satellite launches; the last was Cosmos-2397, launched in April 2003... Only one of these satellites— Cosmos-2379—is operational today. The... the Space Forces launched the Cosmos-2410 satellite, which was described....1 175 368 01/09/05 Cosmos-2420 29111 05/03/06....1 180 360 07/19/06 Cosmos-2427 31595 06/07/07....1 180 360 08/23/07 Cosmos-2359 25376 06/25/98....9 240 302 07/12/99 Cosmos-2370 26354 05/03/00....8 240 300 05/04/01 Cosmos-2349 25167 02/17/98....4 228 286 04/02/98 Cosmos-2373 26552 09/29/00... Cosmos-2344 24827 06/06/97 63.4 1509 2748 10/1997 Cosmos... Inclination (degrees) Cosmos-2348 25095 12/15/97 67.1 Cosmos-2358 25373 06/24/98 Cosmos-2365 25889 08/18/99 Cosmos-2377 26775 Cosmos-2387 27382 Cosmos... Kometa Orlets-1 Don Orlets-2 Yenisey Cosmos-2372 Arkon imaging data for... for launch. The new satellite, Cosmos-2344, was deployed in a relatively... get better spatial resolution. The Cosmos-2344 transmitted imaging information to...) Apogee (km) End of operation Cosmos-2347 25088 12/09/97.../06 Cosmos-2421 29247 06/25/06 65 409 430 Active Cosmos-2333 24297 09/04/96 71 848 852 Cosmos-2360 25406 07/28/98 71 848 852 Cosmos-2369 26069 02/03/00 71 848 854 Cosmos-2406 28352 06/10/04 71 850 890 Cosmos-2428... Comment Cosmos-2361 25590 12/24/98 82.9 969 1013 Cosmos-2366 25892 08/26/99 82.9 963 1013 Cosmos-2378 26818 06/08/01 82.9 963 1010 Cosmos-2389 27436 05/28/02 82.9 950 1017 Cosmos-2398 27818 06/04/03 82.9 950 1017 Cosmos-2407 28380 07/22/04 82.9 948 1004 Cosmos-2414 28523 01/20/05 82.9 917 960 Cosmos-2429 32052 09/11/07 83.0 970 1010 Cosmos-2374 26566 10/13/00 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 783 Cosmos-2375 26564 10/13/00 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 787 Cosmos-2376 26565 10/13/00 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 788 Cosmos-2380 26989 12/01/01 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 790 Cosmos-2381 26988 12/01/01 64.8 19119 19128 Cosmos-2382 26987 12/01/01 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 711 Cosmos-2394 27617 12/25/02 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 791 Cosmos-2395 27619 12/25/02 64.8 19119 19128 Cosmos-2396 27618 12/25/02 64.8 19119 19128 Cosmos-2402 28113 12/10/03 64.8 19137 19137 Cosmos-2403....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 795 Cosmos-2404 28112 12/10/03....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 701 Cosmos-2411 28509 12/26/04....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 712 Cosmos-2412 28510 12/26/04....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 797 Cosmos-2413 28508 12/26/04....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 796 Cosmos-2417 28917 12/25/05....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 798 Cosmos-2418 28916 12/25/05....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 713 Cosmos-2419 28915 12/25/05....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 714 Cosmos-2424 29672 12/25/06....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 715 Cosmos-2425 29670 12/25/06....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 716 Cosmos-2426 29671 12/25/06....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 717 Cosmos-2431 32277 10/26/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-718 Cosmos-2432 32276 10/26/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-719 Cosmos-2433 32275 10/26/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-720 Cosmos-24?? 32393 12/25/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-72? Cosmos-24?? 32394 12/25/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-72? Cosmos-24?? 32395 12/25/07...) Cosmos-2337 24725 02/14/97 Cosmos-2338 24726 02/14/97 Cosmos-2339 24727 Cosmos-2352... 1870 Cosmos-2353 25364 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2354 25365 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2355 25366 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2356 25367 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2357 25368 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2384 27055 12/28/01 82.5 1415 1447 Cosmos-2385 27056 12/28/01 82.5 1415 1447 Cosmos-2386 27057 12/28/01 82.5 1415 1447 Cosmos-2390 27464 07/08/02 82.5 1467 1507 Cosmos-2391 27465 07/08/02 82.5 1467 1507 Cosmos-2400 27868 08/19/03 82.5 1459 1502 Cosmos-2401 27869 08/19/03 82.5 1466 1501 Cosmos-2408 28419 09/23/04 82.5 1470 1517 Cosmos-2409 28420 09/23/04 82.5 1475 1517 Cosmos-2416.../04 1.2 35766 35804 Active 85E Cosmos-2434 32373 12/09/07... Strela-3 Molniya-1 Molniya-3 Raduga Geizer Cosmos-2371 14 RUSSIAN AND CHINESE...



Дата загрузки: 2016-11-14
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0.03/5
... Launch date Cosmos-2345 24894 08/14/97 Cosmos-2351 25327 Cosmos-2368....1 2394 37977 12/2002 HEO Cosmos-2388 27409 04/02/02....3 490 39842 11/2006 HEO Cosmos-2393 27613 12/24/02... HEO Cosmos-2422 29260 07/21/06 62.9 860 39000 Active HEO Cosmos-2430 32268 10/23/07 63.0 560 39200 Active HEO Cosmos-2350 25315 04/29/98 2.1 35758 35808 06/1998 GEO Cosmos-2379 26892 08/24/01 0.6 35770 35804 Active GEO, 12E Cosmos... satellites, Cosmos-2388 and Cosmos-2393, and one GEO satellite, Cosmos-2379. Since... and Cosmos-2430, joined the constellation, and two others—Cosmos2388 and Cosmos... satellite launches; the last was Cosmos-2397, launched in April 2003... Only one of these satellites— Cosmos-2379—is operational today. The... the Space Forces launched the Cosmos-2410 satellite, which was described....1 175 368 01/09/05 Cosmos-2420 29111 05/03/06....1 180 360 07/19/06 Cosmos-2427 31595 06/07/07....1 180 360 08/23/07 Cosmos-2359 25376 06/25/98....9 240 302 07/12/99 Cosmos-2370 26354 05/03/00....8 240 300 05/04/01 Cosmos-2349 25167 02/17/98....4 228 286 04/02/98 Cosmos-2373 26552 09/29/00... Cosmos-2344 24827 06/06/97 63.4 1509 2748 10/1997 Cosmos... Inclination (degrees) Cosmos-2348 25095 12/15/97 67.1 Cosmos-2358 25373 06/24/98 Cosmos-2365 25889 08/18/99 Cosmos-2377 26775 Cosmos-2387 27382 Cosmos... Kometa Orlets-1 Don Orlets-2 Yenisey Cosmos-2372 Arkon imaging data for... for launch. The new satellite, Cosmos-2344, was deployed in a relatively... get better spatial resolution. The Cosmos-2344 transmitted imaging information to...) Apogee (km) End of operation Cosmos-2347 25088 12/09/97.../06 Cosmos-2421 29247 06/25/06 65 409 430 Active Cosmos-2333 24297 09/04/96 71 848 852 Cosmos-2360 25406 07/28/98 71 848 852 Cosmos-2369 26069 02/03/00 71 848 854 Cosmos-2406 28352 06/10/04 71 850 890 Cosmos-2428... Comment Cosmos-2361 25590 12/24/98 82.9 969 1013 Cosmos-2366 25892 08/26/99 82.9 963 1013 Cosmos-2378 26818 06/08/01 82.9 963 1010 Cosmos-2389 27436 05/28/02 82.9 950 1017 Cosmos-2398 27818 06/04/03 82.9 950 1017 Cosmos-2407 28380 07/22/04 82.9 948 1004 Cosmos-2414 28523 01/20/05 82.9 917 960 Cosmos-2429 32052 09/11/07 83.0 970 1010 Cosmos-2374 26566 10/13/00 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 783 Cosmos-2375 26564 10/13/00 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 787 Cosmos-2376 26565 10/13/00 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 788 Cosmos-2380 26989 12/01/01 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 790 Cosmos-2381 26988 12/01/01 64.8 19119 19128 Cosmos-2382 26987 12/01/01 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 711 Cosmos-2394 27617 12/25/02 64.8 19119 19128 Glonass 791 Cosmos-2395 27619 12/25/02 64.8 19119 19128 Cosmos-2396 27618 12/25/02 64.8 19119 19128 Cosmos-2402 28113 12/10/03 64.8 19137 19137 Cosmos-2403....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 795 Cosmos-2404 28112 12/10/03....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 701 Cosmos-2411 28509 12/26/04....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 712 Cosmos-2412 28510 12/26/04....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 797 Cosmos-2413 28508 12/26/04....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 796 Cosmos-2417 28917 12/25/05....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 798 Cosmos-2418 28916 12/25/05....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 713 Cosmos-2419 28915 12/25/05....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 714 Cosmos-2424 29672 12/25/06....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 715 Cosmos-2425 29670 12/25/06....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 716 Cosmos-2426 29671 12/25/06....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass 717 Cosmos-2431 32277 10/26/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-718 Cosmos-2432 32276 10/26/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-719 Cosmos-2433 32275 10/26/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-720 Cosmos-24?? 32393 12/25/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-72? Cosmos-24?? 32394 12/25/07....8 19137 19137 Active Glonass-72? Cosmos-24?? 32395 12/25/07...) Cosmos-2337 24725 02/14/97 Cosmos-2338 24726 02/14/97 Cosmos-2339 24727 Cosmos-2352... 1870 Cosmos-2353 25364 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2354 25365 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2355 25366 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2356 25367 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2357 25368 06/16/98 82.6 1300 1870 Cosmos-2384 27055 12/28/01 82.5 1415 1447 Cosmos-2385 27056 12/28/01 82.5 1415 1447 Cosmos-2386 27057 12/28/01 82.5 1415 1447 Cosmos-2390 27464 07/08/02 82.5 1467 1507 Cosmos-2391 27465 07/08/02 82.5 1467 1507 Cosmos-2400 27868 08/19/03 82.5 1459 1502 Cosmos-2401 27869 08/19/03 82.5 1466 1501 Cosmos-2408 28419 09/23/04 82.5 1470 1517 Cosmos-2409 28420 09/23/04 82.5 1475 1517 Cosmos-2416.../04 1.2 35766 35804 Active 85E Cosmos-2434 32373 12/09/07... Strela-3 Molniya-1 Molniya-3 Raduga Geizer Cosmos-2371 14 RUSSIAN AND CHINESE...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
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0.16/5
... en la HEO (Cosmos-2422, lanzado en julio de 2006; Cosmos-2430, lanzado en octubre de 2007 y Cosmos-2446, lanzado... satélites geoestacionarios Cosmos-2379 (lanzado en agosto 2001) y Cosmos-2440 162...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-14
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0.18/5
‫ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪ST/SG/SER.E/501‬‬ ‫‪Distr.: General‬‬ ‫‪6 November 2006‬‬ ‫‪Arabic‬‬ ‫‪Original: Russian‬‬ ‫ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﹼﺮﺓ ﺷﻔﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺆﺭ‪‬ﺧﺔ ‪ ٢٩‬ﺃﻳﻠﻮﻝ‪/‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪ ٢٠٠٦‬ﻣﻮﺟ‪‬ﻬﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ )ﻓﻴﻴﻨﺎ(‬ ‫‪‬ـﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻌـﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤـﺔ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ )ﻓﻴﻴﻨﺎ( ﲢﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻣــﻢ ﺍﳌــﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺸـﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺑــﺄﻥ ﲢــﻴﻞ ﺇﻟــﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻘــﺎ ﻟــﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟــﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻣــﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗــﻴﺔ ﺗﺴــﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﺴــﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﳋـﺎﺭﺟﻲ )ﻣـﺮﻓﻖ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻤﻌـﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪) ٣٢٣٥‬ﺩ‪ ،((٢٩-‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻــﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺴــﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀــﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟــﱵ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻬــﺎ ﺍﻻﲢــﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳــﻲ ﰲ ﲤــﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟــﻴﻪ ‪ ،٢٠٠٦‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟــﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﺪﺛﺮﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻖ(‪.‬‬ ‫)‪221106 V.06-58134(A‬‬ ‫*‪*0658134‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﰲ ﲤﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻪ ‪*٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﰲ ﲤﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،٢٠٠٦‬ﹸﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬ ‫‪3210‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺝ‬ ‫)ﻛﻢ(‬ ‫‪) Cosmos-2422‬ﺃﹸﻃﻠﻖ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺻﺎﺭﻭﺥ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫‪ Molniya‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﺑﻠﻴﺴﺘﺴﻚ(‬ ‫‪ ٢١‬ﲤﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪٣٩ ٢١٠‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻀﻴﺾ‬ ‫)ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻞ‬ ‫)ﻛﻢ( )ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ( ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ(‬ ‫‪٥٣٨‬‬ ‫‪٦٢,٨‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫‪١١‬ﺱ ‪٤٥‬ﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻧﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﲤﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،٢٠٠٦‬ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﺍﳉﺴﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﲔ ﻧﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺑﻮﻧﲔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰲ ‪ ١٢‬ﲤـﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟـﻴﻪ ‪ ،٢٠٠٦‬ﺃﹸﻃﻠـﻖ ﺳـﺎﺗﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌـﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳـﺒـﻲ ‪ Genesis-1‬ﺇﱃ ﻣـﺪﺍﺭ ﺣـﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﻮﺍﺳـﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻭﺥ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ‪ RS-20‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻭﺧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ﰲ ‪ ٢٨‬ﲤـﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟـﻴﻪ ‪ ٢٠٠٦‬ﺃﹸﻃﻠـﻖ ﺳـﺎﺗﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸـﻌﺎﺭ ﻋـﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﻌـﺪ ‪ Kompsat-2‬ﺍﻟـﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳـﺔ ﻛﻮﺭﻳـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻭﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ‪ Rokot‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﺑﻠﻴﺴﺘﺴﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻧﺪﺛﺮﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،٢٠٠٦‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ٢٤/٠٠‬ﺑﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻮ ﰲ‬ ‫‪ ٣١‬ﲤﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻪ ‪:٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫)‪.2006-017A (Cosmos-2420‬‬ ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ ‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ ‫* ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ST/SG/SER.E/501‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻖ‬



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0.51/5
Russian Early-Warning System and the Risk of an Accidental Launch Pavel Podvig Center for International Security and Cooperation Stanford University podvig@stanford.edu www.russianforces.org Washington, DC October 5-6, 2006 Global Strike § Conventional and nuclear warheads on SLBMs § “Russians won’t see it” • Moving SSBN patrol areas to Indian Ocean? § “U.S. will notify Russia” § “Russia will make the right decision” What is the risk? § Cold War legacy • Strategic nuclear forces still on alert • Early warning and command and control that support launch on warning • Cold-war practices are intact § A deliberate attack? • An accident is more likely • Misinterpretation, miscommunication, a human error, etc. Early-warning satellites in 2006 § October 2006: • Satellites: 3 HEO + 1 GEO • Provide continuous coverage of U.S. ICBM bases and of (some of) the Northern Atlantic • Last launch – July 21, 2006 § Full constellation: • 1st generation (US-KS): 9 HEO + 1 GEO • 2nd generation (US-KMO): up to 7 GEO + some HEO Early-warning satellites Potential coverage of Cosmos-2379. The actual coverage is not known Early-warning radars § Radars • Old: Dnepr/Hen House • Newer: Daryal/Pechora, Don-2N/Pushkino, Volga • New: Voronezh-DM § Sites • Outside of Russia: Balkhash (Kazakhstan), Sevastopol, Mukachevo (Ukraine), Gabala (Azerbaijan), Baranovichi (Belarus) • In Russia: Olenegorsk, Pechora, Mishelevka, Pushkino, Lekhtusi, Armavir (planned) Early-warning radars The “early-warning gap” issue § “Russian leaders probably would not know of the attack until the warheads detonated” (Lieber and Press, “The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2006) http://www.nd.edu/~klieber/ Is there a gap? http://www.nd.edu/~klieber/ Not really The actual fan of the Daryal radar in Pechora http://www.nd.edu/~klieber/ Would the gap matter? Attack detection timelines Early-warning system upgrades § Radars • Old: Baranovichi (2002) • New: Lekhtusi and Armavir § Satellites • Cosmos-2422 launch in July 2006 • Plans to complete the second-generation system § Coverage of the Pacific and Indian oceans Launch notification § Existing arrangements • 1988 agreement. 24-hour notification • Part of START Treaty. Expires in 2009 • Not suitable for prompt strike § Joint Data Exchange Center (JDEC) • No progress since 1998 • May not work as planned § Pavel Podvig, “Reducing the risk of an accidental launch”, Science & Global Security, Vol. 14, 2-3, 2006 http://russianforces.org/podvig/eng/publications/20061000sgs.shtml § Updates on the status of the Russian strategic forces and early-warning system www.russianforces.org



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... Number 26398), employed on the Cosmos 2371 mission, was in an... 556 561 64.5 1 1 2006-030A COSMOS 2422 RUSSIA 568 39770 62.9 2 4 2006... CHINA 35744 35810 0.4 1 0 2006-039A COSMOS 2423 RUSSIA 210 327 64...