Ракета-носитель. Electron. [Редактировать]

РН Electron это двухступенчатая ракета которая разработана и запускается компанией Rocket Lab в интересах сегмента малых космических аппаратов. Данная ракета является первой которая использует электрические насосы в составе двигательной установки вместо ТНА. Первоначально Rocket Lab была Ново-Зеландской компанией, однако впоследствии перебазировалась в США. Таким образом, ее пуски мы относим к американским. 

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Все ракеты-носители

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12016-07-13. Компания Planet купила три пуска у Rocket Lab.
Новозеландская Rocket 12 июля анонсировала о том, что она выиграла три пусковых контракта от компании Planet, которая занимается разработкой космических аппаратов дистанционного зондирования Земли. Контракт покрывает три пуска космических аппаратов Dove, которые были построены компанией Planet на своем производстве в Сан-Франциско. Оба участника сделки не обнародовали информацию о стоимости запуска, однако ранее Rocket Lab сообщала о том, что она планирует осуществлять запуски своих ракет Электрон по цене около 4.9-5 млн. долл. Первый запуск спутника Planet должен состояться не ранее 2017 года. Кроме этого, Rocket Lab подтвердила существование контракта относительно 1-о гарантированного и двух опционных пусков от компании Moon Express.Тэги: Rocket LabMOON EXPRESS, INC.Electron
22016-08-22. Rocket Labs установила пусковую платформу.
Компания Rocket Labs отчиталась о завершении работ по строительству пусковой платформы на пусковой площадке в Новой Зеландии. Новая конструкция имеет массу около 50 тонн и по заявлению компании позволит производителю осуществлять запуск ракеты Электрон. К особенностям платформы возможно отнести то, что она позволяет производить вертикализацию ракеты. Кроме этого, компания в своем пресс-релизе не забыла отметить, что оборудование позволит ей осуществлять пуски ракет в достаточно высоком темпе и выводить аппараты на орбиты с наклонением от 38 градусов на НОО до ССО.Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
32016-09-27. В Новой Зеландии построили первый в мире частный космодром.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о завершении строительства космодрома в Новой Зеландии. В качестве средства выведения с нового стартового комплекса оператор планирует использовать ракету Электрон, которая должна будет работать на сегменте легких и сверх-легких полезных нагрузок. Данная особенность безусловно наложила свой отпечаток на сроки строительства стартовых сооружений и привела к тому, что проект был реализован в сжатые сроки.Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
42016-12-14. Компания Rocket Lab объявила о готовности РН Electron к летным испытаниям.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о начале проведения летных испытаний РН Electron. Согласно обнародованному плану первые испытания пройдут в начале 2017 года и будут предназначены для летной квалификации ракеты. Также компания подтвердила свое желание осуществлять запуски не только с территории Новой Зеландии, но и из США. Кроме этого, компания в очередной раз подтвердила, что стоимость пуска РН будет составлять около 4.9 млн. долл., а сама она способна выводить порядка 150 кг на 500 км орбиту.Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
52017-01-16. Компания Moon Express собрала необходимые средства.
Компания Moon Express объявила о том, что она сумела найти недостающие 20 млн. долл. и таким образом достигла требуемого на финансирование полета к Луне уровня в 45 млн. долл. В случае если у компании получится осуществить успешный запуск и приземление, а также 500-метровое перемещение КА по поверхности Луны, то она сможет рассчитывать на получение 20 млн. долл. приза от компании Google. В качестве средства выведения компания планирует использовать РН Электрон, а на космический аппарат (текущее название MX-1E) она планирует установить стороннее оборудование.Тэги: MOON EXPRESS, INC.Electron
62017-02-18. Rocket Lab доставила РН Электрон на стартовый комплекс в Новой Зеландии.
Частная компания Rocket Lab доставила РН Electron на стартовый комплекс в Новой Зеландии. В своем сообщении компания отметила, что данная поставка осуществляется в рамках подготовки к первому пуску, который должен будет состояться в течении ближайших нескольких месяцев. В связи с этим, в ближайшие несколько недель ракета пройдет полный цикл проверок с целью подтверждения летной пригодности. Стоимость пуска РН объявлена в размере 5.5 млн. долл. Выводимая РН масса ПН на НОО составляет 225 кг (150 кг на НОО с высотой 500 км). При этом, в целях поддержки производителя НАСА уже осуществило заказ одного пуска изделия в 2018 году. Тэги: ElectronRocket Lab
72017-03-21. Компания Rocket Lab объявила о получении дополнительных денежных средств.
Компания Rocket Lab объявил о привлечении дополнительных $75 млн. Данное финансирование предназначено для расширения масштабов производства РН. Общий объем привлеченных за четвертый раунд объемов финансирования составил $148 млн, а стоимость производителя, согласно собственным оценкам, составляет более 1 млрд. долл. При этом, в США компания производит двигатели ракеты и системы электроники, а сборка блоков происходит в Новой Зеландии. Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
82017-05-15. Rocket Lab установила дату первого пуска.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о том, что она собирается 21 мая (стартовое окно 10 дней) осуществить первый тестовый пуск РН Electron. В качестве полезной нагрузки компания в ходе пусковой компании планирует использовать макет имеющий общее наименование "It's a Test".Тэги: ElectronRocket LabIt is a Test
92017-05-18. Компания Spaceflight купила пуск РН Electron у Rocket Lab.
Компания Spaceflight, которая специализируется на запуске малых космических аппаратов, объявила о заключении контракта с Rocket Lab на предмет пуска сверхлегкой РН Electron. Как отметили в компании, новая ракета является идеальной для сегмента запуска легких КА ДЗЗ поскольку она позволят компании существенно расширить размер своей абонентской базы за счет отсутствия необходимости в сборе большого числа заказчиков для запуска тяжелых и средних РН (к настоящему времени компания организовала выведение порядка 100 космических аппаратов).
В Spaceflight также отметили, что изделие компании Rocket Lab позволит выводить около 225 кг на эллиптические орбиты и до 150 кг на 500 км. солнечно-синхронную орбиту. Тэги: ElectronRocket Lab
102017-07-13. Moon Express обнародовала данные о разработке своего лунного посадочного комплекса.
Американская Moon Express объявила о том, что она к концу года планирует осуществить запуск своего аппарата (миссия будет носить наименование MX-1E) и крайне рассчитывает на выигрыш в конкурсе Google Lunar X Prize. Запускаемый компанией аппарат будет иметь около массу ПН около 30 кг, что должно будет потенциально позволить разместить на нем достаточное количество приборов. В качестве топлива посадочный модуль будет использовать уже давно эксплуатируемые керосин и перекись водорода, что должно будет в перспективе позволить разработчику значительно повысить надежность функционирования системы. В компании также подтвердили, что находятся на этапе создания и тестирования компонентов спутника, а в качестве средства выведения планируют использовать возможности РН Электрон. В компании также подтвердили запуск в 2019 году своего второго посадочного комплекса, что должно будет позволить компании заняться изучением возможности организации пилотируемого полета на южный полюс Луны. Помимо этого в компании обнародовали планы по созданию посадочных комплексов MX-2/5/9, который будут конструктивно состоять из двух, пяти и девяти модулей MX-1E.Тэги: MOON EXPRESS, INC.Electron
112017-08-07. Компания Rocket Lab обнародовала данные о прошедшем тесте РН Электрон.
Компания Rocket Lab пришла к выводу о том, что ее РН Электрон не достигла космоса в ходе первого тестового полета из-за ошибок в программном обеспечении наземного комплекса управления. При этом, в компании заверили, что ошибка является легко устраняемой, а следовательно компания намерена начать коммерческие пуски в конце 2017 года. согласно сообщению компании в ходе пуска в 25 мая ракета:
1. Достигла высоты полета около 224 км.
2. Прервала пуск из-за ошибок в наземной системе приема и обработки телеметрии.Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
122017-09-27. Rocket Lab обнародовала данные о своем втором тестовом пуске РН Электрон.
Оператор пусковых услуг Rocket Lab объявил о том, что в ходе проведения второго тестового пуска РН он будет использовать в качестве полезной нагрузки космические аппараты Planet и Spire. Запуск будет осуществлен с территории Новой Зеландии, а в качестве аппаратов будут использованы два КА ДЗЗ Dove и два КА Lemur-2 (предназначены для слежения за погодой и кораблями). Тэги: Rocket LabElectronPlanet LabsSpire PR

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг12550
2Диаметр, метра1.2
3Первая ступень 1x1-ая ступень Electron
4Вторая ступень 1x2-ая ступень Electron
5Масса ПН (ССО), кг150
6Высота, метра17
7Обтекатель
8Длина, метра2.5
9Масса, кг50
10Диаметр, метра1.2
11Топливная паракислород-керосин

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Страна США
2Стоимость (пуска), млн. долл.4.9
3Стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.100

Перечень запусков ракетаносителя

#Наименование Дата пуска Ракета-носитель Космодром АппаратыТип
12017-F0022017-05-25ElectronMahia PeninsulaНовая ЗеландияНовая Зеландия1xIt is a Test
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Надежность ракета-носителя



Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Electron». [Перейти к поиску]


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0.07/5
... a complete characterization of the THGEM electron multipliers has been performed, together... Measurements using Simultaneous X-ray and Electron Spectroscopy. C. E. Cox1, W. Hennig1, A. C. Huber2, W. K. Warburton1... 1.2 GeV electron beams at SPring-8, we determined velocity (β) of the electron beams... secondary electron emission and charge up of the quartz target. An electron suppressor could avoid the secondary electron escaping. Besides.... (15:15) N27-6, High-Energy Electron-Beam Tomography J. Bendahan1, D. Strellis1, D. Angal... electron energies at a frequency of up to 500 Hz. A single-energy electron beam is transported if Z information is not required. The electron... electron trajectory. The EBT station contains a pulsed magnet to deflect the electron.... Typical enhancements of EGS5 are, (1) Electron transport mechanics utilizing a dual random..., (4) Electron impact ionization, (5) Spin relativistic effect in multiple scattering of electron by... verification of EGS5 code regarding electron back scattering [2], Incorporation of Landau... 8 Arrayed Sensors for X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility SACLA S. Ono1, T. Kameshima2... the CALET collaboration CALET (CALorimeteric Electron Telescope) is a Japanese led international... of the electron synchrotron at the Research Center for Electron and Photon... the Versatile Electron Linear Accelerator, a picosecond pulse width 6 MeV electron linear accelerator... Free Electron Laser Facility GmbH, Hamburg, Germany The European X-ray Free Electron... developed a novel simulation code for 3-D electron-hole transport and signal formation... characterization comprises crystallographic, electric, basic electron and hole transport, spectral and..., high linear attenuation coefficient, satisfactory electron mobility and lifetime and the... single polarity charge sensing technique. Electron trapping is compensated by adjusting...) microscopy, lowtemperature photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and currentvoltage measurements will... polished surfaces. Experimental results on electron mobility-lifetime products, surface and... Noise by the Control of Electron-Phonon Interactions T. Kang1, I. Kwon1, M. D. Hammig2... Resistivity Silicon for X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Experiments S. Ono1, T. Hatsui1,2, M. Omodani2... resolution detector in coincidence. The electron energy deposited within the scintillator... inaccurate proportionality measurement at low electron energies. More recent work has... produced by an electron varies with the velocity of electron relative to... electron. Therefore, the intensity of Cerenkov radiation is directly proportional to electron... based on increasing proportionality of electron response. Neutron response optimization is... Investigated using Extreme Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser K. Yamanoi1, Y. Shinzato1, T. Shimizu1, N. Sarukura1..., Yamagata University, Yamagata, Yamagata, Japan 3 Electron Tube, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K, Iwata, Shizuoka... fields(~1tesla). However, conventional vacuum electron tube type photo-multipliers (vacuum...-Deflector Cavity for Ultra-Short Electron Bunch Measurement Y. Nishimura1, T. Takahashi1, K. Sakaue1... controlled electron beam. In order to measure the ultra-short electron bunch... order to reduce electron beam size and increase electron capture coefficient, a solenoid... Driving Method for S-Band Interlaced Electron LINAC H. D. Park, B.-N. Lee, K. B. Song, S. S. Cha... electron LINAC has been developed for the cargo inspection systems. The Electron... fields such in biological electron microscopy for electron staining of sample, quantitative... spectrum corresponding to particular Compton electron energies. The energies at those... investigated a method using Compton scattered electron energies that extends beyond the... Single Diamond Detector for 8GeV Electron Beam T. Shimaoka1, R. Satake1, J. H. Kaneko1, H. Aoyagi2... undulators; it was expected that electron irradiation resulted demagnetization. Diamond detector... of electron drift variations can be only performed relying on electron injectors... of electron injectors based on a MOS structure to exploit the electron accumulation..., M. Wing2, C. Youngman1 1 2 European X-ray Free Electron Laser Facility GmbH, Hamburg, Germany..., The Performance Evaluation of the Electron Tracking Compton Camera S. Sonoda1, H. Kubo1... Compton images (mainly dependent on electron density). Comparisons with conventional transmission... radiation for obtaining information about electron density of materials. Specifically for... tissue-specific attenuation coefficients and electron density distributions were determined. The... resolutions of the radiographic imaging. Electron density cylinder blocks with diameter... code EPOTRAN (an acronym for Electron and POsitron TRANsport) [2]. Range distributions... lowcost, scalable, nanoimprinting technique. Using electron-beam lithography, we have fabricated... Devices and Improved Timing in Electron Track Compton Imagers R. T. Pavlovsky1, P. J. Barton2... scattering angle ambiguity. The Compton electron track trajectories obtainable from scientific...



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... of charged dust associated electron irregularities during electron temperature enhancement associated with... the electron irregularities during the heating process which modifies the background electron... is evident. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time evolution of electron, ion, and dust charge irregularities... is evident. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time evolution of electron, ion, and dust charge irregularities... heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . The time evolution of electron irregularities during radio wave heating... after radio wave heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The electron diffusion to dust charging time... λ/λD =512. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The time evolution of electron irregularities during radio wave heating... figure. . . . . . . . . . . . . The time evolution of electron irregularities during radio wave heating... 10nm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The time evolution of electron irregularities during radio wave heating... evolution of electron irregularities during radio wave heating with varying electron irregularity... shown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The time evolution of electron irregularities during radio wave heating... case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The time evolution of electron irregularities during radio wave heating...) for varying electron irregularity scale size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time evolution of electron irregularities in... wave heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spatial presentation of electron (δρe /qe n0 ), ion (δρi /qi n0... shown in Figure 4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of electron irregularity behavior subsequent to radio... of ∆δn electron irregularity amplitude difference from the equilibrium before heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron and.... The electron irregularities believed to produce PMSE result from the electron charging... density leaves electron density ’fingerprints’ in the form of the electron irregularities... the artificial electron heating is turned off, the increase in electron gradients... the electron density profile, which may be related to steep electron density... increased electron temperature will lead to a rapid change of the electron density structure within a dust cloud. The electron density profile will be flattened out and the electron density... the artificial electron heating is turned off, the increase in electron gradients... through electron temperature variations during heating [Banks and Kockarts, 1973]. The electron... is the electron plasma frequency, n is the exponent of the electron power... regions of electron density reduction. This ’anticorrelation’ in the electron and ion... reasonable agreement with the electron flux to electron density gradient ratio, −ne... electron charging by the ratio 1 as can be seen from of electron... a rapid electron temperature increase. The temperature increase reduces the electron density irregularities... electron irregularities. This will result in an initial enhancement of the electron irregularities before diffusion effects act to reduce the electron density... affect the electron irregularity temporal evolution. Increasing the degree of electron temperature... final electron temperature ratio Te /Te0 = 10. Recall that the initial electron... the electron density at PMSE layer ne = 1010 1/m3 and electron temperature... evolution of electron irregularities during radio wave heating with varying electron irregularity... the electron temperature. The electron temperature is increased by a factor of 5. The electron... the background electron density. The associated rapid charging and low electron densities... rate of the electron density due to the electron dust charging is... the electron irregularities in equation (4.5), there will be a rapid reduction in electron... rapid that the electron irregularities are prohibited from growing. ELECTRON IRREGULARITIES DURING... electron irregularity amplitude which also shows some enhancement due to the electron... electron charging. After the radio wave heating at t = 126 seconds, the electron...,i is the electron (ion) Debye length. Therefore the electron irregularities are also... 2.2. Initially at t = 0 the electron currents represent the electron flux to the initially... off, the electron temperature rapidly decreases and the electron current decreases sharply... dominates the electron current during turn-off. Eventually the electron current increases and the original equilibrium between the electron and... electron to ion mass ratio used in this study. Since the electron... of the electron density due to the dust charging from electron flux... may be an electron bite-out, as the increased electron temperature and... are electron and ion currents collected by the dust grains. The electron... the electron and ion thermal velocity, Te,i are the electron and ion...



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..., and characterized using accelerated electron beams in a scanning electron microscope to yield... by the electron dominated saturation current. The magnitudes of electron and hole... dipole-dipole electron interaction. [309] Density tuning of one-dimensional electron gas in a T-shaped quantum wire. Variable-density one-dimensional electron... transmission electron microscope. Au8Al3 intermetallic compounds were identified by convergent beam electron... alignment. Infrared (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) inspections repeatedly confirmed... a microwave plasma electron source providing a high density electron beam for electron impact ionization... Interaction. Electron acceptor molecules form charge transfer (CT) complexes with electron donors... Electron Electrochemistry and Electrochemiluminecscence Studies. The basic principles of cathodic hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) and hot electron (HE) injection... Proximity Electron Source with Apertured Electron Window for Nanolithography in Atmosphere. A miniature electron source with small electron windows for use in atmospheric environment has been developed. Electron... pressure via submicron electron window. The transmittance via the electron window and... scanning electron microscopeenergy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and scanning transmission electron... the hydrophilic nailheads in environmentscanning electron microscope. Fluorescent test shows that... tunnel emission from deep ( 0.5 eV) electron Сборник рефератов публикаций электронной библиотеки... to produce a 2 kA electron beam to drive a Free Electron Maser and produce.... Ultrafast cooperative recombination from dense electron-hole plasmas in magnetically formed... electron mobility in arbitrarily oriented FinFETs. We simulated the behavior of electron... characterized by capacitance frequency spectroscopy. Electron capture into insulator/silicon interface.../InGaAs metal-oxidesemiconductor metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MOS-MHEMT) with... Stability Performance of Metamorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors (MHEMTs). The thermal... between dialkylamino or methoxy electron donors and dicyanomethylidene electron acceptor. We investigated... specific coupled electron waveguide application. Solid-state based coupled electron waveguide (CEW... a compact cherenkov free-electron laser. A compact free-electron laser operating in the... test, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses. Seebeck coefficient (thermoelectric... ionization coefficient and electron temperature, the non-local electron substrate and gate..., and investigated by transmittance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible... diffraction patterns, photoluminescence, and scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate...’s. / Chiang T.K., Chiang T.H. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits... G.E., Shubin I., Chang W.S.C. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits... A.I., Ashraf M.K., Haque A. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and SolidState Circuits (EDSSC... A.I., Ashraf M.K., Khosru Q.D.M. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits... Y.C., Shieh S.H., Tung C.K. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and SolidState Circuits (EDSSC... Probe Parallel Nanowriting System with Electron Beam Resist. / Matsuzuka N., Tanaka B., Nagamura... on Silicon for Aqueous Hot Electron Electrochemistry and Electrochemiluminecscence Studies. / Niskanen... Membrane Windows Applied for a Miniature Electron Beam Radiation System. / Yamaguchi M., Yamada... Cho. Micro Proximity Electron Source with Apertured Electron Window for Nanolithography in... C.G. High Power Pulsed Supply for Electron Beam Generation. / Whyte C.G., Rowlands D.H., Phelps... of a Detector Using the Hot Electron Effect. / Bechasnov A.M., Goikhman M.B., Golovkin I.S., Kovalev...). - 2007. - - реферат 1074. Gilles J.P. Scanning Electron Microscopy for Vacuum Quality Factor... S., Maesaka A., Yamada N., Narisawa H. // IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM 2007). - 2007.... / Hashemi A., Ghafourifard H. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits... M.N., Khosru Q.D.M., Khan M.R. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits..., Thillaigovindan J., Radhakrishnan R. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits... Stability Performance of Metamorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors (MHEMTs). / Chen L.Y., Chu... Z.D., Lin Z.M., Lai H.C. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and SolidState Circuits (EDSSC... W., Grabiec P.B., Jaroszewicz B. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits... challenges in qubit specific coupled electron waveguide application. / Ramamoorthy A. // International Workshop... M.R. Development of a compact cherenkov free-electron laser. / Asakawa M.R., Miyabe N., Ikeda A., Tsunawaki... M., Kaatuzian H., Hakimi A. // IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and SolidState Circuits (EDSSC...



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... together . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.4 States that share the electron . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.5 Comparative energies of the states... density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 States that share the electron . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.5 Variational approximation of the ground... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 The electron being anti-symmetrically shared. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 The electron being symmetrically... energy spectrum of the free electron gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupied wave number states... of states for the free electron gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy states, top, and... artificial atom. . . . . . . . . . . . Sketch of free electron and banded energy spectra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross... and electron spins; up and down. . . . . . . . . . . . . Non entangled positron and electron spins.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repeated experiments on the same electron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix 185 186 190 191... in figure 2.5. A particle like an electron Figure 2.5: Quantum mechanics picture of... could imagine that the electron is a valence electron in a very tiny bar... electron encircling that nucleus. The nucleus, being much heavier than the electron... the electron needs concern us. The energy levels of the electron determine... find the Hamiltonian of the electron. The electron experiences an electrostatic Coulomb... the electron from the ground state to the state of a free electron. If the electron is excited from the... zero probability of finding the electron. Figure 3.4: Eigenfunction ψ200 . The state... (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 0); the expectation position of the electron is in nucleus. In fact... to the potential energy, the electron experiencing attraction to both protons... /4π 0 d to the Hamiltonian of the electron. And adding a constant to a Hamiltonian... electron is circling the left proton. But the case that the electron... share the electron Since the wave function ψL that describes the electron as... plane, making Figure 3.10: The electron being anti-symmetrically shared. their...: The electron being symmetrically shared. A state in which the electron is shared is truly a case of the electron being... the electron, each proton would be given its own half an electron... electron.”. In such states there is equal probability of finding the electron around either proton. Even if the protons share the electron... the protons must share the electron symmetrically than the physical arguments... electron 1 is around the left proton in its ground state and electron... electron 1 is in the ground state around the left proton and electron... probability of finding electron 1 at position r1 and electron 2 at r2 is... probability of finding electron 1 at r, regardless of where electron 2 is, and the... )ψR (r2 ) with electron 1 around the left proton and electron 2 around the right... describes that electron 1 is around the left proton and electron 2 around the... electron 1 and the second to electron 2. In this convention, the state where electron 1 is around the right proton and electron 2 around the... possible state for electron 1 with every possible state for electron 2 would suggest... “symmetric” with respect to interchanging electron 1 with electron 2: such an interchange does... “antisymmetric” with respect to interchanging electron 1 with electron 2: it changes the sign... that chemical bonds involving a single electron are relatively rare, while bonds... molecule, ψ1 = ψL ψR had electron 1 around the left proton and electron 2 around the right.... A position for the electron does not exist. The electron is not on... two different possibilities: (1) electron positive and positron negative, (2) electron negative and positron... the electron, since the positron must measure + in a direction when the electron... inner product of two arbitrary electron wave functions Ψ1 (r, Sz , t) and Ψ2 (r, Sz... momentum of the first electron 1 ¯ of the second electron to produce zero... spin of electron 1 and second arrows the one of electron 2, and a and... to exchange of this electron 3 in space with electron 1 on the hydrogen... electron 3 in space also in part on our hydrogen molecule, and electron... every electron in the universe, not just two of them. Every electron... same solutions. In particular, for electron 1, a complete set of solutions for... satisfy the antisymmetrization requirements for electron exchange, as discussed in chapter... hydrogen nucleus is seen. When electron wave functions overlap significantly as... are willing to sacrifice one electron. Similarly, the elements following sodium... only one electron, leaving a vacant position for another 1s electron. As discussed... lone 2pz electron of oxygen is paired with the 1s electron of... idealized model called the “free electron gas.” 5.3.1 The Hamiltonian eigenvalue problem... Hamiltonian eigenvalue problem for each electron is − ∂2 ∂2 h ¯2 ∂2 + + ψ = Eψ 2me ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 (5.8) It will...



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... electrochemical method. Field emission scanning electron microscope images indicate diameters of... on electron Y-branch switch. A compact memory element, based on an electron Y-branch... for electron-injection layers as well as Ca, to improve the electron..., photoluminescence and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. These analyses indicate that... single-electron operation of a 1 bit adder circuit using GaAs single-electron tunneling... alternately deposited. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the... spatial evolution of the electron temperature (T e) and electron density (N e) in the plasma... frequency single-electron transistor. By configuring a radio frequency single-electron transistor as... morphological evolution via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy hints that... mobile-electron spin qubits. Recent studies have shown that linear electron optics... SCL bipolar electron flow is greatly enhanced due to the electron tunneling... scalable emission properties. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscope investigations reveal that...-plasmon mode. The electron concentration and mobility of electron obtained from line... spectroscopy (HRXPS) and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The depth profile... measurements and cross-sectional transmission-electron-microscopy images from devices fabricated... added benefit of higher electron energy and greater electron density, thus enabling... electron and hole sublevels in modulation-doped InAs / GaAs quantum dots. Electron... have been examined by electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the... experiment, the reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern always showed a (2×4) reconstruction... diffraction, x-ray standing wave, transmission electron microscopy, spreading resistance profile, and... measurements were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy investigations. Therefore, making use... evident. Under forward bias conditions (electron accumulation), samples exhibiting high luminescence... its edge roughness on electron beam exposure dose. Electron beam lithography simulation... of the incident electron energy, resist thickness, and electron doses. The energy... characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, high... sensitivity and high resolution (e, 2e) electron momentum spectrometer with simultaneous detection... for further electron momentum spectroscopy studying electronic structure and electron correlation in... transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron... and characterized them by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), highresolution x-ray diffraction... nanoindentation and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. As-grown threading dislocations... nanocrystalline porous silicon layer. The electron transport mechanism in nanocrystalline porous... free electron density decrease with increasing hydrogen content. The formation of electron... sensitivity of these strongly correlated electron materials. [1726] Сборник рефератов публикаций.../AlGaAs-based electron Y-branch switches. The voltage-voltage characteristic of electron Y-branch... local interconnects. / Naeemi A., Meindl J.D. // IEEE Electron Device Letters. - 2005. - Vol. 26... inelastic electron reflection in multipactor discharges. / Seviour R. // IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices... structure. / Yanagidaira K., Saitoh M., Hiramoto T. // IEEE Electron Device Letters. - 2005. - Vol. 26... D. Static memory element based on electron Y-branch switch. / Hartmann D., Reitzenstein S., Worschech... S.V., Bratman V.L., Denisov G.G. // IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. - 2005. - Vol. 52, No... J.E., Booske J.H., Wohlbier J.G. // IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. - 2005. - Vol. 52, No... single-electron transport in nanostructured quantum dots. / Babiker S. // IEEE Transactions on Electron... V., Ungersboeck S.E., Selberherr S. // IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. - 2005. - Vol. 52, No... modeling of phonon cooling by electron-tunneling refrigerators. / Miller N.A., Clark A.M., Williams... with the radio frequency single-electron transistor. / Swenson L.J., Schmidt D.R., Aldridge J.S., Wood... A.I. Tunable entanglement generation for mobile-electron spin qubits. / Signal A.I., Zulicke U. // Applied... B.P. Growth of InAsSb-channel high electron mobility transistor structures. / Tinkham B.P., Bennett...-fluidics by solvent deformation of electron beam resist. / Pearson J.L., Cumming D.R.S. // Journal... diamondlike carbon membrane masks for electron projection lithography. / Amemiya Isao, Yamashita... in a partially gated two-dimensional electron layer. / Popov V.V., Polischuk O.V., Shur M.S. // Journal... D., Mantegazza D., Lacaita A.L., Pirovano A., Pellizzer F. // IEEE Electron Device Letters. - 2005. - Vol. 26... J., Guo X., Gao L., Sugavanam A., Lin J.J., O K.K. // IEEE Electron Device Letters. - 2005. - Vol. 26... M., Bourzgui N.E., Danneville F., Monroy A., Dambrine G. // IEEE Electron Device Letters. - 2005. - Vol. 26...



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... electrons are distributed entities. An electron somehow retains its individual identity... a single frequency. Once absorbed, the electron spreads over all available states... Operator Properties . . . . . . . . . . . Orthogonality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harmonic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron Angular Momentum, Central Force Fields... Rules for One Electron Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.16 Electron Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.17 Many-Electron Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18... electron adapts instantaneously to changes in the other, similar intra-electron events... point electron creates an expansive radiation reaction pressure on the electron. That... electron is a satisfactory operational model for our purposes. The extended electron is... empty eigenstate captures an electron. As a point-electron approaches a trapping potential it... molecules.” Whatever structure a confined electron might have a theorem of classical.... An ideal electron embodiment for our purpose is a nonlocal electron, with its... the electron is composed are necessarily minute compared with the total electron... electrostatic forces are involved. An electron’s physical extent has important repercussions... radius of an electron; it is the radius an electron would have... the radiating system is a point electron oscillating between points at z = ±a; it... electron speeds much less than c and it does not account for electron spin; it is necessary to add electron spin separately... n= Ze2 4πε Ze2 m m = 2|W | 2πεα 2 (4.10.4) If the electron energy is negative, substituting ρ back... radius of the electron state becomes infinite: the electron is distributed... the expected relationship between an electron’s magnetic and mechanical moments, Eq... normalized. 4.17. Many-Electron Problems To examine a multi-electron atom note that..., all energies, including both electron-nucleus and electron-electron interactions, are symmetrical with... possible multi-electron system has two electrons, say electron “a” and electron “b”. Let Pab... (r , r )dV |r − r | (4.17.10) If the electron charge density is a continuous function... a physically acceptable result with either electron symmetry. As expected from Eq..., on an appropriate dimensional scale, electron charge distributions are granular. 214... electron over available eigenstates, see Eq. (4.7.5) for example. With the extended electron model the inability to predict a particular scattering angle for a particular electron... no information about detailed intra-electron charge and current densities. Without... a classical radiation field and a quantized electron. Experimentally determined characteristics of photocurrents..., the maximum kinetic energy per electron is: W = (ω − ω0 ) (5.5.4) Einstein analyzed the photocurrent... the onset of electron emission and the rate of electron ejection is... the power-frequency relationships accompanying electron transitions are unique to nonlinear...’s equation applies during periods of electron equilibrium and near-equilibrium, but... apply, what does describe a transitioning electron? We show a uniquely arrayed and... electrons does not permit extensive electron compression but does permit extension... the intra-eigenstate electron ensemble that constitutes a nonlocal electron. Whatever the model... assure that the electron structure continuously evolves. Let a single electron be trapped... ˜ ηH (6.13.6) Spontaneous emission: A regeneratively driven electron is configured as an... upon the electron models are (1) that an energy absorbing, nonlocal electron could... energy and stability constraints, each electron may be statistically distributed over... a distance equal to the Lorentz electron radius, the necessary circumferential speed...-relativistic electron speeds and the Dirac equations at all speeds; electron spin... than Lorentz’s estimated Epilogue 309 electron size, point electrons must accelerate... to explain electron stability by ascribing physical significance to electron waves... a point electron and preferred a mass density created by standing electron waves. He... a detailed characterization of an eigenstate electron is unknown, surely understanding eigenstate... electrons, or is it a fundamental electron characteristic the demonstration of which.... For example, interactions between the electron and orbital magnetic moments result... as a source. A distributed electron, for example an electron composed of strings, is... modes that originate within the electron ensemble. Since the regenerative extensive... equilibrium at temperature T contain a single electron and three non-degenerate energy... during electromagnetic energy exchanges: A single electron exists in the presence of..., continued eigenstate evolution supplies the electron picostructure that produces the Bessel..., including transients, emitted by an electron transitioning between different pairs... single frequency are squelched. An electron simultaneously and statistically occupies the... nonlinear systems, 232, 311 nonlocal electron, 310 nonradiating motion, 172 optical...



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... . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Recall : the Double Potential Well . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Electron on an Infinite and... Bands and Bloch Functions . . . . . . . . . 8.3 The Electron States in a Crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Wave Packet... still extremely small at the electron-volt scale ! The spacing between... will understand why this free electron model indeed properly describes the... the Avogadro number. Since one electron per copper atom participates in..., the total energy of an electron is 2 2 ε± = k ∓ µB B 2m (7.15) 160 Chapter... lead to a questioning of the electron conduction model, as proposed by... number of effective electrons. The electron’s specific heat in metals is... that of the free electron. Now a conduction electron is submitted to interactions.... In order to extract an electron at zero temperature, one illuminates... here the state of a free electron with zero kinetic energy, i.e., with... equal to V . To extract an electron at zero temperature, a photon must... the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The electron current toward the solid is... (§ 8.1). We will see that the electron eigenstates are regrouped into energy... contains for each particle, either electron or nucleus, its kinetic energy... parately from the electron motions, so that the electron hamiltonian H ˆ will then... the ˆ into one-electron terms, this is the independent-electron aphamiltonian H proximation... the attractions and repulsions on electron i and is globally attractive. The... consist in solving the one-electron hamiltonian h introduce an additional simpli... Potential Well First consider an electron on an isolated atom, located.... 8.2). The hamiltonian, still for a single electron now sharing its presence between... the H+ 2 ion (two protons, one electron). One follows the standard method... model, the hamiltonian describing a single electron in the crystal is given... k 2 + . . . which looks like the free electron dispersion relation, if an effective... taught at Ecole Polytechnique. 8.3 8.3.1 The Electron States in a Crystal Wave Packet... of E and interact with the electron. Experimentally one notices in a macroscopic... the integral ε D(ε )dε εmin (8.32) The Electron States in a Crystal 187 ε(k) ε +2A... obtained D(ε) = 2 3 (2m)3/2 ε, m being the free electron mass. 2π Here again one will... an electron in a box, under the condition that the free electron mass... n is the electron concentration in the conduction band, e the electron charge, τ the... T , the dominating mechanism being the electron’s diffusion on the lattice... and Crystal Conductivity When an electron is excited from the valence... of a thermal excitation, for each electron excited into the conduction band... (8.49) Here τn (respectively τp ) is the electron (respectively hole) collision time. The... phosphorus atom brings one more electron than required by the tetrahedral... Si. At low temperature this electron remains localized near the phosphorus.... When the temperature increases, the electron is ionized into the conduction... illuminating this region, the excited electron and hole, of opposite charges... unit neutron and proton masses electron mass Elementary charge Faraday constant...−19 J ↔ 11 600 K electrical potential (electron-volt) heat (calorie) chemical binding.... 238 Exercises and Problems Fig. 1 : Electron microscope image of quantum boxes... toward equilibrium takes place through electron transitions from the conduction band... Consider a quantum box containing an electron-hole pair at the instant... emission : the deexcitation of the electron from the conduction band to... of non-radiative recombination. The electron-hole pair can also recombine... the quantum box captures the electron ; (b) the electron then recombines with 244... non-radiative recombination of the electron-hole pair ; the total recombination.... V.1. Consider a quantum box containing an electron-hole pair at the instant... conduction band, assuming that the electron-hole pair can recombine either... the experimental dependences of the electron-hole pairs lifetime and of... observables (position, momentum) of the electron. Thus, whereas in a standard semiconductor... electrons (quantum well structure). The electron effective mass is m. The accessible... Consider the motion of an electron described by the hamiltonian ˆ2 ˆ 0 = p + α (ˆ σx pˆx + σ H ˆy pˆy ) 2m... the momentum operator of the electron and the σ ˆi (i = x, y, z) represent the Pauli... z-component of the ˆz . Show that : electron spin Sˆz = ( /2) σ sz (t) = sz (0) cos(2ωt) + sin... along z is thus M (0) = N /2. For a given electron, the evolution of sz (t) in... average over angles for each electron. One writes s¯(t) for the average....1. The potential energy of an electron inside the electrostatic potential Φtot... energy of a hole +e Φtot (r). The electron and hole densities are respectively... Φtot (r) is rapidly constant, the electron and hole densities are constant...φ √ |Ψk,+ 2 + a+ (0) − a− (0)eiφ √ |Ψk,− . 2 (b) One deduces that the electron spin state at time t is... |± z of Sz . More precisely, for γ < 0 (electron), one has (B) (B) (B) |χ± ±|± z . Consequently, χ± |Sˆz |χ± ± /2. Part II...



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... weight of 1.0078 (1 proton and 1 electron). In 1932, Urey [2] announced the... of 2.0140 (1 proton, 1 neutron and 1 electron). Two years later an unstable... of 3.0161 (1 proton, 2 neutrons and 1 electron) was discovered [3]. Tritium has a half... 1 g + , namely, the state with a total electron spin equal to zero (the... the triplet state 3 u + , having a total electron spin of unity, increases when... Hydrogen has the electron configuration 1s1 . The first electron shell can... the valency electron to form the hydrogen ion, H+ accept an electron to form the hydride ion H− share the electron with a partner...-centered two-electron bridge bonds (e.g. in diborane, B2 H6 , an electron-de... Section 4.3.1. Hydrogen atoms sharing their electron with the metal atoms at... Hydrogen with Solid Surfaces* the electron distribution and dissociation probabilities [52... photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA, XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy and atom probe. 4.2.5 Chemisorption... so-called free electron metals where there is no d-electron to facilitate... science like Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS) are... protium into a proton and an electron. Hydrogen does not convert directly... protium splits into a proton and electron, as described in Section 4.4.2. Another... electron during charging [H+ + e− → H◦ ], and protium returns to proton by releasing one electron... hydrogen that possesses one excess electron over protium (H◦ ) and two excess... are shown as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe analysis (EPMA.... 129 Ibach, H., Lehwald, S., Voigtlinder, B. (1987) J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 44, 263... atomic weight of 1 (1 proton and 1 electron). In 1932, the preparation of... of 2 (1 proton and 1 neutron plus 1 electron). Two years later an unstable... of 3 (1 proton and 2 neutrons plus 1 electron) was discovered. Tritium has a half... compounds, it participates with its electron in the formation of covalent... two electron spins only leads to a binding state if the electron spins... and has one nonhybridized free p-electron per atom, perpendicular to the... π-electron cloud these materials have very versatile properties and are called π-electron... involved. Hydrogen atoms sharing their electron with the metal atoms at... ]4− and saddle-like [IrH4 ]5− 18-electron complexes and hydrogen anions H− , in... rationalized in terms of “magic” electron counts by taking into account... 18-electron tetrahedral [NiH4 ]4− and [PdH4 ]4− , (d8 )dsp2 for planar 16-electron [PdH4 ]2− , (d8 )dsp3 for square-pyramidal 18-electron [CoH5 ]4− , (d6 )d2 sp3 for octahedral 18-electron [FeH6 ]4− , and (d10 )sp for linear 14-electron [PdH2 ]2− . However, other electron... schemes involving three-center–four-electron bonds are also possible [77... and 3-centre-2-electron (3c-2e) bonds, such as dinuclear 34-electron [Ni2... saddle-like 16-electron [RuH4 ]4− and T-shaped 17-electron [RuH3 ]6− c06 January... delocalized (alloy) to localized (hydride) electron states, which are of interest... in this group attain closed electron shells by polymerization. Aluminum hydride... d- and s-electrons (Fig. 7.11). Local electron neutrality is provided by the... closely related to that of electron correlation and metal–insulator transitions... (see Fig. 7.18(a)). From a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study Kooi et...): (I) The disappearance of the free electron optical response (the large negative... the important role played by electronelectron interactions in the physics of... (Peierls) distortions and (ii) strong electron-correlation models. Peierls Distortion Models..., 122]. Electron Correlation Models Already in 1995 Sawatzky suggested that electron correlation... and LaH3 . Since then several electron correlation models have been proposed... effectively donates an electron to the conduction band. This electron is, however... occupation number dependence of the electron hopping (“breathing Hubbard model”) integrals... the signature of strongly correlated electron systems. Hoekstra et al. [104... scaling that hint to (strong) electron correlation (see Section 7.2.3.2). Recent Calculations... temperature-dependent parameter is the electron scattering time [73]. The values... every added hydrogen removes one electron [193] from the conduction band.... 197 Selvam, P., Viswanathan, B., Srinivasan, V. (1988) J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 46, 357... electrolyte and electron transportation between the catalyst particles and the electron collectors... thermodynamic calculation) are as follows: 6-electron reaction : BH4 − + 6OH− = BO2 − + 4H2... electrode potentials are as follows: 4-electron reaction : BH4 − + 4OH− = BO2 − + 2H2... 8-electron reaction, but only 7.6 Wh/g for a 6-electron reaction and 5.8 Wh/g for a 4-electron reaction... borohydride hydrolysis and obtaining an 8-electron reaction are the keys to... was electrochemically oxidized by an 8-electron reaction, but when the NaBH4... electromigration, switchable mirrors 312–314 electron correlation models 291 electronegativity 87...



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... the case of longitudinally polarized electron is presented. A cross section for... out for a cross channel, namely, electronÄpositron annihilation into hadrons with... energy fraction of the scattered electron. We imply the Sudakov parameterization... phase volume of the scattered electron in terms of Sudakov variables... the initial and the scattered electron momenta. Somewhat cumbersome functions τij... mechanism of pair creation. An electron from that pair having momentum... and the scattered electron moves close to the initial electron direction. This... kinematical conditions of experiments on electron DIS at TJNAF and DESY... radiative corrections to deep inelastic electron proton scattering due to hard... to a reduction of the projectile electron energy and therefore to a shift... I., KURAEV E., SHAIKHATDENOV B. of the scattered electron alone. Therefore, radiative events e(p1... the direction of the incoming electron beam (θγ = p1 k ≤ θ0 ≈ ≈ 5 · 10−4 rad). In... the measurement of the scattered electron, x= Q2 , 2P · (p1 − p2 ) y= 2P... the energy fraction z of the electron after initial state radiation of... · (p1 − k) = , V ε (1.2.3) where ε is the initial electron energy, and k 0 is the energy..., M and m are the proton and electron masses, respectively. In the cross... other one along the scattered electron direction) and the semicollinear kinematics...-up, that assumes that a bare electron can be measured, and a calorimetric... within a narrow cone around the electron beam (θ ≤ θ0 ); ii) one hard photon... is collinear to the outgoing electron (θ2 = k2 p2 ≤ θ0 ); and ˇnally iii... to both incoming and outgoing electron momenta. We denominate the third... of the expansion of the electron nonsinglet structure function, α (1) 1 α 2 (2) P (z)L + P (z)L2 + . . . 2π 2 2π (i) (i) P (i) (z) = PΘ (z)Θ(1 − z − ∆) + Pδ δ(1 − z), ∆ → 0 , D(z, L) = δ(1 − z) + (1) PΘ (z) = (2) 1 + z2... selection, when only the scattered electron is detected, while the photon... be calculated using the quasireal electron method [49]: γγ α 2α z d3 σiii = P (z, L0... experimental selection of the scattered electron and has the form: Σi = 4z... electron. In the exclusive set-up, when only the scattered bare electron... events with a bare electron and events when the electron is accompanied by... the photon off the scattered electron is cancelled in accordance with... a coarse detector for the scattered electron, i.e., θ0 ∼ ∼ O(1), agrees at the level of... of emission along the scattered electron. Our result disagrees with the... two virtual photons exchanged between electron and the target that appear... electron mass square: s ∼ −t ∼ −u ∼ −q 2 m2 , u = −2p1 p2 , q 2 = s + t + u. (1.3.4) So, we will neglect the electron... the electron polarization: α 1 1∗ + Kσρ , Kρσ 4π Kρσ = 0 Kρσ + 0 Kρσ = 0 Bρσ + ξPρσ , (1.3.6) 1 1 Kρσ = Tρσ + ξPρσ , where ξ is the degree of the initial electron polarization. Quantities Bρσ and Tρσ correspond to the case of unpolarized electron... most general form of the electron polarization vector ˆ) u(p)¯ u(p) = (ˆ p1 + m)(1 − ξγ5 a (1.3.9) one obtains... photon emission by the initial electron 0s,t 0t,s Note, that Pˆ Pρσ = −Pρσ . The... azimuthal asymmetry for the ˇnal electron [60]. The asymmetry is proportional... electron directions was considered in paper [61]. 1.4. Hadronic Cross Sections in Electron... the initial state in electronÄproton and electronÄpositron collisions, can become... radiation in the process of electronÄ positron annihilation was underlined in.... Formulae can be used at electronÄpositron colliders to investigate, for... total hadronic cross section in electronÄpositron annihilation at the centre... corrected cross section for the electronÄpositron annihilation process e− (p1 ) + e+ (p2... front of electron (positron) beam, we can use the quasireal electron method... polar angle not exceeding θ0 incoming electron, and dσ0 is the differential cross... process of electronÄpositron annihilation into hadrons at the reduced electron beam...-state electron hits the PD, we cannot use the quasireal electron method... is emitted along the initial electron with 4-momentum p1 . The integration... Θ term of the second-order electron structure function: (2) PΘ (z) = 2 3 1 + z2 (1 − z)2 + ln 1−z z 2 + (1 + z) ln... total hadronic cross section at electronÄpositron annihilation [31] 1 σ(s) = 1 dx2 D(x1... s), dx1 δ (1.4.26) δ/x1 where the electron structure functions include both nonsinglet...). By deˇnition the nonsinglet electron structure function satisˇes the... inside narrow cone along the electron beam direction. In this kinematics... events, when emitted (by the electron) particles escape this narrow cone... electron on the regions inside and outside the narrow cone along electron... summed over spin states of electron: |M (1) |2 = 1 8 −2q12 I2 + 2 p− I (q12 )2 βq 2 . (E.2) To calculate... almost collinear to the ˇnal electron, I γ |s→0 = − × Q2 z (1 + (1 + y2 )2 ) xb F2 (xb... results of measurements reactor neutrino-electron elastic scattering cross-section are... Fermion Hadronic Cross Sections in Electron-Positron Annihilation with Tagged Photon...



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... and minority charge carriers 362 Electron flow 362 Hole flow 363... disks 535 Quiz 535 29 Electron tubes 539 Vacuum versus gas... the protons’ charge positive. An electron has exactly the same charge... polarity. The charge on a single electron or proton is the smallest.... These spheres are known as electron shells. Their centers correspond to... shell, the more energy the electron has (Fig. 1-2). Electrons can move... is a simplified drawing, depicting an electron gaining energy. A good example of... have been stripped of an electron, giving it a positive unit electric..., a unit of energy called the electron volt (eV). This is an... the energy gained by a single electron in an electric field of... by millions of electron volts (MeV) or billions of electron volts (GeV... capable of delivering trillions of electron volts (TeV). Another energy unit... of an element is the: A. Electron number. B. Atomic number. C. Valence number.... B. An isotope. C. An ion. D. An electron. E. A fundamental particle. 13. A battery delivers... of particle, called its: A. Molecule. B. Electron. C. Proton. D. Atom. E. Isotope. 24. An... and oscilloscopes. It tells the electron beam to move, or trace... it retraces, or brings the electron beam back, at a high speed... conduction mainly by means of electron flow, as in a metal like... hole flow. A hole is a missing electron; it is described in more... nature of the semiconducting material. Electron flow In an N-type semiconductor... about Behavior of a P-N junction 363 electron flow all the way back... is always the result of electron movement, no matter what the... better imagined as a flow of electron absences, not electrons. The behavior... an attempt to create an electron balance, and the battery or... charge. D. The substance has an electron surplus. 12. In a P-type material... as electrons. 16. If an electron has a charge of Ϫ1 unit, a hole...: A. High-frequency radio waves. B. Rectification. C. Electron energy-level changes. D. None of... high. 29 CHAPTER Electron tubes WHEN YOU THINK OF ELECTRON TUBES, DO... signs” are gas-filled electron tubes. In any electron tube, the charge..., plate In any tube, the electron-emitting electrode is called the... in an incandescent bulb. The electron-collecting electrode is known as... of a bipolar transistor. Because the electron emission in a tube depends on... electrons through the tube. 542 Electron tubes A tube with a control grid... were called hexode and 544 Electron tubes heptode. The usual function... 1 kW of RF output. 546 Electron tubes 29-6 A grounded-grid RF... (CRTs). The electron beam In any CRT, an electron gun emits a high... field, and the more the electron beam is deflected. Video camera... analyzed. This waveform makes the electron beam undulate up and down... plates for deflection of the electron beam in a CRT. When currents... Video cameras use a form of electron tube that converts visible light... and the image orthicon. 548 Electron tubes The vidicon Virtually every... a photoconductive screen. An electron gun generates an electron beam that scans across... the camera tube. As the electron beam scans the photoconductive surface... photocathode (Fig. 29-9). When an electron from the photocathode strikes this... of electrons, emitted from the electron gun, scans the target electrode... electron gun. Areas of the target electrode with the most secondary-electron... the electron clouds causes a fluctuating current in the anode. 550 Electron tubes... is a linear-beam electron tube. It has an electron gun, one or more cavities, and a device that modulates the electron.... In the first cavity, the electron beam is velocity modulated. This... increase the magnitude of the electron-beam modulation, resulting in amplification... cavity. A retarding field causes the electron beam to periodically reverse direction... FET. 3. The intensity of the electron flow in a vacuum tube depends... regulator. C. A tetrode. D. A pentagrid converter. 552 Electron tubes 5. In a tube with a directly... grid. D. Screen grid. 13. The electron beam in an electrostatic CRT...: A. The extreme voltage used. 554 Electron tubes B. The longitudinal magnetic flux.... D. RTTY. E. PCM. 35. A type of electron tube that can be used... presence or absence of a single electron in an atom. Some researchers... discussed the possibility that a single electron might represent more than one... electric and magnetic fields. D. Vibrating electron orbits. E. Vibrating molecules. 44. An... degrees. 29. A form of microwave electron tube is: A. A cavity resonator. B. A triode.... 692 Final exam 74. The electron volt is a unit of: A. Voltage... Cathode, electron-tube, cold Cathode, electron-tube, directly heated Cathode, electron-tube indirectly... Galvanometer Diode, field-effect Grid, electron-tube Diode, general Ground, chassis... Inductor, powdered-iron core Filament, electron-tube Fuse Inductor, powdered-iron...-V Key, telegraph Lamp, incandescent Plate, electron-tube Lamp, neon Plug, two..., 23–24 electron flow, 362–363 electron tubes, 539–554 electron volt, 34... donor impurity, 362 doping, 362 electron flow, 362–363 hole flow...